GMAT Test Study Guide

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GMAT Test StudyGuideCopyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.1

Table of ContentsGMAT TEST RESOURCES. 5GMAT OVERVIEW . 6TESTING AND ANALYSIS. 8INTRODUCTION TO THE GMAT . 10THE GMAT SCORING SCALE . 11QUANTITATIVE TEST . 13PROBLEM-SOLVING QUESTIONS . 13DATA-SUFFICIENCY QUESTIONS . 13QUESTION TYPES . 15ARITHMETIC . 16DIVISIBILITY . 17MULTIPLICATION . 18ADDITION . 19SUBTRACTION . 19EVENS AND ODDS . 21PRIME NUMBERS . 22PERCENTS . 24SQUARE OF A NUMBER . 28EXPONENTS . 30ROOTS . 32AVERAGES . 32VERBAL TEST . 34READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS . 34What Is Measured . 35CRITICAL REASONING QUESTIONS . 35What Is Measured . 36SENTENCE CORRECTION QUESTIONS . 36What Is Measured . 37READING COMPREHENSION . 38Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.2

FLYING OVER THE PASSAGE . 38CREATING A TENTATIVE SUMMARY . 39OPENINGS AND ENDINGS . 40EXTRANEOUS INFORMATION . 40USING KITCHEN LOGIC . 41GETTING INTO THE AUTHOR’S MIND . 41EMOTIONAL WORDS . 42FINDING THE KEY WORDS . 43MAKING PROPER INFERENCES . 44APPLYING IDEAS FOR GENERALIZATIONS . 45USING CONTEXT CLUES . 45BREAKING DOWN PASSAGE ORGANIZATION . 47FIRST WORD ANALYSIS . 48UNDERSTANDING THE INTIMIDATION . 49FINDING YOUR OPTIMAL PACE . 50DON’T BE A PERFECTIONIST . 51FACTUALLY CORRECT, BUT ACTUALLY WRONG . 52DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS . 53SENTENCE CORRECTION . 54TRY EVERY CHOICE . 54READ CAREFULLY . 54APOSTROPHES. 55Possessive Nouns . 55Possessive Personal Pronouns vs. Contractions . 55COMMA ERRORS . 56PROBLEMS WITH REFERENCES . 58PROBLEMS WITH AGREEMENT . 60LACK OF PARALLELISM . 63MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS . 64CRITICAL REASONING . 68IDENTIFYING PREMISES AND CONCLUSIONS . 70DIAGRAMMING CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS . 74CLASSIFICATION . 77SEVEN COMMON FALLACIES . 83ANALYTICAL WRITING TEST. 86Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.3

ANALYSIS OF AN ISSUE . 86What Is Measured . 86ANALYSIS OF AN ARGUMENT . 86What Is Measured . 87PLANNING STAGE . 87STICKING TO THE PLAN. 88REVIEWING THE PLAN . 88BRAINSTORMING SMART . 88MAKING THE CUTS . 91ENDING AT THE START . 91STAYING CONSISTENT . 93MAINTAINING THE FLOW. 93BACKING UP YOUR POINTS . 94USING PROPER GRAMMAR . 95WATCHING YOUR VOCABULARY . 96AVOIDING TUNNEL VISION . 96JUST DO IT . 97CONCLUSION IS REVIEW. 98COMMUNICATING REASON, NOT PASSION . 99ANSWERING THE WHY? . 100GETTING READY FOR TEST DAY. 101POST GMAT. 103Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.4

GMAT Test ResourcesFree GMAT Practice Testshttp://www.testprepreview.com/gmat practice.htmFinancial Aid Factshttp://www.finaidfacts.orgScholarship Helphttp://www.scholarshiphelp.orgStudy Tips and Informationhttp://www.studyguidezone.com/resource tips.htmCopyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.5

GMAT OverviewThe Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is indeed a difficultexamination, and as such, it was required that media be chosen bywhich intellectual ability could be measured. In the case of the GMAT,math, verbal, and writing were the selected media. While there is anongoing, low-profile controversy about whether or not this test trulymeasure’s your abilities with regards to what you’ll need for graduateschool, that is not the purpose of this book. The purpose is, however,to make sure that you’re able to achieve the best possible state ofpreparation, allowing you to maximize your score potential - no matterif your actual aptitude has been measured.As no test can measure all aspects of a person’s intelligence, the GMATmeasures those skills deemed most critical to a new graduate student.Then again, if any admission test, no matter how cleverly assembles,is inherently inadequate, why perform this type of testing at all? Thisis a question posed by every student who sees the GMAT loomingahead of him/her. Nevertheless, the answer to this question is quitesimple, and quite reasonable; to make graduate school acceptance amore fair experience, by expanding the basis approval beyond yourgrades.Your GMAT score is one of the most critical elements to yourqualification for graduate school, so it is naturally much too importantfor you to take this test unprepared. The higher your GMAT score, thebetter your chances of admission will be for a respected, competitivegraduate program.Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.6

While different graduate programs assign a different weight orimportance to your GMAT scores, it is safe to assume that your GMATwill be a major determining factor when it comes to the final admissiondecision made by each graduate school to which you’ve applied.Careful preparation, as described in this expert guide, along with hardwork, will dramatically enhance your probability of success. In fact, itis wise to apply this philosophy not only to your graduate schoolapplications, but to other elements of your life as well, to raise youabove the competition. Your GMAT score is one of the areas in thegraduate admission process over which you have a substantial amountof control; this opportunity should not be taken lightly. Hence, arational, prepared approach to your GMAT test as well as the rest ofthe admission process will contribute considerably to the likelihood ofacceptance.Keep in mind, that although it is possible to take a GMAT test morethan once, you should never take the test as an “experiment” just tosee how well you do. It is of extreme importance that you always beprepared to do your best when taking the GMAT.Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.7

Testing and AnalysisIt won’t take you long to discover that the GMAT is unlike any testyou’ve taken before, and it is probably unlike any test you will evertake again in your academic career. The typical high school or collegetest is a knowledge-based test. The GMAT, however, is skills-based.What does this mean to you? It means that you’ll have to prepareyourself in a completely different way! You won’t simply be recitingmemorized facts as they were phrased in some textbook.The GMAT requires you to think in a thorough, quick and strategicmanner and still be accurate, logical and wise.This test is designed to judge your writing, verbal and mathematicalability in the ways that graduate schools feel is vital to the success offirst year graduate students.To some extent, you have already gradually obtained these abilitiesover the length of your academic career. However, what you probablyhave not yet become familiar with is the capability to use theseabilities for the purpose of maximizing performance within the complexand profound environment of a standardized, skills-based examination.There are different strategies, mindsets and perspectives that you willbe required to apply throughout the GMAT. You’ll need to be preparedto use your whole brain as far as thinking and assessment isconcerned, and you’ll need to do this in a timely manner. This is notCopyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.8

something you can learn from taking a course or reading a book, but itis something you can develop through practice and concentration.This guide provides you with the professional instruction you requirefor understanding the traditional GMAT test. Covered are all aspectsof the test and preparation procedures that you will require throughoutthe process. Upon completion of this guide, you’ll have the confidenceand knowledge you need for maximizing your performance on yourGMAT.Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.9

Introduction to the GMATThe purpose of the GMAT is to establish a standard method ofmeasurement for the skills that have been acquired by graduate schoolapplicants. These skills are considered critical to graduate schools fora first-year student to be able to succeed. The principle behind theGMAT is similar to the SAT’s that are required for application toAmerican colleges. Although these tests are similar experiences, theGMAT is much more challenging and complex.Fortunately, the GMAT does not change very dramatically from year toyear. What this means to you, is that it has become possible forquality practice tests to be produced, and if you should take enough ofthese tests, in addition to learning the correct strategies, you will beable to prepare for the test in an effective manner.Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.10

The GMAT Scoring ScaleGMAT scoring is not hard to comprehend when it is properly explained.There is no “passing” score to the GMAT, but you will need to knowwhat the cut off average score is for the graduate schools to whichyou’re looking to apply. For this information, check their website, orcall, and they’ll tell you the average score of students who areaccepted.Each graduate school has a different policy for weighing GMAT scoreswith your GPA. The majority of graduate schools will weigh your GMATscore more heavily than your GPA. In fact, some schools will weighyour GMAT at 70% and your GPA at 30%, which means that this oneexamination is worth more than your 4 years of undergraduate work.It’s up to you to look into the graduate schools to which you’ll beapplying, so that you’ll have this information, and know the exactvalue of your GMAT. Many schools will make their calculationstructure for the combination of GMAT and GPA available to the public.Knowing this information before you enter the GMAT examinationmeans that you know exactly what you’re facing that day. You willhave a realistic perception of the worth of the test, and you will havethe proper motivation to fully apply yourself to reach your maximumpotential.Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.11

You’ll also be able to realistically judge the type of school to which youshould be applying, and you can better set out your future plans inyour mind.Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.12

Quantitative TestThe Quantitative section of the Graduate Management Admission Test(GMAT) measures basic mathematical skills, understanding ofelementary concepts, and the ability to reason quantitatively, solvequantitative problems, and interpret graphic data. Two types ofmultiple-choice questions are used in the Quantitative section of theGMAT: Problem Solving and Data Sufficiency.Problem-Solving and Data-Sufficiency questions are intermingledthroughout the section. Both types of questions require knowledge of:-arithmetic-elementary algebra-commonly known concepts of geometryProblem-Solving QuestionsProblem-Solving questions are designed to test:-basic mathematical skills-understanding of elementary mathematical concepts-the ability to reason quantitatively and solve quantitative problemsData-Sufficiency QuestionsData-Sufficiency questions are designed to measure your ability to:-analyze a quantitative problem-recognize which information is relevantCopyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.13

-determine at what point there is sufficient information to solve aproblemData-Sufficiency questions are accompanied by some initialinformation and two statements, labeled (1) and (2). You must decidewhether the statements given offer enough data to enable you toanswer the question. You may answer that:-Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.-Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.-BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statementALONE is sufficient.-EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.-Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.To identify the skills that need extra work, complete a practice testthat gives additional information, or, complete a practice test and lookfor yourself at the areas where you excelled, and the areas wherestruggle was apparent.Your “critical” math skills will be in the areas where you have made themost wrong answers on your practice test.Those will be the mathskills that will best help your score in the shortest period of time, ifyou manage to practice and better these skills. This is the area inwhich you can maximize your score increase potential.To master your critical math skills, there are certain steps you maytake:Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.14

yRead over the skill lesson in this book, very carefullyyFind some practice tests and work specifically on the questions thattest your critical math skills, practicing the new skills that you havelearned in through your review.yUse textbooks for increased detail, assistance, and questionexamples for the areas in which you are struggling the most.yPractice, practice, practice!The best way to get to learn your math skills is to rehearse them withas many new sample questions as you can get your hands on. Thequestions you do, the more you will become familiar and comfortablewith that type of question, so that you can move on and concentrateon other areas for perfection.Question TypesThe test is very consistent with the type of mathematics questions thatit uses, year after year. The following are the types of mathematicalquestions that you are likely to AdditionySubtractionyEvens and OddsyPrime NumbersyPercentsySquare of a NumberCopyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.15

yExponentsyRootsyAveragesArithmeticArithmetic skills refer to the questions that can be solved by usingaddition, subtraction, multiplication and/or division.Since calculators are permitted in the test, the questions will obviouslynot be purely arithmetic - they’re not out to measure your ability witha calculator. So in this style of question, you’ll need to recall yourorder of operations. A good trick to recall your order of operations is“Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” before you say “huh?” recognizethe first letters in this phrase:yWork within ParenthesisySimplify ExponentsyMultiplication and DivisionyAddition and SubtractionThe majority of arithmetic questions will require you to take multiplesteps, and will likely test other skills as well, instead of being purelyarithmetic. Often, the questions will be presented in the form of wordproblems, where you will need to decide when to add, subtract,multiply and divide.For example:Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.16

How many egg cartons are needed to hold 300 eggs, if each cartoncan hold one dozen (1 dozen 12)A. 15B. 18C. 22D. 25E. 28Note: the answer is 25DivisibilityThe factors of integer X are the integers by which X can be dividedwithout leaving a remainder. Thus, X is divisible by its factors.For example:The number 10 is divisible by both 5 and 2. 10 can be divided by bothof these integers without leaving a remainder.To review the rules of divisibility, have a look at the following:1. Numbers divisible by 2 end in even numbers.2. Numbers divisible by 3 can be determined by adding the sum oftheir digits and checking if that number is divisible by 3 (for examplethe number 123: 1 2 3 6, 6 is divisible by 3 with no remainder).Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.17

3. Numbers divisible by 4 can be identified if their last two digits willdivide by 4 without a remainder (for example, the number 624: thelast two digits are 24, which are divisible by 4 with no remainder).4. Numbers divisible by 5 end only in 5 or 0.5. Numbers divisible by 9 occur when the sum of its their digits aredivisible by 9 (for example, the number 639: 6 3 9 18, which isdivisible by 9).6. A number is only divisible by 10 if it ends in 0The following is an example of a divisibility question:Which of the following integers divides into both 200 and 150?A. 3B. 7C. 30D. 50E. 300Note: The correct answer is (D)MultiplicationThe following are a few simple rules to keep your multiplications ontrack:Positive x Positive PositiveNegative x Negative PositiveCopyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.18

Negative x Positive NegativeAdditionHere are some rules to be certain that there are no slips while doingaddition:Positive Positive PositiveNegative Negative NegativeNegative Positive either positive or negative (you must use theabsolute value of both: subtract the smaller from the larger and keepthe sign of whichever absolute value was larger)SubtractionThe definition of subtraction is: A - B A (-B)A minus B is the same as A plus (the opposite of B)X 0, means that X is a positive numberX 0, means that X is a negative number-(A - B) -A B B - A(-X)2 X2If X - 0, X2 0Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.19

If, on the number line, one number occurs to the left of anothernumber, the number on the left is the smallest number.Therefore, when studying the line above, you will know that X Y andY Z.For example:Use the number line to make conclusions with regards to whether eachnumber is positive or negative.In this situation, you will have an easier time if you implement specificnumbers to fit the problem. For example, let X -7, Y -2, and Z 3. Be certain to utilize some negative numbers while substituting.The following is an example of a subtraction question:Y-XSolution: Positive Y is greater than X.-2 - (-7) -2 7 5Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.20

Evens and OddsAn even number is any word that is divisible by 2: numbers that arewithin the set { -6, -4, -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, }. Remember, though, that aneven number is divisible by 2 and not have any remainder. Keep inmind also that 0 is an even number. Consecutive even numbers are alllocated 2 units apart. For example, if x is an even number, then thenext consecutive even number would be represented as X 2.Odd numbers, on the other hand, are numbers within the set { -5, -3,-1, 1, 3, 5, }.The following charts demonstrate the properties of odd and evennumbers. To check the property of a number, you can simplysubstitute the appropriate numbers.Properties of odd and even numbers with AdditionPropertyExampleEven Even Even2 8 10Odd Odd Even3 9 12Odd Even Odd3 8 11Properties of odd and even numbers with AdditionPropertyExampleEven x Even Even4 x 6 24Even x Odd Even4 x 5 20Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.21

Odd x Odd Odd3 x 9 27Consider the following example:If R is an odd integer, what are the next two consecutive odd integers?A) T and VB) R and R 1C) R 1 and R 2D) R 2 and R 4E) R 1 and R 3Note: the correct answer is (D)Here’s another example:If x is an odd integer and y is an even integer, tell whether eachexpression is odd or even.A. x2B. xyC. y2D. x yE. 2x yNote (A) is odd. (B) is even. (C) is even. (D) is odd, and (E) is even.Prime NumbersA prime number is defined as an integer that is greater than 1, andhas only two positive factors, 1 and itself.Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.22

For example, 7 is a prime number, as its only factors are 1 and 7.However, 6 is not a prime number, because its factors are 1, 2, 3, 6The first ten prime numbers are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29Note, though that 1 is not a prime number, and both the smallest andthe only even prime number is 2.Prime factorization is the process by which you express a number as aresult of only prime numbers.For example:To create the prime factorization of 24, you’d represent it as:2 x 2 x 2 x 3 or 23 3To create the prime factorization of 15, you’d represent it as:5x3An example of a factor question is:If xy 13 and both x and y are positive integers, then what is the sumof x y?A. 13B. 14C. 16D. 20Copyright StudyGuideZone.com. All rights reserved.23

E. 26Note: the answer is BHere is another example:What is the sum of the first 5 prime numbers?A. 18B. 28C. 30D. 34E. 38Note: The first five prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11 and their sum is28. The answer is B.PercentsThe word percent means “hundredths” or a number which is divided by100. Converting a number into a percentage involves multiplying thenumber by 100.A percent can be determined by performing the division of the part bythe total and

GMAT Overview The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is indeed a difficult examination, and as such, it was required that media be chosen by which intellectual ability could be measured. In the case of the GMAT, math, verbal, and

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