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ericssonWhitepaper PAPERERICSSONDISCUSSION284 23-3160 Uen October 2011March 2012hdvoicesmartgridsfor smartcitiesIt speaks for itselfBy significantly raising the quality of voice communication with more naturalsound and improved intelligibility, HD voice will play a key role in ensuring thatvoice continues to offer value to operators and users of fixed and mobilenetworks alike.Strategic Options for Smart Grid Communication NetworksTo meet the goals of a smart city in supporting a sustainable high-quality lifestyle for citizens, a smart city needs a smart grid.To build smart cities of the future, Information and Communications Technology infrastructure will be a key enabler, and strategicchoices made by utilities today have the power to transform society tomorrow.

WhyHD voice?The futurebelongs to thosewho prepare for ittodayOne factor in particular supports theMean opinion scoreoperator business case for HD voice:(5 excellent, 1 poor)the user response to the technology.5Studies conclusively show thatconsumers react positively to HDvoice. On a scale of 1 to 5 (with 54representing the best quality), usersranked the quality of calls betweenHD-voice-capable devices at over 4,3compared with just over 2 for a nonTo meet the goals of a smart city in supporting a sustainable high-quality lifestyle for citizens, a smart city needs aHD-voice call. Having experienced HDsmart grid. To build smart cities of the future, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure will bevoice,percentof consumerssaid2a key 76enabler.In thisway, the ICTinfrastructurechoices made by utilities today have the power to transform societytheywould be inclined to switch to atomorrow.fixed or mobile device that offered it.Utilitiesare currentlydiscussingopportunitiesand challenges associated with a wide range of issues whenThis preferenceis naturalgiven1contemplatingdemandsfor smart grid communication networks, which include:theworkings of thethefutureear. Therange ofhuman hearing covers frequencies Technology choicesfrom20HzPrivate/publicto 20,000Hznetwork[6] and sharingthe0 possibilitiesTraditional voiceHD device to non-HD deviceHD device to HD devicehumanvoicea frequency Mass spansdeploymentof cheap wireless sensors Electricvehicletochargingrangeof atleast 50Hz12,000HzFigure 1: Consumer reactions to HD voice but today’sHome phoneenergy callsmanagement[7],transfer solutions rise of the‘Prosumer’soundsin aThespectrumbandof roughly(i.e. consumers who are also producers and participate in the energy market) New “smart” communications requirements from water and gas utilities; and300Hz to 3,400Hz. Consequently, the voice quality of both fixed and mobile calls is limited. For example, the How to handle large scale data analysis.aural information needed to consistently distinguish F sounds from S sounds is contained in frequencies thatarehighersmartthan conventionalcallsallow.for misunderstandingonewayreasonfor the developmentClearly,grid technologyaloneisThenotpotentialthe answer.Also required is a isnewof thinkingabout the underpinningICTbusinessmodels forandusesupportingstructuresto realisetheasinvestmentdrive innovation toofphoneticalphabetsin criticalindustrytelephoneor radio necessarycommunications,suchair-traffic andcontrol.ultimatelyHD voice,benefiton thesociety.other hand, uses wideband (WB) codecs such as Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband (AMRWB), Enhanced Variable Rate Codec Narrowband-Wideband (EVRC-NW) or G.722 to transfer a much widerSo, what are the strategic options available to a utility when considering their evolving smart grid communicationsbandfromrequirements?50Hz to 7,000HzSpecifically,– resulting inhowbettermorefornaturalsound, andchangesimprovedandintelligibilityandin the nearnetworkdoquality,they planthe expectedchallengesSmart Grids for Smart Citiesvoicerecognition.future?The end-user benefits of HD voiceHD voiceTheclear:followingpaper discussessome of these considerations and explores the strategic options available. EffectiveConventional voicearethe experienceof changingstrategicplanningto future-proofinvestments and enable new business models to assistmeeting businessfromordinaryvoicewillis helpcomparabletoUpper inareacase hurdles, whilst providing flexibility for tomorrow’ssmartBetter understandingLowerarea city requirements.switching from standard-definitionand voice recognitionMore natural soundto high-definition television (HDTV).Operators offering HD voice are certainSMART GRID DIVERSIFIES ESTABLISHED SMART CITYOpportunityto expandimplementations on a broad scale and contribute to theto gain subscriberloyaltyand enjoySmart City INDUSTRY EVOLUTIONreduced churn. NEXT GENERATIONAPPLICATIONSOpportunity to realise economies of scale and return oninvestment by sharing the communications network50SMART GRID EVOLVES COLLABORATIVE ENERGYMARKET COMMERCIALTRANSFORMATIONStrategic opportunity to setup aFigurecommunication network that can scaleto future requirements7000Frequency (Hz)2: HD voice frequency rangeSMART GRID EXPANDS NETWORK SHARING POSSIBILITIESSMART GRID EMERGES INTEROPERABILITY EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY SCALE MONITORING AUTOMATION & CONTROLFigure 1 - The smart grid evolutionFigure 1 - The smart grid evolutionAs depicted in Figure 1, smart grids of the future will evolve through multiplestages. No one can predict the future, however it is possible to plan for it.SMARTGRIDSFORCITIES THEFUTUREITBELONGSTO THOSE WHO PREPAREIT TODAYWhenconsideringevolvingand communicationsnetworkFORrequirements,HDVOICE WHYHDSMARTVOICE?it isuseful to employ a structured approached which identifies the key strategic32considerations at various stages of evolution. Theseconsiderations mayinclude: Today’s business and operational requirementsFormatted: Font: Bold, Italic, NounderlineFormatted: Font: Bold

Making it happenAs depicted in Figure 1, smart grids of the future will evolve through multiple stages. No one can predict the future,however it is possible to plan for it.When considering evolving IT and communications network requirements, it is useful to employ a structuredapproached which identifies the key strategic considerations at various stages of evolution. These considerationsmayfirstinclude:Thecommercial mobile HD voice service went live in September 2009 [9], and HD voice has since beenlaunched on 32 networks in 29 countries and territories [10]. Forty percent of countries in the European Today’s business and operational requirementsUnion have commercially launched mobile HD voice services, or are engaged in trials ahead of their intended Possible network sharing opportunitiesintroduction,and test deploymentsare progressingrapidly in many parts of the world [9]. Governmentregulations andreformsthe mostobvioussign of HD-voicegathering momentum is the number of HD-enabled handsets PerhapsGlobalindustrydevelopmentsand standards the market,ElectricityandthanICT 50technologyonwhich gridis more[11]. Manyevolutionof the latest products are shipping with HD voice capabilities fault setting[11]. andOperatorswho havelaunched HD-voice services have been important Future smart city requirements and opportunities.drivers of this process, and as more operators move into the market, the range of HD-voice-capable devicesSmart Grids for Smart Citiescanexpected toshowngrow. in Figure 2 aims to ensure the utility communicationsThebemethodologynetwork can evolve to meet immediateHowever,oneparticularneeds,issue whilst– island-typecoverage– to take advantage of the opportunities presented by abusinessandoperationalpositioningthe utilitymustaddressedif HD voice is to fulfill its potential. Atsmartbecityfuture.present, if their operators support HD voice, users can makeHD-voice calls using a given network within a given country– but HD-voice services cannot be guaranteedwhen usersCUSTOMER APPSAUTOMATIONroam or switchSMARTnetworks.GRID Operators who cannot guarantee callELECTRIC VEHICLESMICROGRIDquality shouldCOMMUNICATIONStake great care when attempting to meet userSTRATEGYDISTRIBUTEDWIDE AREA MEASUREMENTexpectations. This can be a challenge, as subscribersareENERGYoftenexcited by the potential of innovative technology and may havehigh expectations.Antheinconsistent user experience – such asPUBLIC SAFETYDetermineCOMMUNICATIONGridTRANSPORT & UTILITIESwhen a singleinitialcallSmartalternatesbetween HDvoice and standardNETWORKcommunicationsSHARINGquality as the user moves from one radioaccess technologytechnology & strategy.EMERGENCY SERVICESFigure 3: The HD-voice logoto another – is likely to disappoint and strain relations betweenThis includesthe subscriberandoperator.developing theBASIC SERVICESDevelop the smartInterconnectionis thereforecritical. HD-voice services haveCOLLABORATIVEbeen launched on both 2G [12] and 3G [12]smart gridtogrid communicationsELECTRICITYNEXT GENERATIONrealisebenefits and (VoLTE) will also support the technology.networks, andvoice-over-LTEFixed subscriberscan use HD voicebusiness model toSERVICESENERGY APPLICATIONSregulatory mandatesrealisethe businessthrough echnologyonCDMA networks.for electricitybenefits of networkSo HD voice companies.can be a Thisvaluable offeringfor all networks, and could play a key role in the evolution of GSM,sharing. Including costphasewill and fixed networks. It works best as an ecosystem where subscribers can make highWCDMA, LTE,CDMADevelop the Smartsavings from economiesREALISING Acontinue to evolveGrid Communicationsscaleareandtounregulatedquality voice calls from wherever oftheyany other location.SMART CITYwith time.to enable new electricityrevenue.Interconnection is not an instant process, and island-type coverage will persist for FUTUREsome time. To meetretail servicesexpectations it will be essential to provide users with accurate information. The introduction of an “HD voiceon” symbol for device displays, functioning in much the same way as the stereo symbol on a radio display,Develop Smart Gridwould be one way to help users understand whether or not they are on an HD-voiceisland.toThe recentCommunicationsenable a devicesSmart City will enableintroduction by GSMA of an HD-voice logo [13] for use on, say, packaging for mobileconsumers to identify HD-voice-capable products and solutions.Figure 2 – Future-proofingutility’s communicationsnetworkinvestmentFigure 2 – Future-proofinga utility’s acommunicationsnetworkinvestmentThis document expands on the four elements to be addressed within the structure of Figure 2, including: Smartcommunications– howto ndsstrategyon the fourelementsto beaddressedwithin theelements into a future-proofroadmapstructure of Figure 2, including:Communications network sharing possibilities – how to maximise the potential benefits of shared infrastructureCollaborative electricity services - how to support an increasing range of value-added energy services; Smart grid communications strategy – how to integrate existingandcommunication elements into a future-proof roadmapRealising a smart city future – how to leverage synergies through collaboration with others to position for thesmart city future. Communications network sharing possibilities – how to maximise the Collaborative electricity services - how to support an increasing rangepotentialabenefitsof shared infrastructureIn order to future-proofutility’s communicationnetwork investment, all elements must be considered upfront as partof a comprehensive strategic plan.value-addedservices;and and deploy new communications infrastructure, as well asThe pressing ofchallengetoday energyfor utilitiesis to selectdetermine how to integrate to existing infrastructure to meet immediate regulated expectations. However, it is also toRealisingsmartofcityfuturehowutilities,to collaborationevident thatachieve thea visionsmartcities,– thethe broaderleverageindustry, synergiesthe regulator and government willthroughcollaborationwith othersto position forwillbe an essentialforpartinevitably be drawnto realisea more holisticand far-reachingplan. Considerationsthisofmore complete planningfuture.approach are creatingdiscussedtheas smartfurthercitysectionsin this document and require not so much technology solutions, as newbusiness models, partnerships and industry structures.In order to future-proof a utility’s communication network investment, allelements must be considered upfront as part of a comprehensive strategicplan.SMARTGRIDSFOR SMARTCITIES THE FUTURE BELONGS TO THOSE WHO PREPARE FOR IT TODAYHDVOICE MAKINGIT HAPPEN53Rev PA12012-02-27 Ericsson AB 2012

TheHD gridvoice worldSmartcommunicationsstrategyParallel to Ericsson’s vision of a Networked SocietyVoice mail(in which anything that can benefit from a connectionTerminalswill be connected – resulting in more than 50 billionConferenceconnected devices by 2020) is an HD voice world inwhich anyone and anything that can benefit from highdefinition voice will do so.WCDMAHDdecisionsvoice ��suserbusiness,regulatory and operational needs, as well as with a view towardsfuturerequirements.fora widerange of services and applications. Forexample, voice-mail playback could be crystal-clear,InterconnectHD voice worldWhen evaluatingthe forvarioustechnologychoices,timesmany communication specific aspects must be taken into account,eliminatingthe needa userto listen multiplesuch as:to understand a message. The number of inaccurateGSMtranslationsin speech-to-textwouldbe Total Costof Ownership applicationsand Return onInvestmentanalysis for each applicable technologyreduced.Conferencecallslifewouldandand its impact on costs and business Evaluationof thecyclebeofmoreeach effective,technology Capabilitytechnologysupportshortrequirements, as well as theCDMAreporterscould callofathestudiodirectly, toknowingthattheirterm smart grid communicationspotentialto scaleto makingmeet futurelong term requirements and to operate with other communicationsvoices wouldbe heardclearly,live broadcastingnetworks; andFixedmore reliable. Long term evaluation of network and device price forecasts for each technology.LTEIn short, improved voice quality makes a difference topeople,businessand society.WithHD voice,the worldA capabilityassessmentof thevarioustechnologyoptions is required in order to understand if they willisadequatelymore effective,personaland connected.supportthe immediateand future requirements of the smart grid. Figure 4: The HD voice worldFor technologies that are in place, for example Power Line Carrier (PLC), strategies can be devised to integratethem with newer technologies, potentially incorporating technology migration strategies.Where new communications technologies are to be selected, a future-proof choice will invariably prefer standardsbased communication offerings with a well-developed manufacturer eco-system. The benefits of such an eco-systemare mass-market adoption, network and device availability and economies of scale. An example of a well-developedeco-system is the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) technology Smartfamily,whichhasCitiesan industry deliveringGridsfor Smartmillions of interworking devices to billions of users, and offers a guaranteed future evolution path and certainty ofsupport for past, present and future technologies as they continue to evolve. See Figure gure 3 – Global numberdevicesFigure 3of–wirelessGlobal numberof wireless devicesIn the case of wireless communications, a standards-based technology selection also provides licensed spectrumcertainty. A particular aspect of planning wireless communications infrastructure is a comprehensive understandingIn thecase ofcommunications,a standards-basedof the implicationsof choiceofwirelessspectrum,as this will underpinthe performancetechnologyand future capabilities of a smart gridcommunicationsselectionnetwork.also provides licensed spectrum certainty. A particular aspect to ofplanning wireless communications infrastructure is a comprehensiveunderstanding of the implications of choice of spectrum, as this will underpinthe performance and future capabilities of a smart grid es SMARTandGRIDCOMMUNICATIONSSTRATEGYHDVOICE THEFORHDForVOICEWORLDexistingregions,it is probablethat arange of technology typeswill be integrated to make up the fabric of the futuresmartgrid and smart city64infrastructure, including fixed, cellular and other wireless communicationstechnologies. Figure 4 illustrates the multi-purpose and multi-technologyaspects of smart grid communications.

CONCLUSIONSmart Grids for Smart CitiesFor existing utilities and regions, it is probable that a range of technology types will be integrated to make up the fabricof the future smart grid and smart city infrastructure, including fixed, cellular and other wireless communicationstechnologies. Figure 4 illustrates the multi-purpose and multi-technology aspects of smart grid communications.The ongoing data-traffic boom, driven by smartphones, tablets and next-generation fixed andmobile networks, can coexist with a revitalized voice market. Voice is valued as a personal way ofcommunicating, and for operators, an attractive voice offering will continue to be an important sourceSYSTEM Sof SYSTEMSrevenue and an essential component of any successful business model.The arrival of OTT players offering free voice services while emphasizing quality has resulted ingreater urgency to improve voice services. Despite this, advances in voice technology have beenCOMMS. EQUIPMENTIT EQUIPMENTOT EQUIPMENTslow,making voice an exception in a telecom market that has otherwise evolved at a remarkablepace.CommunicationsNodes & case for HD voice centers onThe businessfour key areas:users make more and longer calls whenMeters &WirelessIT dpointsModulestrtorsthey haveaccess to the technology; operatorofferings cankeep pace with OTT services; enterprisescan benefit from better voice quality; and the technology supports mobility. For operators, the resultWIRELESSWIREDin eachTransportcase can be improved subscriber loyalty and reduced churn.2G HD-voice-capable networks and devices roll out across the globe. However,Network (HV-MVMomentumis building delivering the best possible4G user experience and establishing HD voice on a mass-market scale willrequire interconnection. HD voice has the potential to be a valuable offering for all kinds of networks,WIRELESSand it will work best as an ecosystem in whichusers are free to make high-quality voice callsWIREDto andAccessNetworkfrom anywhere in the world.2GHANHANCDMA RF Mesh(WiFi,(LV Domain)LRRPLCCoax3GDSL an(LonWorks,ZigBee, will OtherHomePlug,450/fromWimaxIn the end, anything thatcan benefithigh-qualityvoiceuse high-qualityvoice,creatingetc.)etc.)4GHD voice world in which a wide range of services and applications can offer a vastly improved userexperience. Quality counts: this is why HD voice will ensure communication services continue toprovidevalue to both operators and users.DEVICESOtherOtherOtherDEVICESFigure 4 – Multi-purpose and multi-technology smart grid communicationsFigure 4 – Multi-purpose and multi-technology smart grid communicationsThe immediate challenge for utilities is tointegrate existing communication elements withnew, more future-proof technologiesTHE IMMEDIATE CHALLENGE FOR UTILITIES IS TO75INTEGRATE EXISTING COMMUNICATION ELEMENTSSMARTGRIDSFOR SMART CITIES SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGYHDVOICE CONCLUSION

CommunicationsCONCLUSIONnetwork sharingpossibilitiesThe ongoing data-traffic boom, driven by smartphones, tablets and next-generation fixed andmobile networks, can coexist with a revitalized voice market. Voice is valued as a personal way ofcommunicating, and for operators, an attractive voice offering will continue to be an important sourceof revenue and an essential component of any successful business model.The arrival of OTT players offering free voice services while emphasizing quality has resulted ingreater urgency to improve voice services. Despite this, advances in voice technology have beenslow,exceptionin aspecifictelecom communicationmarket that has otherwiseevolvedat a remarkableHow makingdoes a voiceutilityanensurethat it’sService LevelAgreements(SLAs) pace.are met, whilst havingaccessto the latestcommunicationsspecialiststechnology?The businesscase ICTfor HDvoice centers onfour key andareas:users make more and longer calls whenthey have access to the technology; operator offerings can keep pace with OTT services; enterprisesAs utilitiesmayandchoosewhether orsupportsnot to constraintheirnetwork to meet theircanbenefit buildfrom smartbetter grids,voice theyquality;the technologymobility.Forcommunicationsoperators, the resultown needs, or to grow in such a way that they can share their communications network with other organisations andin each case can be improved subscriber loyalty and reduced churn.potentially other sectors such as public safety organisations.Momentum is building as HD-voice-capable networks and devices roll out across the globe. However,deliveringthe bestcanpossibleuser experienceHD gridvoicerequirements,on a mass-marketNetwork sharingopen manypossibilitiesandforestablishingevolving smartwhilst scaleat thewillsame time allowingbusinesscase hurdles regardingOPEXtotobebeamet. Differentiationsmartservices from conventionalrequireinterconnection.HD voice CAPEXhas theandpotentialvaluable offering forofallkindsgridof networks,broadbandservicescanachieved inthroughagreementsand new networkmodels.andit will workbest asanbeecosystemwhich SLA-basedusers are freeto make high-qualityvoice callsto andfrom anywhere in the world.Communications network sharing creates possibilities that not only bring financial benefits to the utility, but byIn the end,otheranythingthat canbenefithigh-qualitywill usesupport. Indeed,high-quality voice,anat the regional rvoiceregulatorybycreatingplanningHDvoice level,world anin whicha wide rangeof servicesandcan andoffereffectivea vastly licationsmore powerfulinfluencinguserof government andexperience.Qualitycounts: thisissues,is whysuchHD voicewill ensurecommunicationservicescontinuetoregulators onindustry-specificas spectrumaccessand energy-specificsmartcity requirements.provide value to both operators and users.A business model where the costs and benefits inherent to network sharing can be realised is dependent onhaving a communications technology that is inherently suitable for network sharing.In order to assure the best investment returns, analysis of the following will determine the optimal timing of deployment: Investment case including capital and operational communications network expected future cash flows; andStrategic analysis of network sharing opportunities and other organisations capability to do so; includingstrategic positioning that could affect regulatory and budgetary approval.Network sharing not only allows utilities to collaborate, it also provides the flexibility to benefit from accessing public(telco operated) networks where needed, for example in order to address coverage black-spots or introduce additionalredundancy.Naturally, each network sharing opportunity requires specific analysis to determine the potential impact oncommunications network coverage, capacity, billing systems and interoperability.Network sharing can be about a utility offeringuse of it’s comms infrastructure to others, orthe utility making use of other organisations’comms infrastructure ‑ or a combination of bothSMARTGRIDSFOR SMART CITIES COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SHARING POSSIBILITIESHDVOICE CONCLUSION76

on, Mobile data traffic surpasses voice, March 23, ases/2010/03/13969282.Ericsson, Annual Report 2010, March 2011, cial reports/2010/annual10/sites/default/files/Ericsson AR 2010 EN.pdf3.Telecompaper, Skype grows FY revenues 20%, reaches 663 million users, March 8, n,over LTE, WhitePaper, value-addedDecember 2010,Agrid willVoicebe instrumentalin enablingsmart city services – and the possibilities are nicationare emerging asServicesa revolutionary5. example,Ericsson,EricssonHD Voice,Portfolio,automotive reality that requires leadership andICT leis merely one requirement for ICT solutions. erators/ericsson-hd-voice?nav marketcategory001car of the future smart city will have multiple applications requiring connectivity, served by multiple providers. An6.Harry F. Olson, Music, Physics and Engineering (Second Edition), New York: Dover Publications, 1967integrated communications network architecture is the only way to efficiently deliver this outcome.7.Bo Burman, Anders Eriksson, Andreas Bergqvist, Klaus Schneider and Håkan Djuphammar, Operator-provided notherexample of a Ericssonvalue-addedserviceis thecontrol, monitoring and remote diagnosis of home appliances,includingwhite-goods, consumer electronics, pool pumps and heating / cooling systems, all of which contribute nd directlyaffect enduserexpectationson Situations,energy companies.8.EricssonConsumerLab,FromAppsto EverydayEricsson Consumer Insight Summary, May 2011,http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2011/silicon valley brochure letter.pdfPreparing for these exciting and emerging opportunities is no small task. It requires planning today for a relevant9.Mobile HD VoicenetworkReport, strategy,June 3, 2011,smart GSA,grid loads/pdf/GSA Mobile HD Voice report 030611.php410. GSA,MobileHD Voice: Globalreport, October3, 2011,Choiceof technologiesand Updatethe necessaryarchitectureto enable integration of multiple solutions andservices, including capabilities and tionpage) pathsServiceprovisioning,support,collection11. GSA,MobileHD VoiceoperationsCompatiblePhones,dataJune3, 2011, and integration into charging and billing systems Security considerations; andhttp://www.gsacom.com/downloads/pdf/Mobile HD Voice compatible user devices 030611.php4 Monitoring / control modules and associated capabilities.12. Telecompaper, T-Mobile Poland introduces HD voice, August 18, and-introduces-hd-voiceCo-operationtoday between the electricity distributors and retailers and potentially new value-adding retailersisin orderto plan13.requiredGSMA,HD-voicelogo,for the likely collaborative energy services to be delivered tomorrow. This will ensurethat relevantservice delivery architectures and appropriatecommunication networks are considered today .htmpreparation for a smart city future.The business models and communications infrastructure must considertheGridsentireenergySmartfor SmartCitiesvalue chain, includingefficient energy generation, transmission, distribution, billing and revenue management from a growing number ofdistributed energy sources, as shown in Figure 5.FurtherinformationExpanding Energy Value ChainEricsson, Your Business, Communication Services,Consumer EnergyTraditional Generation Alternate son.com/yourbusiness/telecom operators/communication-servicesGeneration & ConsumptionEricsson, Our Portfolio, Ericsson HD Voice,Figure 5 – The expandingenergyvaluechain energy value chainFigure5 – elecom-operators/ericsson-hd-voice?nav marketcategory001YouTube, HD Voice, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v bwVPkt6vwEwYouTube, HD Voice Demonstration, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v CkXX5JcML54UTILITIES IN A SMART CITY MUST PROVIDE GRID ANDCOMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITIES TO SUPPORT THEFUNCTIONING OF A WIDE RANGE OF VALUE-ADDEDENERGYUtilities in a smartcitySERVICESmust provide gridandcommunications capabilities to support thefunctioning of a wide range of value-addedenergy servicesSMARTGRIDSFOR SMART CITIES COLLABORATIVEHDVOICE REFERENCESFURTHERINFORMATION ELECTRICITY SERVICES87

Realising a smartreferencescity futureEricsson, Mobile data traffic surpasses voice, March 23, ases/2010/03/13969282.Ericsson, Annual Report 2010, March 2011, cial reports/2010/Holistic scenario planning can help to identify which specific investments being considered today by the utility can beannual10/sites/default/files/Ericsson AR 2010 EN.pdfleveraged by other industry sectors in order to help justify business case and regulatory approvals.3.Telecompaper, Skype grows FY revenues 20%, reaches 663 million users, March 8, son envisions there will be 50 billion (mainly machine-to-machine) connected devices by 2020, including4.Ericsson,over LTE,andWhitePaper,smartDecember2010,devicessuch asVoicegrid switchessensors,metersand connected in-home appliances. These devices in theirown rightwill generate vast quantities of data which must be analysed, interpreted and acted upon. This presentshttp://www.erics

smart grids for smart cities Strategic Options for Smart Grid Communication Networks To meet the goals of a smart city in supporting a sustainable high-quality lifestyle for citizens, a smart city needs a smart grid. To build smart cities of the future, Information and Communications Techn

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