Atomic Habits: Tiny Changes, Remarkable Results

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AN IMPRINT OF PENGUIN RANDOM HOUSE LLC375 Hudson StreetNew York, New York 10014Copyright 2018 by James ClearPenguin supports copyright. Copyright fuels creativity, encourages diverse voices, promotes free speech, and createsa vibrant culture. Thank you for buying an authorized edition of this book and for complying with copyright laws by notreproducing, scanning, or distributing any part of it in any form without permission. You are supporting writers andallowing Penguin to continue to publish books for every reader.Ebook ISBN 9780735211308While the author has made every effort to provide accurate Internet addresses at the time of publication, neither thepublisher nor the author assumes any responsibility for errors, or for changes that occur after publication. Further, thepublisher does not have any control over and does not assume any responsibility for author or third-party websites ortheir content.Version 1

a·tom·icəˈtämik1. an extremely small amount of a thing; the single irreducible unit of alarger system.2. the source of immense energy or power.hab·itˈhabət1. a routine or practice performed regularly; an automatic response to aspecific situation.

ContentsTitle PageCopyrightEpigraphIntroduction: My StoryThe FundamentalsWhy Tiny Changes Make a Big Difference1 The Surprising Power of Atomic Habits2 How Your Habits Shape Your Identity (and Vice Versa)3 How to Build Better Habits in 4 Simple StepsThe 1st LawMake It Obvious4 The Man Who Didn’t Look Right5 The Best Way to Start a New Habit6 Motivation Is Overrated; Environment Often Matters More7 The Secret to Self-ControlThe 2nd LawMake It Attractive8 How to Make a Habit Irresistible9 The Role of Family and Friends in Shaping Your Habits10 How to Find and Fix the Causes of Your Bad HabitsThe 3rd LawMake It Easy11 Walk Slowly, but Never Backward12 The Law of Least Effort13 How to Stop Procrastinating by Using the Two-Minute Rule14 How to Make Good Habits Inevitable and Bad Habits ImpossibleThe 4th LawMake It Satisfying15 The Cardinal Rule of Behavior Change16 How to Stick with Good Habits Every Day17 How an Accountability Partner Can Change Everything

Advanced TacticsHow to Go from Being Merely Good to Being Truly Great18 The Truth About Talent (When Genes Matter and When They Don’t)19 The Goldilocks Rule: How to Stay Motivated in Life and Work20 The Downside of Creating Good HabitsConclusion: The Secret to Results That LastAppendixWhat Should You Read Next?Little Lessons from the Four LawsHow to Apply These Ideas to BusinessHow to Apply These Ideas to ParentingAcknowledgmentsNotesIndexAbout the Author

IntroductionMy StoryON THE FINAL dayof my sophomore year of high school, I was hit inthe face with a baseball bat. As my classmate took a full swing, thebat slipped out of his hands and came flying toward me before strikingme directly between the eyes. I have no memory of the moment ofimpact.The bat smashed into my face with such force that it crushed mynose into a distorted U-shape. The collision sent the soft tissue of mybrain slamming into the inside of my skull. Immediately, a wave ofswelling surged throughout my head. In a fraction of a second, I had abroken nose, multiple skull fractures, and two shattered eye sockets.When I opened my eyes, I saw people staring at me and runningover to help. I looked down and noticed spots of red on my clothes.One of my classmates took the shirt off his back and handed it to me. Iused it to plug the stream of blood rushing from my broken nose.Shocked and confused, I was unaware of how seriously I had beeninjured.My teacher looped his arm around my shoulder and we began thelong walk to the nurse’s office: across the field, down the hill, and backinto school. Random hands touched my sides, holding me upright. Wetook our time and walked slowly. Nobody realized that every minutemattered.When we arrived at the nurse’s office, she asked me a series ofquestions.“What year is it?”“1998,” I answered. It was actually 2002.“Who is the president of the United States?”“Bill Clinton,” I said. The correct answer was George W. Bush.

“What is your mom’s name?”“Uh. Um.” I stalled. Ten seconds passed.“Patti,” I said casually, ignoring the fact that it had taken me tenseconds to remember my own mother’s name.That is the last question I remember. My body was unable to handlethe rapid swelling in my brain and I lost consciousness before theambulance arrived. Minutes later, I was carried out of school and takento the local hospital.Shortly after arriving, my body began shutting down. I struggledwith basic functions like swallowing and breathing. I had my firstseizure of the day. Then I stopped breathing entirely. As the doctorshurried to supply me with oxygen, they also decided the local hospitalwas unequipped to handle the situation and ordered a helicopter to flyme to a larger hospital in Cincinnati.I was rolled out of the emergency room doors and toward thehelipad across the street. The stretcher rattled on a bumpy sidewalk asone nurse pushed me along while another pumped each breath into meby hand. My mother, who had arrived at the hospital a few momentsbefore, climbed into the helicopter beside me. I remained unconsciousand unable to breathe on my own as she held my hand during theflight.While my mother rode with me in the helicopter, my father wenthome to check on my brother and sister and break the news to them.He choked back tears as he explained to my sister that he would missher eighth-grade graduation ceremony that night. After passing mysiblings off to family and friends, he drove to Cincinnati to meet mymother.When my mom and I landed on the roof of the hospital, a team ofnearly twenty doctors and nurses sprinted onto the helipad andwheeled me into the trauma unit. By this time, the swelling in my brainhad become so severe that I was having repeated post-traumaticseizures. My broken bones needed to be fixed, but I was in nocondition to undergo surgery. After yet another seizure—my third ofthe day—I was put into a medically induced coma and placed on aventilator.My parents were no strangers to this hospital. Ten years earlier,they had entered the same building on the ground floor after my sister

was diagnosed with leukemia at age three. I was five at the time. Mybrother was just six months old. After two and a half years ofchemotherapy treatments, spinal taps, and bone marrow biopsies, mylittle sister finally walked out of the hospital happy, healthy, andcancer free. And now, after ten years of normal life, my parents foundthemselves back in the same place with a different child.While I slipped into a coma, the hospital sent a priest and a socialworker to comfort my parents. It was the same priest who had metwith them a decade earlier on the evening they found out my sister hadcancer.As day faded into night, a series of machines kept me alive. Myparents slept restlessly on a hospital mattress—one moment theywould collapse from fatigue, the next they would be wide awake withworry. My mother would tell me later, “It was one of the worst nightsI’ve ever had.”MY RECOVERYMercifully, by the next morning my breathing had rebounded to thepoint where the doctors felt comfortable releasing me from the coma.When I finally regained consciousness, I discovered that I had lost myability to smell. As a test, a nurse asked me to blow my nose and sniffan apple juice box. My sense of smell returned, but—to everyone’ssurprise—the act of blowing my nose forced air through the fracturesin my eye socket and pushed my left eye outward. My eyeball bulgedout of the socket, held precariously in place by my eyelid and the opticnerve attaching my eye to my brain.The ophthalmologist said my eye would gradually slide back intoplace as the air seeped out, but it was hard to tell how long this wouldtake. I was scheduled for surgery one week later, which would allow mesome additional time to heal. I looked like I had been on the wrong endof a boxing match, but I was cleared to leave the hospital. I returnedhome with a broken nose, half a dozen facial fractures, and a bulgingleft eye.The following months were hard. It felt like everything in my lifewas on pause. I had double vision for weeks; I literally couldn’t seestraight. It took more than a month, but my eyeball did eventuallyreturn to its normal location. Between the seizures and my vision

problems, it was eight months before I could drive a car again. Atphysical therapy, I practiced basic motor patterns like walking in astraight line. I was determined not to let my injury get me down, butthere were more than a few moments when I felt depressed andoverwhelmed.I became painfully aware of how far I had to go when I returned tothe baseball field one year later. Baseball had always been a major partof my life. My dad had played minor league baseball for the St. LouisCardinals, and I had a dream of playing professionally, too. Aftermonths of rehabilitation, what I wanted more than anything was to getback on the field.But my return to baseball was not smooth. When the season rolledaround, I was the only junior to be cut from the varsity baseball team. Iwas sent down to play with the sophomores on junior varsity. I hadbeen playing since age four, and for someone who had spent so muchtime and effort on the sport, getting cut was humiliating. I vividlyremember the day it happened. I sat in my car and cried as I flippedthrough the radio, desperately searching for a song that would makeme feel better.After a year of self-doubt, I managed to make the varsity team as asenior, but I rarely made it on the field. In total, I played eleveninnings of high school varsity baseball, barely more than a single game.Despite my lackluster high school career, I still believed I couldbecome a great player. And I knew that if things were going toimprove, I was the one responsible for making it happen. The turningpoint came two years after my injury, when I began college at DenisonUniversity. It was a new beginning, and it was the place where I woulddiscover the surprising power of small habits for the first time.HOW I LEARNED ABOUT HABITSAttending Denison was one of the best decisions of my life. I earned aspot on the baseball team and, although I was at the bottom of theroster as a freshman, I was thrilled. Despite the chaos of my highschool years, I had managed to become a college athlete.I wasn’t going to be starting on the baseball team anytime soon, so Ifocused on getting my life in order. While my peers stayed up late and

played video games, I built good sleep habits and went to bed earlyeach night. In the messy world of a college dorm, I made a point tokeep my room neat and tidy. These improvements were minor, butthey gave me a sense of control over my life. I started to feel confidentagain. And this growing belief in myself rippled into the classroom as Iimproved my study habits and managed to earn straight A’s during myfirst year.A habit is a routine or behavior that is performed regularly—and, inmany cases, automatically. As each semester passed, I accumulatedsmall but consistent habits that ultimately led to results that wereunimaginable to me when I started. For example, for the first time inmy life, I made it a habit to lift weights multiple times per week, and inthe years that followed, my six-foot-four-inch frame bulked up from afeatherweight 170 to a lean 200 pounds.When my sophomore season arrived, I earned a starting role on thepitching staff. By my junior year, I was voted team captain and at theend of the season, I was selected for the all-conference team. But it wasnot until my senior season that my sleep habits, study habits, andstrength-training habits really began to pay off.Six years after I had been hit in the face with a baseball bat, flown tothe hospital, and placed into a coma, I was selected as the top maleathlete at Denison University and named to the ESPN Academic AllAmerica Team—an honor given to just thirty-three players across thecountry. By the time I graduated, I was listed in the school recordbooks in eight different categories. That same year, I was awarded theuniversity’s highest academic honor, the President’s Medal.I hope you’ll forgive me if this sounds boastful. To be honest, therewas nothing legendary or historic about my athletic career. I neverended up playing professionally. However, looking back on thoseyears, I believe I accomplished something just as rare: I fulfilled mypotential. And I believe the concepts in this book can help you fulfillyour potential as well.We all face challenges in life. This injury was one of mine, and theexperience taught me a critical lesson: changes that seem small andunimportant at first will compound into remarkable results if you’rewilling to stick with them for years. We all deal with setbacks but in thelong run, the quality of our lives often depends on the quality of our

habits. With the same habits, you’ll end up with the same results. Butwith better habits, anything is possible.Maybe there are people who can achieve incredible successovernight. I don’t know any of them, and I’m certainly not one of them.There wasn’t one defining moment on my journey from medicallyinduced coma to Academic All-American; there were many. It was agradual evolution, a long series of small wins and tiny breakthroughs.The only way I made progress—the only choice I had—was to startsmall. And I employed this same strategy a few years later when Istarted my own business and began working on this book.HOW AND WHY I WROTE THIS BOOKIn November 2012, I began publishing articles at jamesclear.com. Foryears, I had been keeping notes about my personal experiments withhabits and I was finally ready to share some of them publicly. I beganby publishing a new article every Monday and Thursday. Within a fewmonths, this simple writing habit led to my first one thousand emailsubscribers, and by the end of 2013 that number had grown to morethan thirty thousand people.In 2014, my email list expanded to over one hundred thousandsubscribers, which made it one of the fastest-growing newsletters onthe internet. I had felt like an impostor when I began writing two yearsearlier, but now I was becoming known as an expert on habits—a newlabel that excited me but also felt uncomfortable. I had neverconsidered myself a master of the topic, but rather someone who wasexperimenting alongside my readers.In 2015, I reached two hundred thousand email subscribers andsigned a book deal with Penguin Random House to begin writing thebook you are reading now. As my audience grew, so did my businessopportunities. I was increasingly asked to speak at top companiesabout the science of habit formation, behavior change, and continuousimprovement. I found myself delivering keynote speeches atconferences in the United States and Europe.In 2016, my articles began to appear regularly in major publicationslike Time, Entrepreneur, and Forbes. Incredibly, my writing was readby over eight million people that year. Coaches in the NFL, NBA, andMLB began reading my work and sharing it with their teams.

At the start of 2017, I launched the Habits Academy, which becamethe premier training platform for organizations and individualsinterested in building better habits in life and work.* Fortune 500companies and growing start-ups began to enroll their leaders andtrain their staff. In total, over ten thousand leaders, managers,coaches, and teachers have graduated from the Habits Academy, andmy work with them has taught me an incredible amount about what ittakes to make habits work in the real world.As I put the finishing touches on this book in 2018, jamesclear.comis receiving millions of visitors per month and nearly five hundredthousand people subscribe to my weekly email newsletter—a numberthat is so far beyond my expectations when I began that I’m not evensure what to think of it.HOW THIS BOOK WILL BENEFIT YOUThe entrepreneur and investor Naval Ravikant has said, “To write agreat book, you must first become the book.” I originally learned aboutthe ideas mentioned here because I had to live them. I had to rely onsmall habits to rebound from my injury, to get stronger in the gym, toperform at a high level on the field, to become a writer, to build asuccessful business, and simply to develop into a responsible adult.Small habits helped me fulfill my potential, and since you picked upthis book, I’m guessing you’d like to fulfill yours as well.In the pages that follow, I will share a step-by-step plan for buildingbetter habits—not for days or weeks, but for a lifetime. While sciencesupports everything I’ve written, this book is not an academic researchpaper; it’s an operating manual. You’ll find wisdom and practicaladvice front and center as I explain the science of how to create andchange your habits in a way that is easy to understand and apply.The fields I draw on—biology, neuroscience, philosophy,psychology, and more—have been around for many years. What I offeryou is a synthesis of the best ideas smart people figured out a long timeago as well as the most compelling discoveries scientists have maderecently. My contribution, I hope, is to find the ideas that matter mostand connect them in a way that is highly actionable. Anything wise inthese pages you should credit to the many experts who preceded me.Anything foolish, assume it is my error.

The backbone of this book is my four-step model of habits—cue,craving, response, and reward—and the four laws of behavior changethat evolve out of these steps. Readers with a psychology backgroundmay recognize some of these terms from operant conditioning, whichwas first proposed as “stimulus, response, reward” by B. F. Skinner inthe 1930s and has been popularized more recently as “cue, routine,reward” in The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg.Behavioral scientists like Skinner realized that if you offered theright reward or punishment, you could get people to act in a certainway. But while Skinner’s model did an excellent job of explaining howexternal stimuli influenced our habits, it lacked a good explanation forhow our thoughts, feelings, and beliefs impact our behavior. Internalstates—our moods and emotions—matter, too. In recent decades,scientists have begun to determine the connection between ourthoughts, feelings, and behavior. This research will also be covered inthese pages.In total, the framework I offer is an integrated model of thecognitive and behavioral sciences. I believe it is one of the first modelsof human behavior to accurately account for both the influence ofexternal stimuli and internal emotions on our habits. While some ofthe language may be familiar, I am confident that the details—and theapplications of the Four Laws of Behavior Change—will offer a newway to think about your habits.Human behavior is always changing: situation to situation, momentto moment, second to second. But this book is about what doesn’tchange. It’s about the fundamentals of human behavior. The lastingprinciples you can rely on year after year. The ideas you can build abusiness around, build a family around, build a life around.There is no one right way to create better habits, but this bookdescribes the best way I know—an approach that will be effectiveregardless of where you start or what you’re trying to change. Thestrategies I cover will be relevant to anyone looking for a step-by-stepsystem for improvement, whether your goals center on health, money,productivity, relationships, or all of the above. As long as humanbehavior is involved, this book will be your guide.

THEFUNDAMENTALSWhy Tiny Changes Make a Big Difference

1The Surprising Power of Atomic HabitsTHE FATE OF BritishCycling changed one day in 2003. Theorganization, which was the governing body for professionalcycling in Great Britain, had recently hired Dave Brailsford as its newperformance director. At the time, professional cyclists in Great Britainhad endured nearly one hundred years of mediocrity. Since 1908,British riders had won just a single gold medal at the Olympic Games,and they had fared even worse in cycling’s biggest race, the Tour deFrance. In 110 years, no British cyclist had ever won the event.In fact, the performance of British riders had been sounderwhelming that one of the top bike manufacturers in Europerefused to sell bikes to the team because they were afraid that it wouldhurt sales if other professionals saw the Brits using their gear.Brailsford had been hired to put British Cycling on a new trajectory.What made him different from previous coaches was his relentlesscommitment to a strategy that he referred to as “the aggregation ofmarginal gains,” which was the philosophy of searching for a tinymargin of improvement in everything you do. Brailsford said, “Thewhole principle came from the idea that if you broke down everythingyou could think of that goes into riding a bike, and then improve it by 1percent, you will get a significant increase when you put them alltogether.”Brailsford and his coaches began by making small adjustments youmight expect from a professional cycling team. They redesigned thebike seats to make them more comfortable and rubbed alcohol on thetires for a better grip. They asked riders to wear electrically heatedovershorts to maintain ideal muscle temperature while riding and used

biofeedback sensors to monitor how each athlete responded to aparticular workout. The team tested various fabrics in a wind tunneland had their outdoor riders switch to indoor racing suits, whichproved to be lighter and more aerodynamic.But they didn’t stop there. Brailsford and his team continued to find1 percent improvements in overlooked and unexpected areas. Theytested different types of massage gels to see which one led to the fastestmuscle recovery. They hired a surgeon to teach each rider the best wayto wash their hands to reduce the chances of catching a cold. Theydetermined the type of pillow and mattress that led to the best night’ssleep for each rider. They even painted the inside of the team truckwhite, which helped them spot little bits of dust that would normallyslip by unnoticed but could degrade the performance of the finelytuned bikes.As these and hundreds of other small improvements accumulated,the results came faster than anyone could have imagined.Just five years after Brailsford took over, the British Cycling teamdominated the road and track cycling events at the 2008 OlympicGames in Beijing, where they won an astounding 60 percent of thegold medals available. Four years later, when the Olympic Games cameto London, the Brits raised the bar as they set nine Olympic recordsand seven world records.That same year, Bradley Wiggins became the first British cyclist towin the Tour de France. The next year, his teammate Chris Froomewon the race, and he would go on to win again in 2015, 2016, and 2017,giving the British team five Tour de France victories in six years.During the ten-year span from 2007 to 2017, British cyclists won178 world championships and sixty-six Olympic or Paralympic goldmedals and captured five Tour de France victories in what is widelyregarded as the most successful run in cycling history.*How does this happen? How does a team of previously ordinaryathletes transform into world champions with tiny changes that, atfirst glance, would seem to make a modest difference at best? Why dosmall improvements accumulate into such remarkable results, andhow can you replicate this approach in your own life?WHY SMALL HABITS MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE

It is so easy to overestimate the importance of one defining momentand underestimate the value of making small improvements on a dailybasis. Too often, we convince ourselves that massive success requiresmassive action. Whether it is losing weight, building a business,writing a book, winning a championship, or achieving any other goal,we put pressure on ourselves to make some earth-shatteringimprovement that everyone will talk about.Meanwhile, improving by 1 percent isn’t particularly notable—sometimes it isn’t even noticeable—but it can be far more meaningful,especially in the long run. The difference a tiny improvement can makeover time is astounding. Here’s how the math works out: if you can get1 percent better each day for one year, you’ll end up thirty-seven timesbetter by the time you’re done. Conversely, if you get 1 percent worseeach day for one year, you’ll decline nearly down to zero. What startsas a small win or a minor setback accumulates into something muchmore.1% BETTER EVERY DAY1% worse every day for one year. 0.99365 00.031% better every day for one year. 1.01365 37.78

FIGURE 1: The effects of small habits compound over time. For example, ifyou can get just 1 percent better each day, you’ll end up with results that arenearly 37 times better after one year.Habits are the compound interest of self-improvement. The sameway that money multiplies through compound interest, the effects ofyour habits multiply as you repeat them. They seem to make littledifference on any given day and yet the impact they deliver over themonths and years can be enormous. It is only when looking back two,five, or perhaps ten years later that the value of good habits and thecost of bad ones becomes strikingly apparent.This can be a difficult concept to appreciate in daily life. We oftendismiss small changes because they don’t seem to matter very much inthe moment. If you save a little money now, you’re still not amillionaire. If you go to the gym three days in a row, you’re still out ofshape. If you study Mandarin for an hour tonight, you still haven’tlearned the language. We make a few changes, but the results neverseem to come quickly and so we slide back into our previous routines.Unfortunately, the slow pace of transformation also makes it easy tolet a bad habit slide. If you eat an unhealthy meal today, the scaledoesn’t move much. If you work late tonight and ignore your family,

they will forgive you. If you procrastinate and put your project off untiltomorrow, there will usually be time to finish it later. A single decisionis easy to dismiss.But when we repeat 1 percent errors, day after day, by replicatingpoor decisions, duplicating tiny mistakes, and rationalizing littleexcuses, our small choices compound into toxic results. It’s theaccumulation of many missteps—a 1 percent decline here and there—that eventually leads to a problem.The impact created by a change in your habits is similar to the effectof shifting the route of an airplane by just a few degrees. Imagine youare flying from Los Angeles to New York City. If a pilot leaving fromLAX adjusts the heading just 3.5 degrees south, you will land inWashington, D.C., instead of New York. Such a small change is barelynoticeable at takeoff—the nose of the airplane moves just a few feet—but when magnified across the entire United States, you end uphundreds of miles apart.*Similarly, a slight change in your daily habits can guide your life to avery different destination. Making a choice that is 1 percent better or 1percent worse seems insignificant in the moment, but over the span ofmoments that make up a lifetime these choices determine thedifference between who you are and who you could be. Success is theproduct of daily habits—not once-in-a-lifetime transformations.That said, it doesn’t matter how successful or unsuccessful you areright now. What matters is whether your habits are putting you on thepath toward success. You should be far more concerned with yourcurrent trajectory than with your current results. If you’re a millionairebut you spend more than you earn each month, then you’re on a badtrajectory. If your spending habits don’t change, it’s not going to endwell. Conversely, if you’re broke, but you save a little bit every month,then you’re on the path toward financial freedom—even if you’removing slower than you’d like.Your outcomes are a lagging measure of your habits. Your net worthis a lagging measure of your financial habits. Your weight is a laggingmeasure of your eating habits. Your knowledge is a lagging measure ofyour learning habits. Your clutter is a lagging measure of your cleaninghabits. You get what you repeat.

If you want to predict where you’ll end up in life, all you have to dois follow the curve of tiny gains or tiny losses, and see how your dailychoices will compound ten or twenty years down the line. Are youspending less than you earn each month? Are you making it into thegym each week? Are you reading books and learning something neweach day? Tiny battles like these are the ones that will define yourfuture self.Time magnifies the margin between success and failure. It willmultiply whatever you feed it. Good habits make time your ally. Badhabits make time your enemy.Habits are a double-edged sword. Bad habits can cut you down justas easily as good habits can build you up, which is why understandingthe details is crucial. You need to know how habits work and how todesign them to your liking, so you can avoid the dangerous half of theblade.YOUR HABITS CAN COMPOUND FOR YOU OR AGAINST YOUPositive CompoundingProductivity compounds. Accomplishing one extra task is a small feat on any given day,but it counts for a lot over an entire career. The effect of automating an old task or masteringa new skill can be even greater. The more tasks you can handle without thinking, the moreyour brain is free to focus on other areas.Knowledge compounds. Learning one new idea won’t make you a genius, but acommitment to lifelong learning can be transformative. Furthermore, each book you read notonly teaches you something new but also opens up different ways of thinking about oldideas. As Warren Buffett says, “That’s how knowledge works. It builds up, like compoundinterest.”Relationships compound. People reflect your behavior back to you. The more you helpothers, the more others want to help you. Being a little bit nice

7 The Secret to Self-Control The 2nd Law Make It Attractive 8 How to Make a Habit Irresistible 9 The Role of Family and Friends in Shaping Your Habits 10 How to Find and Fix the Causes of Your Bad Habits The 3rd Law Make It Easy 11 Walk Slowly, but Never Backward 12 The Law of Least Effort 13

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example, let’s look at what happens when we combine the trebuchet, Tiny 1 and #: Position 6.2: Trebuchet, Tiny 1, and #. Tiny 1 is a positive in nitesimal, #is a negative in nitesimal, and the trebuchet is equal to zero. However, since Tiny 1 is in nitesimal with respect to both "and #, we would expect

Hacker/Sommers, A Writer’s Reference, 7th ed. (Boston: Bedford, 2011) Slide 2 of 11 Sample MLA Research Paper Summary and long quotation are each introduced with a signal phrase naming the author. Long quotation is set off from the text; quotation marks are omitted. Page number is given in parentheses after the final period. Marginal annotations indicate MLA-style formatting and effective .