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Includes Online Access: 6 Computer AdaptivePractice Exams Bonus Question Bank forReadingComprehensionSeepage 7for details.tManhauan G MATthe new standardLearn using Superior Tools developed bySuperior GMAT Instructors Scored in 99th percentile on the GMAT Selected by rigorous face-to-face audition Trained 100 hours before teaching Paid up to 4x the industry standardThe ManhattanGMAT Advantage:"If you're SERIOUS about gettinga GREATSCORE on the GMAT,you have to go withMANHATTAN GMAT."- Student at top 5 b-schoolSophisticated Strategies For Top SoGMAT and GMAC are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council which neither sponscr s norNlj.};"

9danliattanG MAT·Prepthe new standard1. INTRODUCTIONTO PRINCIPLESIn Action QuestionsSolutions2. COMPONENTSOF PASSAGESIn Action QuestionsSolutions3. SHORT PASSAGESIn Action QuestionsSolutions4. LONG PASSAGES11252933394143515355In Action QuestionsSolutions63655. THE SEVEN STRATEGIES.676. Q.UESTION ANALYSIS757. PASSAGES & PROBLEM SETS91In Action Passages & QuestionsSolutions109Official Guide Problem Set14793TABLE OF CONTENTS

C Il a pterof-c:l:i .·READING COMPREHENSftIN: ,'' . :, . '"'INTRODUC;FION TOPRINCIPLES\····

In This Chapter . Logistics of Reading Comprehension Challenges of Reading Comprehension Two Extremes and a Balanced Approachi.Principle #1: Engage with the Passage Recruiting for Your Working Memory, Inc. Principle #2: Look for the Simple Story Principle #3: Link to What You Already Know Principle #4: Unpack the Beginning Principle #5: Link to What You Have Just Read Principle #6: Pay Attention to Signals Principle #7: Pick up the Pace Summary of the 7 Principles of Active, Efficient Reading Practice on Non-GMAT Material

INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLESChapter 1LOGISTICS OF READING COMPREHENSIONYou are probably already familiar with Reading Comprehension from other standardizedtests. You are given a passage to read, and you are asked questions about the substance andstructure of the passage.On the GMAT, you can expect to see foUl"Reading Comprehension passages. Each passagewill typically be accompanied by three to four questions, for a total of 12 to 14 ReadingComprehension questions. You should be aware of several logistical features ofGMATReading Comprehension passages.Passages are either lollg or short. GMAT Reading Comprehension passages come.in twobasic forms: LONG and SHORT. Long passages, which generally consist of over 300 wordsin three to five paragraphs, take up more than 50 lines on the computer screen (or over 35lines in Tbe Official Guidefor GMAT Review, 12th Edition and TIM Official GuideforGMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition). Examples of long passages on the GMATaPPear onpages 362, 366, and 382 of The Official Guide for GMAT Review, iz» Edition.Short passages, which generally consist of 200-250 words in two or three paragraphs, takeup fewer than 50 lines on the computer screen in length (or under 35 lines in TIMOjJJcialGuide for GMAT Review, 12th Edition and The Official GuitJefor GMATVerbal Rev;tw, 2ndEdition). Examples of short passages on the GMAT appear on pages 358, 360, and 364 ofThe OjJJcial Guide for GMAT Review, 12th Edition.In the past few years, short passages have been more 'common on the GMAT than tong passages. Of the four passages that you see on the GMAT, three of them are likely to be shortand one of them long. However, you might get two short and two 'long. Moreover,' there isno set order in the appearance of short and long passages. Finally, the paragraphs themselveshave been getting longer. You might see a long passage with only two paragraphs, or a shortpassage made up of only one paragraph.Questions appear one at a tUne. The questions are presented one at a time on the rightside of the computer screen. The complete reading passage remains on the left' side of thescreen while you answer questions on that passage. You will only be able to see the firstquestion before reading the' passage.The number of questions per passage is NOT stated. The GMAT does not indicate howmany questions are associated with a particular passage (i.e., the GMAT does not say that"Questions 6-9 refer to the following passage."). However, the length o(the passage and thenumber of questions are strongly correlated. Generally, each short passage has three questions associated with it, and each long passage has four questions associated with it.Line numbers are not listed. Though the Official Guide and 'older GMAT tests list linenumbers down the side of the paragraphs, the GMAT itself does not now number the linesin each passage. When necessary, the GMAT will use yellow highlighting in the passage toindicate the location of a particular term, phrase or section.9da,nliattanGMA],,*prepthe new standardIn order to determineyour reading approach.first identify whether apassage is long or short.

·,,-INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLESChapter 1Reminder: Don't Forget the Twist. Even as you look for the simple story, realize that onthe GMAT, there will often be some important qualification or contrast-akey twist ortwo in the road. After all, such twists help the GMAT ask difficult questions. Be ready toincorporate a key twist or even two in your simple story.For example, a passage might be about the worldwide decline in the population of frogs. Indescribing various theories, the passage might emphasize a distinction between the pessimistic theories shared by most scientists and the optimistic theory of one Scientist X, whobelieves that the decline is taking place within a natural oscillation.The simple story might go like this:The number of frogs in the world is falling fast. There are a few possible explanations, including pollutiol'l' climate change, and loss of habitat. Most scientiststhink this decline is a serious problem caused by human activity, but Scientist Xthinks it's part of a natural cycle and the frogs will come back soon on theirown.You can think of thesimple story in a few different ways. e5Sof your specificapproach, remember the KISS principle:It Simple, Stupid!Here, the contrast is between what most scientists believe about the frog decline and whatScientist X believes.Principle #3: Link to What You Already KnowWhen you read words on a page, they typically activate pre-existing knowledge in yourhead. This is a crucial part of comprehending what you are reading. Every word that youknow in the English language is naturally tied to a web of memories and ideas .:ln fas:t, if aword does NOT activate ideas when you read it, it might as well bezzyrgibzrch! .Normally; your brain wakes up these ideas and memories as a natural part of reading.However, under stress, your eyes can pass over words and even recognize them, but no ideascome to life in your brain, You are too distracted and overwhelmed, and the words on thepage remain "just words."In this case, try concretizing.That is, actively Itnttghu what the words are referring to.Re-explain the original text to yourself Visualize what it represents. Indulge in simpUfications, even stereotypes. Make up examples and use any other mental handles that you can.Of course, there is a danger in actively concretizing part of a GMAT passage-s-you mightintroduce outside ideas. However, that danger is small in comparison to the worse problemof not understanding at all what you are reading, especially at the start of a passage.Consider the following sentence. which could be the opening of a passage:Most exobiologists-scientists who search for life on other planets or moonsagree that carbon probably provides the backbone of any extraterrestrial biological molecules, just as it does of terrestrial ones, since carbon is unique amongthe elements in its ability to form long, stable chains of atoms.Ideally, you can read this sentence and grasp it without any problems. But recognize thatunder pressure. you might need some help understanding the sentence.9J.anliattanGMAT-Prepthe new standard17

Chapter 1INTRODUCTIONTO PRINCIPLESIn your mind, you might concretize this sentence in the following manner:WordsAs you concretize, youmay think of ideas notConcretized Ideas.exobiologists-scientists .smart folks in white coats.who search for lifeon other planets or moons .who peer through telescopeslooking for little green men.carbon probably provides thebackbone of extraterrestrialbiological molecules .carbon: charcoal, key element inliving thingsbackbone: like a spine to a littlemolecule.its ability to form long, stablechains of atoms.carbon can make long, stablechains like bones in a backboneor links in a physical chainexplicitly mentioned inthe passage. That is normal. Just remember thatthose ideas were notactually mentioned inthe passage.You should NOT write this concretization down (except as an exercise during your preparation). The process should happen quickly in your head. Moreover, as you read further intothe passage, the need to concretize should diminish. In fact, if you do too much concretizing along the way, you might introduce too many outside ideas and lose track of what isactually written in the passage. However, concretizing can help you make sense of a difficultpassage, so you should practice this technique.Principle #4: Unpack the BeginningYou must understand the first few sentences of every passage, because they supply criticalcontext for the entire text. If you do not grasp these sentences at first, you have two choices.Either you can take more time with them right away, or you can read a little further andgather more context. Inthe latter case, you MUST go back and re-acquire those initialsentences later.All too often, GMAT students satisfy themselves with an "impressionistic" sense of thebeginning of a passage. However, forming an impression is not comprehending the passage. Given the importance of the initial sentences, you should make sure you grasp 100%of the beginning of any passage (even if you only grasp 40% of the end). That is far betterthan comprehending 70% of the text throughout.Complicating matters, the GMAT often opens passages with long, opaque sentences. Howdo you make sure you understand them, either now or later? The process of concretizingcan help. You can also use the unpacking technique. Academic language is often dense withlong noun phrases formed out of simple sentences. To unpack an academic-style sentence,tum it into a few simple sentences that express essentially the same meaning.In general, you should NOT write this unpacking out (except as an exercise) or apply itthroughout the passage. Like concretizing, unpacking is a powerful tool to smash openresistant language, especially at the start of the passage. Use this technique judiciously.:M.anfiattanGMAT'Prepthe new standard

INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLESChapter 1The steps to unpacking a complex sentence are as follows:1. Grab a concrete noun first. Pick something that you can touch and that causes otherthings to happen. Do not necessarily pick something at the start of the sentence.2. Tum actions back into verbs. In academic language, verbs are often made into noun oradjective phrases. Re-create the verbs. Also, feel free to start with There is or There was.3. Put only ONE simple thoughtin a sentence. One subject, one verb.4. Link each subsequent sentence to the previous one, using this or these. For instance,This resulted in . This process mimics speech, which is usually easy to understand.5. Simplify or "quote off" details. If a jargon word is used in an important way .putquotes around it. Think to yourself ". whatever that means . " and keep going. If the termis necessary, you will figure it out from context later.Consider this example opening of a passage:Concretizing andunpacking are powerfultools, but they take practice. Try them out inyour e\-eryday life. Youwill find dense text easierJO understand.In a diachronic investigation of possible behavioral changes resulting fromaccidental exposure in early childhood to environmental lead dust, two samplegroups were tracked over decades.1. Grab a concrete noun first, especially a cause. A good candidate is lead dust. The firstsentence could simply be this: There was lead dust in various environments.2. Turn other parts of speech, such as action nouns and adjectives, back into verbs. Forinstance, exposure becomes were exposed. Behavioral becomes behaved.3. Put only one thought in a sentence, such as There was lead dust in. various environments.4. Link each sentence to the previous with this/these. So the second sentence couldreadYoung children in these environmentswere exposed to this dust by accident:5. Simplify or "quote off" details or jargon. For instance, the term "diachronic" needs a pairof quotes, so that you do not focus on it. You might even think of it just as "d-something."The final list of a few simple sentences could come out this way:(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)There was lead dust in various environments.Young children in these environments were exposed to this dust by accident.This exposure may have changed how the children behaved.This whole matter was investigated.In this "diachronic" investigation, two sample groups were tracked overtime.This unpacked list is easier to dive into and understand than the original sentence-s-eventhough the list contains nearly twice as many words! Also nate that the subject and verb ofthe original sentence do not appear until the end of the list. This phenomenon is very common. Often, it is easiest to understand the outer "frame" of the sentence la.u.9t1.anfiattanG M J'Prepthe new standard19

INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLESChapter 1Principle #6: Pay Attention to SignalsTo help link new material to previous text that you have read, you should be aware of various language signals.First of all, paragraph breaks are important. They indicate something new. The sentencesin the simple story often correspond to different paragraphs in the passage. If you take a"Table of Contents" approach to the simple story, your headlines correspond to the different paragraphs.This does not mean that paragraphs cannot shift direction internally; they occasionally do.But paragraph breaks are not random. Each one marks a new beginning of some kind.Second, signal words indicate relationships to previous text. Here are a number of suchrelationships, together with their common signals.represena a new chapterin the simple stOry, butparagraphs may includeRelationshipFocus attentionSignalAs for; Regarding; In reference toAdd to previous pointFurthermore; Moreover; In addition; As well as; Also;Likewise; TooOn one hand / On the other hand; While; Rather;lnstead: In contrast; AlternativelyProvide contrastEAchparagmph gateraIIytwists.Provide conceding contrast(author unwillingly agrees)Granted; It is true that; Certainly; AdmittedlyDespite; AlthoughProvide emphatic contrast(author asserts own position)But; However; Even so; All the same; Still; That saidNevertheless; Nonetheless; Yet; OtherwiseDespite [concession], [assertion]Dismiss previous pointIn any event; In any casePoint out similarityLikewise; In the same wayStructure the discussionFirst, Second, etc.; To begin with; Next; Finally; AgainGive exampleFor example; In particular; For instanceGeneralizeIn general; To a great extent; Broadly speakingSum up, perhaps with exception In conclusion; In brief; Overall; Except for; BesidesIndicate logical resultTherefore; Thus; As a result; So; Accordingly; HenceIndicate logical causeBecause; Since; As; Resulting fromRestate for clarityIn other words; That is; Namely; So to speakHedge or soften positionApparently; At least; Can, Could, May, Might, Should;Possibly; LikelyStrengthen positionAfter all; Must, Have to; Always, Never, etc.Introduce surpriseActually; In fact; IndeedReveal author's attitudeFortunately; Unfortunately;other adverbs; So-called9rf.anft.attanG MAT·Prepthe new standard

Guide for GMAT Review, 12th Edition and The Official GuitJefor GMATVerbal Rev;tw, 2nd Edition). Examples of short passages on the GMAT appear on pages 358, 360, and 364 of The OjJJcialGuide for GMAT Review, 12th Edition. In the past fewyears, short passages have been more

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