Iowa Annual Data Review 2015 Manganese 25 54

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Iowa Annual Data Review 2015 – Manganese2554.94Iowa DNRAmbient Air Monitoring Group

Table of ContentsContentsIowa Annual Data Review 2015 – Manganese . 2Table of Contents . 2Summary . 3Additional Information . 4Manganese Monitoring Network – 2015. 5Concentration Summary (ng/m3) . 72011-2015 Manganese Concentration Summary Chart . 82015 Percent Manganese Data Capture . 92015 Annual Manganese Precision Statistics . 9Manganese Levels Recorded in 2015 at the Griffin Pipe Monitoring Site in Council Bluffs . 10Wind Rose for Days with High Manganese Concentrations. 11Wind Rose for Days with Low Manganese Concentrations . 12Manganese Raw Data 2015–Council Bluffs . 13Appendix A. Council Bluffs Monitoring Locations . 14Appendix B. Precision Calculations . 15Appendix C. Wind Rose Explanation and Comparison of Wind Data . 162

SummaryIowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Manganese MonitoringIn December of 2008, USA Today published a list of schools with elevated risk due to airtoxics emissions. Schools near Griffin Pipe Products in Council Bluffs were on this listbecause of manganese emissions from Griffin Pipe. In 2009, EPA funded a study inresponse to the USA Today risk assessment. The methodology for EPA’s “School Air ToxicsStudy” included adoption of health effects benchmarks to evaluate monitoring results. Formanganese, EPA suggested a long-term “non-cancer” reference concentration (RFC) of50 ng/m3. EPA indicated that monitoring sites that experienced levels above this thresholdwould be the focus of ongoing monitoring and the development of a mitigation strategy. 1, 2Recently, EPA has relaxed its health effects/mitigation benchmark for manganese to 300ng/m3. 3,4In 2011, DNR added manganese analysis at its lead monitoring site near Griffin Pipe(Appendix A). Average levels at the site in 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 104 ( 53) ng/m3, 95( 16) ng/m3 and 79 ( 14) ng/m3, respectively. 5,6,7 Griffin Pipe announced its intention tosuspend production indefinitely in March of 20148, and the average manganeseconcentration in 20149 dropped to 44 ( 6) ng/m3. In 2015 the average manganeseconcentration was 42 ( 10) ng/m3 with only one day above the new referenceconcentration of 300 ng/m3. This report includes a detailed analysis of the 2015 data.In 2010 and 2012, violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead wererecorded at the Griffin Pipe monitoring site.10 DNR recently completed a StateImplementation Plan (SIP) to mitigate these violations.11 This plan includes measures topave and regularly sweep haul roads at the Alter Metal Recycling facility adjacent to GriffinPipe. It is expected that these measures will reduce ambient manganese levels near GriffinPipe by eliminating the re-entrainment of deposited manganese-laden dust by truck traffic.An analysis of meteorolog nd speeds on days whereaverage manganese concentrations were at or above the level of the previousEPA reference concentration of 50 ng/m3. The rose shows winds to beprimarily southeasterly on days when these high levels occurred. Acomparison of these winds, the yearly wind rose and a summary of how theroses are calculated can be found in Appendix C.Table of Contents11

10%Wind Rose for Days with8%Low ManganeseConcentrations6%4%2%WESTEASTWINDSPEEDWind Speed(Knots)(Knots)Griffin PipeMonitoring Site 22 221817--2121SOUTHGriffin Pipe1211--171777 -- 111154 -- 6711 -- 44Calms: 7.99%Calms: 12.24%Missing orVariable: 1.54%Alter Metal RecyclingWind rose depicting primary wind directions and speeds on days wheremanganese concentrations remained below the level of the previous EPAreference concentration of 50 ng/m3. The rose shows winds to be primarilynorth and northwesterly on days when average concentrations remain below50 ng/m3. A comparison of these winds, the yearly wind rose and a summaryof how the roses are calculated can be found in Appendix C.Table of Contents12

Manganese Raw Data 2015–Council /30/20155/3/2015Mn 15.32Table of 158/31/20159/3/2015Mn .6487.61DateMn 2/29/20154.6213

Appendix A. Council Bluffs Monitoring LocationsManganese data in this report was obtained from the Griffin Pipe Monitoring site locatedapproximately 200 yards northwest of the main stack of the Griffin Pipe Products Companyin Council Bluffs, Iowa. Meteorological data was collected at the KOMA AutomatedWeather Observing system (AWOS) site at the Eppley Airfield in Omaha, Nebraska. KOMAis approximately 3 miles NNW of the Griffin Pipe monitoring site.Omaha EppleyAirfield (KOMA)Griffin PipeMonitoring SiteTable of ContentsGriffin Pipe & AlterMetal Recycling14

Appendix B. Precision CalculationsLet c𝑖1 and c𝑖2 represent two concentrations from a particular monitoring location taken on thesame day. If both are greater than ten times the MDL, then they may be used to estimate theprecision of the data at the sampling location as follows:First compute the average:𝑐̅𝑖 𝑐𝑖1 𝑐𝑖22And the mean difference:c𝑖1 c𝑖2𝑑𝑖 () 100c̅𝑖Finally, compute the upper confidence limit in the usual way (See: 4.2.1 of 40 CFR Part 58,Appendix A.):𝑈𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟 90% 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑓𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑉 𝑠𝑛 1 1 2 𝑋 (0.90, 𝑛 1)Where s is the sample standard deviation of the mean difference (di), and X-1 represents theinverse of the chi-squared distribution.Table of Contents15

2%TTEASTAppendix NORTHC. Wind Rose Explanation andComparison of Wind DataThe wind rose is agraphical representationof the frequency of awind from a givendirection at a givenlocation. The longer thepetal, the morefrequently that locationSOUTHWESTexperienced winds fromthat direction.NORTHWINDSPEEDWind Speed(Knots)(Knots)10%15%8% 22 2212%1817 -- 21219%6%6%1211 -- 17173%4%EAST77 -- 111154 -- 762%4WIND SPEED1The colors represent the1 -- 4EAST(Knots)percentage of time theCalms: 22 7.25%Calms:12.24%winds are at a givenMissing17 - 21 or11 - 17 1.24%Variable:speed from aSOUTH7 - 11direction. CalmFigure 1: Yearly wind rose from the Omaha Eppley Airfield4 - 7 (KOMA)winds are notAutomated Surface observing System (ASOS). Prevalent 1winddirections-4Calms: 7.16%shown on the windfor the entire year range from the north and northwesterlyalong withsouth and southeasterly.rose. They areNORTHWINDSPEEDdenoted at theWind Speedbottom of the color(Knots)(Knots)legend to the right of a10%wind rose plot. 22 228%Wind data selected forthis report consisted ofSOUTHall 2015 qualityWESTcontrolled observationsfrom the nearestAutomated SurfaceObserving System (ASOS)site. The observationsare stored on theNational Climatic DataCenter (NCDC)servers for download.Listed wind speedsare given in knots.Table of Contents1817 -- 21216%4%1211 -- 17172%EAST77 -- 111154 -- 76WIND SPEED(Knots)SOUTH11 -- 44Calms: 22 8.06%Calms:12.24%17 - 21 orMissing11 - 17Variable:1.27%7 - 11Figure 2: Wind rose from KOMA ASOS on days when manganesesampling4-714occurred. The outputted rose is very similar to the rose representing anCalms: 7.95%entire year’s worth of wind data. This suggests thatwinds on samplingdays are representative of and comparable to the whole year’s wind data.16

NORTHData for the yearNORTH2015 was fed into aWINDSPEEDWind Speedprogram that sorted(Knots)(Knots)through the dataset10% 20%and selected the 22 2216%wind reading that8%12%1817 -- 2121was associated with8%the standard hourly1211 -- 17176%4%observation time.SOUTHWESTEAST77 -- 1111Special observationswere ignored4%54 -- 76because they may notbe representative of11 -- 442%WIND SPEEDthe given time(Knots)Calms:8.26%Calms:12.24%period. If windsEAST 22 orMissing17 - 21were variable inVariable:0.65%11 - 17direction they wereSOUTH7 - 11also excluded fromFigure 3: Wind rose from KOMA ASOS on days4 - 7 with highthe data set.concentrations of manganese. Winds out of the south 1and- 4 southeastFigure 1 representsCalms: 8.20%are dominant in this diagram which suggests the sourceis southeastof the monitor.the yearly wind rosefrom the ASOS site atOmaha Eppley Airfield(KOMA). The windrose shows that themajority of the windsare from the north,northwest, south andSOUTHsoutheast. Most of the WESTwind speeds in agiven year are lessthan seventeen (17)knots.NORTHWINDSPEEDWind Speed(Knots)(Knots)10% 22 228%6%1817 -- 21214%1211 -- 17172%EAST77 -- 111154 -- 7611 -- 44WIND SPEED(Knots)Calms:7.99% 22 12.24%Calms:Missingor17 - 21Variable:11 - 17 1.54%Figure 2 representsthe wind rose on theSOUTH7 - 11121 days in whichFigure 4: Wind rose showing wind directions and speedson days4-7successful1 -34or less.when observed manganese concentrations were 50 ng/mCalms: 7.87%manganesesampling occurred. Data for the wind direction, speed distribution, number of calm windsand missing data are similar to the entire set for 2015. This suggests that the wind data ondays where manganese sampling occurred is likely to be representative of the windsthroughout 2015.Figure 3 represents the wind rose on the 32 sampling days in which the level of the EPAreference concentration for manganese was exceeded. About 45% of all recorded nonTable of Contents17

calm, non-variable and non-missing winds had directions out of the south and southeast ondays where concentrations greater than 50 ng/m3 were recorded.Figure 4 shows a wind rose on the 89 sampling days in which manganese concentrationswere 50 ng/m3 or less.The ratio of the number of low to high concentration days is larger than it was last year,consistent with a decreased source strength affecting the monitoring site.The shape of the wind rose on high concentration days (Figure 3) is similar to last year,suggesting sources are to the south and southeast. With stack emissions from Griffin pipeabsent after May of 2014, we speculate that the persistent manganese signal originatingfrom this direction is due to previously deposited manganese emissions that have been reentrained. Given that the ratio of low concentration days to high concentrations daysbecame larger, it may be possible that either the ground was wet enough to prevent dustfrom entraining into the wind, there is less surface area of bare ground for manganesedeposits to entrain into the wind, and/or the amount of manganese in the exposed soil hasdecreased.The shape of the wind rose on low concentration days (Figure 4) is similar last year.There is a significant fraction of days when manganese concentrations are less than 50ng/m3 with winds out of the south and southeast. This is consistent with the reduction ofmanganese emissions resulting from Griffin Pipe’s shutdown in May of 2014. We speculatethat the fugitive manganese emissions from the south and southeast are intermittent.It is important to note that Figures 2 through 4 represent all hourly winds recorded onmanganese sampling days. If the wind switches directions during the course of the daywith an elevated manganese concentration, it is not possible to determine if the elevatedlevels originate from sources in one or both directions.Table of Contents18

Alter Metal Recycling . 13 . 9/21/2015 156.73 9/24/2015 66.85 9/27/2015 22.24 9/30/2015 35.48 10/3/2015 31.36 10/6/2015 62.97 10/9/2015 36.17 10/12/2015 80.48 10/15/2015 84.99 10/18/2015 90.93 10/21/2015 82.

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