JAPAN PLATFORM Humanitarian Assistance For South Sudan

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JAPAN PLATFORMHumanitarianAssistance forSouth SudanPWJ

Japan PlatformTowardsConsolidation of PeaceSouth Sudan〜 What we have done since 2006 〜Population 10.31 million (2011) Languages English(official), Dinka, Nuer and othersCapital Juba Religions Christianity, Islam and othersEthnic Groups Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk GDP US 18.3 billion (2011)and many others*Source: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, etc.The Republic of South Sudan (hereinafter referred to as SouthSudan”) is the newest country in the world as it achievedsecession on 9th July 2011 as the 54th country in Africa afterthe civil war which endured for more than 20 years. Althoughit is classified as a least developed country (LDC), there ishope for its tangible development in the coming years. With theactive assistance of the international community, effort of thenation building is making steady progress, developing essentialinfrastructure which was severely damaged during the civilwar to rebuild peopleʼs lives.Japan Platform (JPF), an international emergency humanitarianaid organization operating on the principle of an equalpartnership between NGOs, the business sector, and theGovernment of Japan, embarked on Humanitarian AssistanceProgramme for Southern Sudan (Phase 1 through Phase 5)in August 2006 when the interim administration for 6 yearsby the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) began afterComprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005.Since April 2012, the programme was renamed the SouthSudan Humanitarian Assistance Programme following thereferendum on the secession of Southern Sudan in January2011 and its official secession in July of the same year. JPFfunctions as a platform to assist and coordinate the projectsof its member NGOs and 9 member NGOs have so far beenimplementing projects in South Sudan.Local residents using a newly constructed boreholePWJThe programme for South Sudan of JPF was launchedto consolidate the much needed peace through assistingreturnees from Sudan and other neighbouring countries aswell as the host communities which receive these returnees,thereby helping people to regain a stable life. Each memberNGO has primarily worked in areas far from Juba, the capital,to assist such fields as water and sanitation, basic health,education, livelihood and/or socially vulnerable groups. Despitethe difficult situations, the international staff of NGOs is engagedin many different types of work to quickly respond to the needsof the people of South Sudan while securing their own safetyand health.With most of the funding coming from the government ofJapan, JPF provides financial assistance for member NGOsto implement their projects. The total funding between 2006and March 2013 is about 3.1 billion yen. JPF also supportsthe projects of its member NGOs through strengthening therelationships with the South Sudanese government and otheraid donors, promoting inter NGO networks for the sharing ofinformation on safety, assessing local conditions and aid trendsand conducting information dissemination to external actors.South Sudan is a LDC with a GNI per capita of US 984 in2011 (Statistical Bureau, Government of South Sudan). Theprimary education completion rate is approximately 10% (2010;World Bank, etc.) and the literacy rate is 27%. The infant mortalityrate of 102 per 1,000 live births and the maternal mortalityrate of 2,054 per 100,000 live births (2006; World Bank, etc.)are almost the worst in the world. Health and medical servicesare seldom available in rural areas. The coverage of the watersupply system is as low as a few percent even in Juba. Manyrural villages do not have a borehole. The Government of SouthSudan is in need of international cooperation to tackle thesefinancial and administrative issues. Playing a significant rolein bridging the administration and local people, there is muchexpectation for and trust in the JPF and NGOs.This report introduces the JPFʼs programme of humanitarianassistance in South Sudan.

HumanitarianAssistance forSouth SudanSouth Sudan Programme MapInstallation of waterpurification unitsConstruction oflatrinesNutritional improvementLife skill training0ngoingEducationVocational trainingConstruction ofboreholesHIV/AIDSawareness raisingManagementof way stationsHygiene education0ngoingAdventist Development andRelief Agency Japan (ADRA)World Vision Japan (WVJ)Area : Upper Nile StateArea : Upper Nile StateBasic health careCompleted0ngoingCARE International Japan (CARE)Upper Nile StateArea : Twic East, Duk, Jonglei StatePeace Winds Japan (PWJ)Area : Jonglei StateCompletedSave the Children Japan (SCJ)Jonglei StateArea : North Kapoeta, Eastern Equatoria State0ngoingAssociation for Aid and Relief,Japan (AAR)Area : Eastern Equatoria StateCompletedHope InternationalDevelopment Agency Japan (HIDA)CentralEquatoria StateArea : Rokon, Central Equatoria StateEastern Equatoria State0ngoingCompletedJapan Emergency NGO (JEN)Japan Center for Conflict Prevention(JCCP)Area : Central Equatoria StateArea : Juba, Central Equatoria StateSouth Sudan Programme TimelineCompletedHumanitarian Aid for Southern SudanPeriodPhase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5Phase /2013Repatriation and reintegrationJointassessmentJointADRA assessmentConsolidation of peaceConsolidation of peaceWater and Sanitation;Basic healthWater and Sanitation;Basic healthWater and Sanitation;Basic healthWater and Sanitation;Basic healthWater and Sanitation;Basic healthWater riation;Basic health;Livelihood;HygieneRepatriation;Basic health;Livelihood;HygieneBasic health;Livelihood;HygieneEducation; Basichealth; Water andSanitationWater andSanitationWater andSanitationWater andSanitationCAREInitialWater andassessment SanitationHIDAProtection;LivelihoodJCCPWater andSanitationJENPWJSouth SudanInitial ResponsePurposeAAR0ngoingJointassessmentWater andSanitationWater andSanitationProtection; Protection;Livelihood LivelihoodWater andSanitationWater andSanitationWater andSanitationWater andSanitationProtection;LivelihoodWater andSanitationWater and Sanitation;Emergency suppliesWater andSanitationWater and Sanitation;Emergency suppliesBasic healthSCJWVJJointassessmentJPFJointassessmentWater andSanitationMonitoringWater and Sanitation;LivelihoodMonitoring;EvaluationWater and Sanitation;Education; ProtectionLiaison/coordination;MonitoringWater and Sanitation;Education; ProtectionLiaison/coordination;Monitoring; EvaluationWater and Sanitation;Education; ProtectionWater ring; on* After the completion of the projects at the end of FY 2007, JPF conducted an assessment to decide whether to continue the programme in FY 2008.* The information is correct as of March 2013.

Summary of AssistanceOverviewMain Outputs(05/05/2006 to 31/03/2012)WaterandSanitationInstallation of water supply facilities 491 facilitiesConstruction of latrines 721 unitsParticipants in hygiene workshop 135,771 personsPersons completing the trainings in the maintenance of watersupply facilities 2,013 personsLivelihood Trainees completing the vocational trainingsAssistance 900 personsEducationConstruction of classrooms 13 classroomsSchool feeding pre-primary children 8,552 mealsHealthParticipants in the nutrition trainings 26,036 personsParticipants in the HIV/AIDS trainings 60,203 personsCARERepatriationReturnees staying in the way stations 7,922 persons※Water supply facilities include boreholes (constructed or renovated), water towers and water purification units.※The number of persons completing the trainings in the maintenance of water supply facility includes those who have acquiredborehole repair skills.※These figures are based on the final project reports for FY 2006 to FY 2011.Historical Trends of Funding by JPF(05/05/2006 to 31/03/2013)( 009FY2010FY2011FY2012JPF※After the completion of the first set of projects at the end of FY 2007, JPF conducted an assesment to decide whether to continue the programme FY 2008.Total Funds(05/05/2006 to 31/03/0213)The Government Grants 3,127,634,510 Private Sector Funds 93,400 Total Funds 3,127,727,910

HumanitarianAssistance forSouth SudanProject by Sector(05/05/2006 to 31/03/2013)1%3%4%Water and Sanitation6%HealthWay Stations6%EducationTotalLivelihood13% 3,127 millionMonitoring67%Needs AssessmentDistribution ofEmergency SuppliesAAR※The distribution of emergencysupplies accounts for 0.14%.JCCPProject Areas by State(05/05/2006 to 31/03/2013)1%2%1%2%0.5%8%Ongoing project siteCompleted project site21%21% 871 million 907 million25%Upper Nile Statee22%97%Jonglei State1%3%3%10% 647 millionCentralEquatoria State1%EasternEquatoria Stateatteate26% 702 million86%70%JENWater and SanitationEducationNeeds AssessmentHealthLivelihoodWay StationsMonitoringDistribution ofEmergency SuppliesAAR

Initial Response to Phase 2The Start ofAssistance'06〜'0JPFQuick Response to Local NeedsIn April 2006, JPF decided to provide humanitarian assistancefor Southern Sudan. 4 NGOs: Association for Aid and Relief,Japan (AAR), Adventist Development and Relief AgencyJapan (ADRA), Peace Winds Japan (PWJ) and World VisionJapan (WVJ) planned to participate in the programme and JPFsent a joint assessment mission in May 2006. The UN HighCommissioner for Refugees and UN World Food Programmejoined the mission in view of future collaboration. The purposesof this mission were1) to identify the need for emergencyhumanitarian assistance in anticipation of a massive flow ofreturnees, 2) to outline the necessary projects and 3) to form amedium to long-term assistance strategy.The field survey of the mission identified 4 points: 1) the fullscale return of refugees and internally displaced persons(IDPs) would start in the dry season which would begin aroundOctober 2006, 2) there was an absolute shortage of basicinfrastructure, 3) the gap between need and assistance wasespecially large in rural areas and 4) the number of NGOscapable of providing assistance was not many.At that time of the joint assessment, the situation in SouthernSudan was extremely difficult and there were almost nobuildings that could be used as an office even in Juba, andthe NGOs struggled in locating their local offices. Accordingto one of the NGO staff at the time, NGO staff had to stayin a tent hotel costing US 100 per night and had to relyon a satellite phone due to the absence of a mobile phonenetwork. Around the rural project sites, the road conditionsand the security situation were bad. The unavailability of anymeans of travel often forced them to rely on the UN vehicles.Due to the increasing number of returnees, quarrels oftenoccurred among people waiting their turn at borehole sitesbecause a large number of people had to share a limitednumber of boreholes. Due to the lack of latrines, both adultsand children left their excrement in any convenient place,fouling everywhere, particularly during the rainy season. Aftercoordination with local governments, UN organizations, otherNGOs and local communities, the 4 NGOs that had conductedthe joint study decided to provide assistance for returneesthrough the management of way stations and provision ofwater supply, sanitation and basic health. In Phase 1 of theHumanitarian Assistance for Southern Sudan (between August2006 and March 2007), these 4 NGOs received total funding ofapproximately 357 million yen. With this funding, they achievedthe construction of way stations, water supply systemsand latrines in communities to which returnees came back,distribution of mosquito nets and training on malaria prevention.In Phase 2 (between April 2007 and May 2008), JapanEmergency NGO (JEN) and Hope International DevelopmentAgency participated in the programme and implemented theirwater and sanitation projects, and the total amount of the fundsfor the 6 NGOs was approximately 413 million yen.In January 2008, JPF dispatched the final monitoring mission toSouthern Sudan and assessed the impacts of the programmeand made recommendations for the next programme. Theactual inflow of refugees and IDPs in 2007 was less than whatwas anticipated. However, the return of more than 2 millionIDPs was expected between 2008 and 2009. Thus, the missionfound huge emergent needs for water supply, etc. The projectsof Japanese NGOs funded by JPF gained a high reputationfrom the interim government of the Southern Sudan and the UNagencies. These organizations then requested JPF to provideassistance for education, medical care, livelihood improvement,etc, in addition to the much more urgently needed constructionof shelters, water supply systems and sanitation facilities.As major donors were going to maintain the emergencyhumanitarian phase until the referendum in 2011, the monitoringmission concluded that JPF should continue its assistance.JPF also found it necessary to prepare a strategy for futureassistance based on the actual local conditions as well as aneed for field coordination and information dissemination. Inaddition, it recognised the importance of understanding thecomplicated social, cultural, and political background of thecountry after the civil war.Returnees travelling with as much luggage as they can carry ADRA

HumanitarianAssistance forSouth SudanOutcomes of AssistanceBenefiting Some Half a Million PeopleThis was the most difficult period for the Japanese NGOsto implement their projects. As it was difficult to procuresupplies within Southern Sudan, the import from Kenya andthe neighbouring countries was essential. The poor roadconditions made delivery of the materials for projects difficult,and implementation of the projects were halted from timeto time due to armed clashes. Despite these challenges, theNGOs gradually succeeded in managing and implementing theirprojects, locating their field offices and recruiting local staff.The projects of the 6 NGOs in Phase 1 and Phase 2 includedthe construction of 79 boreholes, 20 water purification unitsand 137 latrines, benefiting about 490,000 people. In addition,way stations benefitted 7,580 returnees, 8,000 mosquito netswere distributed and 2,800 households received agriculturaltools, seeds, and fishing nets for their livelihood. Besides theseoutcomes, such projects as hygiene workshops at schools andcommunities and training in water management, agricultureand fishery were also implemented in the Upper Nile, Jonglei,Central Equatoria, and Eastern Equatoria States.Delivering project materials to a remote areaRegistration of returnees at a way stationA latrine pit dug by local residents CAREPublic latrines constructed at a primary school PWJ ADRA JPF

Phase 3 to Phase 5ResumingAssistance'09〜'1 SCJMultiple-Year Programme over 3 YearsEven after May 2008, when the projects in Phase 2 of the JPFprogramme ended, Japanese NGOs continued their humanitarianassistance for Southern Sudan another year, finding othersources of funds. However, JPF decided to reconstruct theprogramme of JPF to achieve peace consolidation as thesuper goal, and to gain more comprehensive outcomes oftheir assistance through information exchange among them.JPF decided to implement a multiple-year programme of 3years between April 2009 and 2011, when the referendum onSouth Sudan's secession would take place while reviewing thisprogramme at the end of every fiscal year. Phase 3 started inApril 2009 (until March 2010), followed by Phase 4 (betweenApril 2010 and March 2011) and Phase 5 (between April 2011and March 2012). The programme of these 3 phases wasprimarily funded by the Government of Japan and the totalfunding was 1.8 billion yen.The 8 NGOs that participated in this programme focused onassistance for returnees, water and sanitation, education,livelihood assistance and health. Particular emphasis was placedon strengthening the capacity of communities and the inclusionof socially vulnerable groups. The projects were implemented inUpper Nile, Jonglei, Central Equatoria and Eastern Equatoria.In Phase 3, CARE International Japan started projects on waterand sanitation in Jonglei and the Japan Center for ConflictPrevention also began projects to raise awareness of andprovide vocational training for street-children and the othersin Juba, the capital. In Phase 4, Save the Children Japanembarked on projects regarding basic health for pregnantand lactating women and children in Eastern Equatoria. ADRAshifted its focus from assistance for returnees to awarenessraising of HIV/AIDS and livelihood assistance. WVJ expandedthe scope of its projects by including projects on education andassistance for socially vulnerable groups. The 5 NGOs active inPhase 1 and Phase 2 continued their projects for South Sudanthroughout Phase 3 and Phase 4. The latter was a period whichsaw the maximum participation of Japanese NGOs as 8 NGOsimplemented projects throughout Southern Sudan.Relying on its own network, JPF coordinated the projectsof each NGO to achieve the common objective of theconsolidation of peace, clarifying the purposes of each projectwithin the framework of the programme. JPF sent staff to SouthSudan in every phase for liasoning, coordination, and monitoring.The staff of JPF sent to South Sudan 1) strengthened therelationship among the GOSS and other donors in SouthernSudan, 2) conducted research on the local conditions andtrends in aid, 3) disseminated information to other actorsoutside, 4) conducted monitoring and evaluation of each projectand 5) made suggestions to feed into the following year sprogramme.column 01InterviewMaking assistance visible tolocal peopleRiichi Miyake,Vice-President, Fuji Womenʼs UniversityI visited Southern Sudan in theautumn of 2010. Despite the severedevastation throughout the countrydue to the long civil war, peopleseemed full of hope before theforthcoming independence in 2011.However, as actual nation-buildingis accompanied by a number ofchallenges, the validit y of allprocesses of nation-building shouldnow be examined two years sinceindependence. Villagers themselvesneed to sustain their lives andensure that they have sufficient water, food and shelter. In thisregard, they need the support of the international community and wewould need to take enough time to satisfy their needs.NGOs are able to take subtle action and are able to convey peopleʼsgood-will directly to local people. During my stay in South Sudan, Iwas encouraged by the dedicated work of many Japanese staffbased on their conversation with local people.More than anything, visibility of assistance to local people is muchneeded.

HumanitarianAssistance forSouth SudanAchievements of theProgrammeReaching 600,000 peopleSouthern Sudan in 2009 when the multiple-year programmebegan, seemed to be in a transition from the stage ofemergency humanitarian assistance to that of development.However, the security level was quite low before the generalelection in April 2010, which generated about 300,000 IDPs,returning international assistance efforts to the emergencyhumanitarian assistance stage. Assistance for reconstructionby the government in rural areas was interrupted except forparticular areas. Also, the process to improve the infrastructureto receive returnees encountered many difficulties.The programme of JPFachieved the concreteobjectives of theinternational communityChildren washing their hands using the waterin all sectors. As JPFtank provided by a project. PWJmember NGOs have been working in areas where otherinternational NGOs have rarely worked, they have establisheda good reputation among the state and county governments ofSouthern Sudan and UN organizations.To improve the situation, JPF assisted about 600,000 peoplethrough various projects between FY 2009 and FY 2011. Thebeneficiaries included 1) more than 230,000 people who gotaccess to clean water, 2) more than 45,000 people who gotaccess to latrines, 3) more than 120,000 people who receivedhealth training and 4) more than 8,000 returnees who passedthrough way stations. The achievements of the projects in thewater and sanitation area, which accounted for 70% of theprogramme budget, contributed to reducing conflicts betweenlocal people over the access to water.Explaining the importance of maintaining boreholes using pictures to local people. AARcolumn 02SymposiumSymposiums to deepen an understanding of South SudanJPF regularly organizes symposiums in Japan with the aim of gaining adeep understanding of South Sudan and of increasing the support forNGO s humanitarian assistance.In December 2010, just before the referendum, JPF and Osaka UniversityʼsGlobal Collaboration Center (GLOCOL) organized a symposium in Tokyo:Southern Sudan Decides on Independence: Prospective Results of theReferendum and Potential for Humanitarian Aid, in which about 100people participated. Eisei Kurimoto, Director of GLOCOL (at the time) andprofessor of the Osaka University s Graduate School of Human Sciencesdelivered the keynote speech: Sudan After the Comprehensive PeaceAgreement and Referendum. Then, reports on NGO s humanitarianassistance and a panel discussion on the prospective of the referendumand potential of humanitarian assistance followed. The symposiumprovided a forum for analysis of the issues during the 6 years of transitionafter the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), summarizing theoutcomes of assistance and discussing the prospects.In July 2011 right after the secession of South Sudan, another JPFsymposium was organized entitled South Sudan has gained secession:What contribution can the international community make? co-organizedby GLOCOL in which 100 people participated. Following 6 presentationsby researchers, NGOs and JICA staff, Naoaki Omiya, a film director,showed a film based on interviews in South Sudan. How the internationalcommunity should support nation building led by local people was thendiscussed.In February 2013, the symposium: Consolidation of Peace andSustainable Development in South Sudan was organized at the Universityof Tokyo s Komaba Campus co-organized by JPF, the United NationsDevelopment Programme(UNDP), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and theUniversity of Tokyo's Graduate Programme on Human Security. More than100 people participated in this symposium. Toby Lanzer (AssistantSecretary-General, the Secretary-General's Deputy Special Representativeof the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), UN ResidentDevelopment Coordinator, Humanitarian Coordinator and ResidentRepresentative of the UNDP) delivered a keynote speech. A paneldiscussion followed to discuss the Japanese efforts for South Sudan andcollaboration with other donors. Through organizing these kinds ofsymposiums, JPF shares and disseminates information on South Sudan. JPF JPF

Projects by NGOsAssociation for Aid and Relief, Japan (AAR)Human resources developmentunderpinning people's healthAssociation for Aid and Relief, Japan has been active inEastern Equatoria State which has accepted more than 50,000returnees since the end of the civil war. The main focus hasbeen on water provision and sanitation to ensure healthy andstable living conditions for the public.Before the involvement of AAR, only one-third of local peoplehad access to clean water and diseases caused by unsanitarywater were rampant. AAR started with the construction ofwater supply facilities. Following a needs survey with localpeople and a water quality survey, 41 boreholes and 4 watertowers were constructed in 3 years from 2009. Workshops areheld to teach local people how to operate the faucet andhand-pump for their proper maintenance. The importance ofregular cleaning is also stressed. More technical trainingsessions involve lectures on the borehole mechanism andfunctions of various parts and actual repair work. With theinvolvement of local people, 158 boreholes have so far beenrepaired, benefiting more than 100,000 people.In addition to the work of securing access to clean water, AARis active in extending proper knowledge of sanitation to createa hygienic environment. Workshops targeting people who livein the vicinity of new boreholes are held to educate them onsanitation so that they develop hygienic habits. The participantsWorkshop to make local people realize importance of borehole maintenance. AARpractice using clean containers and regular hand washing andspread these habits to other residents. The health educationof AAR at local primary schools has led to the organization ofhealth clubs by the pupils, contributing to an overallimprovement of personal hygiene.Since 2010, AAR has been providing assistance for theoperation of a clinic and the development of skills by means ofsupplying medical equipment and materials and providingguidance on diagnostic and prescribing techniques for localmedical staff with a view to improving the state’s health service.The clinic is now capable of diagnosing an average of some200 people a month and of prescribing appropriate medication,illustrating the steady development of human resources tocarry the local health service forward.Adventist Development andRelief Agency Japan (ADRA)Support for the reintegration and self-reliance ofreturnees and host communitiesAdventist Development and Relief Agency Japan has started itsoperation of Way Station in Nasir and Pagak, the remote villagesfrom the capital of Upper Nile State, through which returnees fromEthiopia received the basic utensils for setting up their lives at theirfinal destinations in South Sudan. ADRA has also supportedreturnees for their resettlement and self-reliance, their harmonizationwith host communities, and the improvement of basic infrastructureat those locations, which have limited access to basic publicservices due to the remoteness from the capital of Upper NileState. At those Way Station facilities, ADRA has also been providingreturnees with opportunities to receive vocational training sessionsand the awareness sessions on HIV/AIDS and Hygiene/Sanitation.Agriculture training is one support measure to facilitate theresettlement of returnees participants from the local communitylearning agriculture skills and knowledge at a demonstration farm,such as how to prepare farming fields, how to grow seedlings withappropriate watering, and how to transplant those vegetableseedlings. Such supports have provided the opportunities to localcommunities to increase their income by selling harvests and toimprove the nutritious status of their families by having wellbalanced meals. Moreover, vocational training on tailoring andfood processing was also conducted for the improvement oflivelihood, which provided the lessons not only dress-making andmaking cakes but also a basic math and cost/profit calculation.After the trainings, many ofthe participants made useof their skills at their ownpersonallevelforgenerating income fromthe sales of their products.Children eating a served lunch. ADRAWith regard to the issue ofchild malnutrition in Pagak, ADRA has provided the school feedingto 4 pre-primary schools. With this support, infants haveopportunities to eat a reasonable amount of food at least once aday. In addition, as many as 10 water tanks for washing hands atpre-primary schools, primary schools and clinics have beenrepaired even though this was not originally planned.Furthermore, in order to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS amongreturnees and host communities, awareness sessions on voluntarycounseling and testing for HIV/AIDS have helped people toincrease their level of basic knowledge. Since an unhygienicenvironment is one of the causes of spreading the infectiousdiseases, dumping sites and public latrines have also beenconstructed and a community-wide clean-up campaign waslaunched. These activities have helped local people to improvetheir awareness of the importance of sanitary environment.

HumanitarianAssistance forSouth SudanCARE International Japan (CARE)Access to clean water andsanitary facilitiesCARE International Japan prioritises the construction ofboreholes and latrines together with the provision of hygieneeducation and has provided assistance for people in Twic EastCounty of Jonglei State in South Sudan so that local peoplecan live healthy lives with proper knowledge of sanitation.Many people in this county do not have access to clean waterand are forced to rely on unhygienic water sources. In Phase 3of the project, 4 new boreholes were constructed and 4existing boreholes were rehabilitated. In Phase 4, 8 newboreholes were constructed. The formation of watermanagement committees and the provision of technicaltraining on maintenance led to the establishment of a selfreliant system for the continued use of the boreholes. ByPhase 5, the newly formed water management committeeshad begun to properly function in that the collection of a usercharge from the community members started. Local peoplenow contribute to the borehole maintenance cost for theerection of fencing to prevent the intrusion of animals to thesites of boreholes.The use of latrines in this county is not yet common and evenschools and other public facilities have few latrines. To improvethe situation, 55 latrines were constructed at local primaryschools in Phase 3, followed by 36 latrines in Phase 4 and 16latrines in Phase 5.The priority wasgiven to thoseprimary schools ina particularly poorsituation so that allprimary schools inthe area have somelatrines facilities. As Hygiene education for women. CAREpart of this activity, efforts were made to involve local people in theconstruction and maintenance of the latrines to create acommunity-based maintenance system of the newly constructedschool latrines in order to ensure their continual use.To improve local knowledge of hygiene, volunte

Programme for Southern Sudan (Phase 1 through Phase 5) in August 2006 when the interim administration for 6 years by the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) began after Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005. Since April 2012, the programme was renamed the South Sudan Humanit

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