Design And Implementation Of Blockchain Based Central

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Design and Implementation of BlockchainBased Central Bank Digital Currency- Master Thesis Defense -Sajan MaharjanSupervisor: Prof. James Won-Ki HongDept. of CSE, DPNM Lab., POSTECH, 06. 301/31

Table ofContents Introduction Background & Related Work Requirements & Design Implementation Evaluation Conclusion2/31


Introduction Rise of Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies Gradual increase in the price of Bitcoin, Ethereum and other cryptocurrencies Increasing number of transactions using cryptocurrencies Concern of banks & governments over regulation & valuation of n-transactions

Introduction Inherent Problems of Fiat Cash Expensive to produce and circulate Bank of Korea reports it costs 20KRW to produce coins worth 10KRW[1] 20M KRW worth of bills is subject to damage and 60B KRW is invested in re-issuance annually[1] The US Federal Reserve spends 827M for printing bills and engraving coins[2] Difficulty in Cash Movement Lack of Transparency Storage and Safety Requirements Domination of private PSPs and e-money[1][2] ency.pdf5/31

Introduction Motivation Banks and governments desire control and authority over the payments market Maintain monetary sovereignty & discourage use of non-regulated cryptocurrencies Curb and limit illegal activities on cryptocurrencies Devise an effective alternative to fiat cash Research Goals Study and explore different CBDC initiatives taken by banks around the world Design and implement effective blockchain based CBDC models Compare different blockchain platforms for CBDC implementation6/31

Background & Related Work7/31

Background Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) Digital currency issued by a central bank Money flower[3] visually depicts major forms of money and defines CBDC Central bank issued electronic form of money Peer-to-peer transfer Accessibility Classification of CBDC Retail vs Wholesale CBDCDirect vs Indirect CBDC vs Hybrid CBDCCross-border CBDC vs Domestic CBDCAccount-based CBDC vs Token-based CBDC CBDC Design Considerations Geographical, Political & Technological factors Availability; Custody; Transaction Limits; Anonymity[3] qt1709.pdf8/31

Background Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) Retail vs Wholesale CBDCFeaturesRetail CBDCWholesale CBDCAccessibilityGeneral PublicBanks and Financial InstitutionsUse CaseDaily paymentsInterbank settlementsValue of transactionsSmallLarge Direct CBDC vs Indirect CBDC vs Hybrid CBDCFeaturesDirect CBDCIndirect CBDC Hybrid CBDCPresence of intermediaryNoYesYesClaim on Central BankYesNoYesDivision of ResponsibilitiesNoYesYesDeferred SettlementsNoYesYes9/31

Related Work Discussion Papers Central Bank Digital Currencies by Bank for International Settlement The Rise of Digital Money by International Monetary Fund Hybrid CBDC Central Bank Digital Currency Policy Maker Toolkit by World Economic Forum Technical Papers Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies RSCoin Central authority mints digital currency and verified entities (commercial banks) validates transactions Use of sharding Overcomes the issues with Bitcoin PRCash: Fast, Private and Regulated Transactions for Digital Currencies Extension of RSCoin Use of Homomorphic Encryption and Zero-Knowledge Proofs to hide transaction details Focuses on user anonymity and privacy10/31

Related Work Banking Initiatives Project Jasper by Bank of CanadaProject Ubin by Monetary Authority of SingaporeProject Khokha by South African Reserve BankProject Bakong by National Bank of Cambodia Industrial Initiatives Digital Fiat Currency by VISA Patent registered at USPTO Replace existing fiat currency for digital cash Incorporates private transaction processing networks, central banks, commercial banks & end-users Libra by Libra Association Promote financial inclusion Provide a global, open, instant and low-cost payments network Permissioned network with strong regulations and compliance11/31

Main Contribution Blockchain-based Retail CBDC Implementation Most initiatives taken by central banks have been focused at wholesale level Prototype implementation for CBDC offering at retail level Proposed indirect model mimics general banking environment Offering of banking services via smart contracts executed on top of blockchain Mapping of real-world user identities with account addresses Regulation over services (blacklisting and whitelisting) Comparison between popular blockchain platforms for CBDC Direct Model has been implemented using Hyperledger Iroha Indirect Model has been implemented using Quorum12/31

Requirements & Design13/31

Requirements General Non-Functional Requirements of a CBDC System Payment system should be simple and easy to useNear-immediate transaction finalityHigh-availabilityAPI access to third-party applicationsStable, non-volatile digital currency pegged at a specific rate to fiat cash Functional & Non-Functional Requirements Central Banks Initialize or setup blockchainIssue digital currencyCreate wallet addresses for commercial banks (in indirect model) and for users (in direct model)Distribute digital currency to commercial banks (in indirect model) and to users (in direct model)View transactionsBurn digital currency when requiredDeploy multiple nodes if needed14/31

Requirements Functional & Non-Functional Requirements Commercial Banks and Intermediaries Create wallet addresses for usersDistribute digital currency to usersView transactionsOffer additional financial services on top of CBDC platformMaintain a local node of the blockchain End-Users Access individual wallet to view transactions and balanceConduct P2P transfersBurn digital currency owned by itEnsure the safety of private keys of corresponding wallet addressesProvide necessary information or documents to banks15/31

Design Design of Direct CBDC ModelFig. Proposed design for blockchain-based direct CBDC model16/31

Design Design of Direct CBDC ModelFig. Sequence diagram depicting process flow in the proposed direct CBDC model17/31

Design Design of Indirect CBDC ModelFig. Proposed design for blockchain-based indirect CBDC modelFig. Offering of financial services via smart contracts18/31

Design Design of Indirect CBDC ModelFig. Sequence diagram depicting process flow in the proposed indirect CBDC model19/31


Implementation Implementation of Direct CBDC Model Use of Hyperledger Iroha blockchain platform Permissioned blockchain environment Use Cases: digital asset and identities management, payment systems, logistics, etc. Built-in commands and queries. e.g., create asset, create user, create role, view asset, etc. Custom definition of roles are attached to usersFig. Custom defined set of roles created for end-user and central bank administrator21/31

Implementation Implementation of Direct CBDC ModelFig. Implementation details of direct CBDC model using Hyperledger Iroha22/31

Implementation Implementation of Indirect CBDC Model Use of Quorum Blockchain Platform Permissioned blockchain network Support for “private” transactions Smart contract execution functionality Deployed a token smart contract containing additional financial services e.g., depositservice, mapping of address to real-world identity, controllable actions, etc.Fig. Smart contract code snippet for deposit object, account address mapping and control of token transfers23/31

Implementation Implementation of Indirect CBDC Model Deposit service implemented using smart contractFig. Algorithm for implementing deposit service between commercial bank and end-user using CBDC token24/31

Implementation Implementation of Indirect CBDC ModelFig. Implementation details of indirect CBDC model using Quorum blockchain25/31


Evaluation Quorum and Hyperledger Iroha Use Cases Project Ubin (Retail CBDC) Project Khokha (Wholesale CBDC) Project Bakong (Wholesale CBDC) Quorum vs Hyperledger IrohaFeaturesHyperledger IrohaQuorumConsensus MechanismYACI-BFT and RAFTSupport for Private TransactionsNoYesSmart Contract ExecutionNoYesBuilt-In Commands and QueriesYesNoNative CryptocurrencyNoYes (Ether)Decimal Precision SupportYesNoMetamask CompatibilityNoYes27/31

Evaluation Pros Retail CBDC implementation that fits well with current banking environmentOffering of financial services by commercial banksMapping of account addresses to real-world identities control of actionsNo use of external datastore Cons Not absolutely relevant to any central bank initiative“BOKCoin” bears no relation with Bank of Korea CBDC initiativeImprovements in UI possibleThroughput analysis not performed28/31


Conclusion Summary Explained the concepts of CBDC Designed and implemented blockchain-based retail CBDC models Direct model implemented using Hyperledger Iroha blockchain Indirect model implemented using Quorum blockchain Offering of financial services via smart contracts on top of CBDC platform Future Work Mobile application development to encourage ubiquitous useScalability measureUse of enhanced “privacy” features of Quorum to hide transaction detailsTesting against known smart contract vulnerabilities30/31


Appendix User Interfaces for Direct CBDC implementationFig. Private public key-pair generated for an end-userFig. User account sign-up requires central bank authorizationFig. Newly created user has no initial balance32/31

Appendix User Interfaces for Direct CBDC implementationFig. Update in balance after transaction executionFig. P2P Transfer between two users in the systemFig. List of transactions corresponding to a userFig. Transaction data stored in blockchain in JSON format33/31

Appendix User Interfaces for Indirect CBDC implementationFig. Example list of registered accountsFig. Landing page showing central bank’s account balance34/31

Appendix User Interfaces for Indirect CBDC implementationFig. Initial List of DepositsFig. Offering of deposit by a commercial bank35/31

Appendix User Interfaces for Indirect CBDC implementationFig. Interested user making a deposit to the available depositFig. Deposit offered by bank is added to the list of deposits36/31

Appendix User Interfaces for Indirect CBDC implementationFig. Deposit object’s information is updated on making depositFig. Withdrawl of user’s deposit with interest on maturity37/31

Appendix User Interfaces for Indirect CBDC implementationFig. Change in user’s balance and deposit object’s flag updated38/31

Explained the concepts of CBDC Designed and implemented blockchain-based retail CBDC models Direct model implemented using Hyperledger Iroha blockchain Indirect model implemented using Quorum blockchain Offering of finan

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