11m ago
1.12 MB
39 Pages
Last View : 1m ago
Last Download : 8d ago
Upload by : Jamie Paz

DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGES CONFRONTINGRURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ILLINOIS(30TH ANNIVERSARY REPORT)Annual Report to the GovernorAnd General AssemblyPrepared byIllinois Institute for Rural AffairsWestern Illinois UniversityIn consultation withLt. Juliana Stratton, ChairpersonGovernor’s Rural Affairs CouncilAugust 1, 2019

MEMBERS OF THE GOVERNOR’S RURAL AFFAIRS COUNCILMember Agencies and Associations of theGovernor’s Rural Affairs CouncilOffice of the Lt. GovernorIllinois Agricultural Association / Illinois Farm BureauIllinois Community College BoardIllinois Department of AgricultureIllinois Department of Commerce and Economic OpportunityIllinois Department of Employment SecurityIllinois Department of Human ServicesIllinois Department of Natural ResourcesIllinois Department of Public HealthIllinois Department of TransportationIllinois Department on AgingIllinois Environmental Protection AgencyIllinois Finance AuthorityIllinois Housing Development AuthorityIllinois Institute for Rural Affairs, Western Illinois UniversityIllinois State Board of EducationRural PartnersSouthern Illinois University, Center for Rural Health and Social Service DevelopmentUniversity of Illinois – Cooperative ExtensionCitizen MembersHeather Hampton-KnodleDoug HankesTodd KaebSonja ReeceLarry RichardsEx-Officio MembersDouglas Wilson / Molly Hammond, USDA—Rural Development (Illinois)Norman Walzer, Northern Illinois University, Center for Governmental Studiesi

PURPOSE OF THE GOVERNOR’S RURAL AFFAIRS COUNCILThe purpose of the Governor’s Rural Affairs Council is to develop and implementcoordinated strategies to improve the way government services are delivered to theresidents of rural Illinois. The end goal is to expand opportunities and enhance thequality of life for rural residents. The Lieutenant Governor, as Chairperson of theGovernor’s Rural Affairs Council, and the Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs at WesternIllinois University, shall continue to issue an Annual Report in accordance withExecutive Order 4 of May 18, 2011, and Executive Order 13 of October 11, 1991.Copies of these Executive Orders are located in the Appendices.ii

TABLE OF CONTENTSPageMembers of the Governor’s Rural Affairs CounciliPurpose of the Governor’s Rural Affairs CounciliiTable of ContentsiiiList of FiguresivList of TablesvAcronymsviExecutive SummaryviiPart I. Overview of the Governor’s Rural Affairs Council1.1 Introduction and Report Overview1.2 Origins and Composition of the Governor’s Rural Affairs Council111Part II. Snapshot of Rural versus Urban Demographic, Economic, and Social Conditions2.1 Defining Rural Illinois2.2 Demographic Trends in Rural versus Urban Illinois2.3 Workforce and Economic Development Trends in Rural versus Urban Illinois2.4 Other Trending Issues affecting Rural Illinois2.4.1 Opioid Misuse Crisis in Rural Illinois2.4.2 Spring 2019 Flooding22213212122Part III. Conclusions23References24Appendix A: Governor’s Executive Order 13 (1991)28Appendix B: Governor’s Executive Order 11-04 (2011)29iii

LIST OF FIGURESPageFigure 1. Nonmetropolitan Counties in Illinois3Figure 2. Year of Peak Population for Illinois Counties4Figure 3. Illinois Farms and Average Farm Size, 1950 to 20175Figure 4. Population Change by County in Illinois, 2010 to 20188Figure 5. Population Change by County in Illinois, 2017 to 20189Figure 6. Index of Metro versus Non-Metro Population Growth, 2000 to 201710Figure 7. Population Growth Index by Age Cohorts, 2000 to 201811Figure 8. Metro versus Non-metro Population Growth Index of PopulationLess than 20 years of Age12Figure 9. Workforce Index for Metro versus Non-Metro Counties, 2000 to 201813Figure 10. Average Wage in Metro versus Non-Metro Counties, 2000 to 201717Figure 11. Poverty Rate in Illinois by County, 201718Figure 12. Illinois Unemployment Rate by County, 201819Figure 13. Illinois Unemployment Rate in Metro versus Non-Metro Counties, 2000 to 201820iv

LIST OF TABLESPageTable 1. Illinois Farms and Average Farm Size, 1950 to 20176Table 2. Farms by Farm Size and by Sales, as Percent of Total Farms, 2002 to 20177Table 3. Metro versus Non-Metro Employment by Sector in Illinois, 2017v16

IRAIOCRACIPUMSLAUSNHGISOMBSIUCSIWDBUSDAWIUBureau of Economic AnalysisCongressional Research ServiceCarl Sandburg Community CollegeDepartment of Commerce and Community AffairsDepartment of Commerce and Economic OpportunityEastern Illinois UniversityGovernor’s Rural Affairs CouncilIllinois Board of Higher EducationIllinois Department of AgricultureIllinois Department of Public HealthIllinois Emergency Management AgencyIllinois Institute for Rural AffairsIllinois Opioid Crisis Response Advisory CouncilIntegrated Public Use Microdata SeriesLocal Area Unemployment StatisticsNational Historic Geographical Information SystemOffice of Management and BudgetSouthern Illinois University—CarbondaleSouthern Illinois Workforce Development BoardUnited States Department of AgricultureWestern Illinois Universityvi

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYA Governor’s Executive Order requires that the Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs (IIRA) atWestern Illinois University (WIU) submit a report each year to the Illinois General Assemblydocumenting the economic and social conditions affecting rural Illinois. The IIRA does this incollaboration with the Governor’s Rural Affairs Council (GRAC), chaired by the LieutenantGovernor. The 2019 report focuses on rural economic and demographic data, which shows thatrural communities are losing population and falling behind urban communities with respect towages, job growth, workforce development, and poverty. Local and state solutions to theserural development challenges do exist. These will require new or expanded investments inhigher education, youth entrepreneurship, micro-lending to support non-traditionalentrepreneurship, among other strategies.New challenges and opportunities also affect rural Illinois. The ongoing opioid misuse epidemiccauses community health, criminal justice, and economic development challenges in both ruraland urban communities. Many state agencies and health care professionals are collaborating toaddress this issue. Heavy precipitation during the winter and spring of 2019 caused extensiveflooding in farm fields and along the Illinois and Mississippi River. This flooding hamperedspring planting, thus potentially hurting farm income for 2019. In addition, the flooding causedextensive infrastructural damage to roads, bridges, buildings, and levees. Many state andfederal agencies collaborated to manage and then recover from the flooding. The long termdamage caused by the flooding is yet to be determined.Looking forward, rural Illinois has to confront many challenges including continuingdemographic decline and disaster recovery. However there is reason for optimism. With a newadministration there may also be opportunities for the GRAC to pursue new policies to provideservices to populations neglected by previous administrations.vii

PART I. OVERVIEW OF THE GOVERNOR’S RURAL AFFAIRS COUNCIL1.1 Introduction and Report OverviewEach year, the Governor’s Rural Affairs Council (GRAC), in collaboration with the Illinois Institutefor Rural Affairs (IIRA) at Western Illinois University (WIU), examines the long-term trends andcurrent socioeconomic conditions in rural Illinois. The GRAC and IIRA summarize these findingsin the form of a report, which is then submitted to the Illinois General Assembly for theirconsideration. The intent of this report is to keep public and legislative focus on ruraldevelopment issues in Illinois, a state dominated by Chicago and other urban areas.In order to accomplish this goal, this report unfolds in three sections. The remainder of sectionone summarizes the rationale for the GRAC and the need for this report. Part two provides anoverview of the economic and demographic trends and current conditions. Rural versus urbancomparisons are made on an array of topics including population change, unemployment rates,wage growth, poverty, and workforce development. The third and final section provides someconcluding thoughts. It also offers some suggestions for new policy directions the GRAC and itsconstituent members might focus on to improve the quality of life in rural areas.1.2 Origins and Composition of the Governor’s Rural Affairs CouncilThe state of Illinois established the Governor’s Rural Affairs Council (GRAC) in 1989. This wasthe culmination of a statewide effort to address the hardships confronted during the FarmCrisis of the 1980s (Walzer and Merrett 2014). Rural stakeholders realized that the Farm Crisiswas a misnomer. The crisis not only affected farmers, it also affected a broader rural economy,comprised of both farmers, and rural non-farm communities. Federal agencies such as theUnited States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Illinois Department of Agriculture(IDOA) had policies to address farm issues. Illinois had a state department of economicdevelopment called the Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA). However, itdid not have an overt rural development focus. Consequently, elected officials recognized thatrural non-farm communities fell into a service gap. The state filled this gap by creating theGRAC as a forum for multiple agencies to regularly convene to address rural developmentissues. The GRAC represented a new rural development paradigm because it brought multiplestate agencies, federal agencies, institutions of higher education, and nonprofit organizationstogether in one place to address rural issues in a holistic and comprehensive manner.Lt. Governor Juliana Stratton currently chairs the GRAC on behalf of Governor Pritzker. Threetypes of representatives serve on the GRAC. The eighteen core members include thirteen stateagencies, three institutions of higher education, and two nonprofit organizations. There are fivecitizen participants. Finally, two ex officio members represent an additional institution of highereducation and the USDA. A Governor’s Executive order promulgated in 1991, and reissued in2011, stipulates that each year, the IIRA will collaborate with the GRAC to submit a reportdocumenting conditions in Illinois. The current GRAC annual report fulfills this requirement.1

PART II. SNAPSHOT OF RURAL VERSUS URBAN DEMOGRAPHIC, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS2.1 Defining Rural IllinoisBefore this report can summarize rural conditions in Illinois, we must define what is meant by“rural.” Experts agree that there is no single definition that applies to every situation. Forexample, different federal agencies use varying definitions depending on the types of servicesbeing delivered or policies being implemented. Varying definitions occur because of thevariegated American landscape. What appears to be rural in New England looks different from arural landscape in the Great Plains or Rocky Mountains. One USDA report admits thatpolicymakers, researchers, and politicians define “rural” in a “dizzying” number of ways(Cromartie and Bucholtz 2008, 1).While there may be significant differences between agencies, the federal Office ofManagement and Budget (OMB) and the US Census Bureau offer a definition that is commonlyused in demographic reports such as this. In 2003, the OMB defined rural or non-metropolitancounties as those outside Metropolitan Statistical Areas (i.e., counties containing cities or corepopulation centers with populations of 50,000 or more people).In 1991, 76 of the 102 Illinois counties were defined as rural or nonmetropolitan using thisdefinition. Since that time, Illinois has become increasingly urban and hence, by 2003, thenumber of rural counties in Illinois dropped to 66 (Fig. 1). After the 2010 census, the number ofrural counties in Illinois dropped further to 63 (Reinhold 2015). This report continues to use the2003 definition so that comparisons can be made across different time periods.2.2 Demographic Trends in Rural versus Urban IllinoisAccording to the 2010 Census, Illinois had 12,830,632 residents. Of this total, 1,477,079 or11.5% lived in rural counties. The fact that just over a tenth of Illinois residents live in ruralcounties might suggest that the rural Illinois populace is inconsequential. However, it is worthnoting that more people live in rural Illinois than the total population of other states such asAlaska (710,231), North Dakota (672,591), and Maine (1,328,361)(US Census 2010).While the non-metro population is large, it is declining compared to previous census years. The2000 Census counted 1,509,773 or 12.1% of Illinoisans living in non-metro counties. Between2000 and 2010, Illinois lost 2.2% of its rural population.However, this recent rural demographic decline merely represents an overall long term trend ofpopulation decline in rural Illinois. Many rural counties in Illinois experienced their peakpopulation decades ago. Thirty-three, or almost a third of Illinois’ 102 counties reached theirpeak populations over a century ago (Fig. 2). It is this kind of population decline that promptsthe New York Times to declare that, “small-town American is dying” (Harris and Tarchack 2018).2

Figure 1. Nonmetropolitan Counties in IllinoisSource: US Census Bureau (2016).3

Figure 2. Year of Peak Population for Illinois CountiesSource: National Historic Geographic Information System (2019).4

Agricultural mechanization drove this depopulation in the first half of the 20 th century. Asfarmers invested in new tractors and combines, each farm required less manual labor andfewer people. Furthermore, rising farm productivity, narrowing profit margins, and the overallcost of this technology prompted farmers to increase their farm size over which to amortize thecosts of farm operations. The simple outcome was fewer farmers and larger farms (Fig. 3).Two other farm trends lay within this overall 20th century trend of decreasing farm numbersand increasing farm size. First, the rate of farm number decline varied according to differentfactors, including access to foreign markets and domestic economic policy. During the 1970s,American diplomatic overtures opened Russia up to American farm commodities. In order tospur American farmers to increase productivity, US Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz, exhortedfarmers to “get big or get out” (Welte 2018). In order to heed this call, many farmers borrowedheavily to purchase more farmland and invest in new farm implements.Agricultural productivity increased as farmers ramped up grain production to satisfy demand inexport markets. Farm expansion in the 1970s came to a halt in the 1980s, due to domestic USmonetary policy. During the late 1970s, the US economy experienced stagflation, thecombination of rising unemployment rates coupled with increasing inflation. Economic advisorsto President Carter prescribed increased interest rates to halt inflationary pressures on theeconomy. This policy continued under President Reagan.Figure 3. Illinois Farms and Average Farm Size, 1950 to 50,000500019501960197019801990Number of Farms199720022007Average Farm Size (Acres)Source: Illinois Department of Agriculture (2017) and USDA (2012).520122017AcresNumber of Farms300

Increased interest rates successfully tamped down inflation, but they devastated farmers whohad borrowed heavily in the 1970s to increase production. Thus the Farm Crisis of the 1980swas really the collateral damage caused by the Federal Reserve as it increased interest rates.Farmers secured variable rate loans with interest rates at 6% to 8%. Ten years later in the mid1980s, the prime interest rate peaked at almost 19%. Farmers saw their interest paymentsdouble (Barnett 2000). In the face of rising interest rates, many farmers declared bankruptcy.Table 1 below shows that the number farms decreased more quickly during the Farm Crisis thanduring any period of the last seven decades.The drive to increase farm size in the 1970s and the Farm Crisis of the 1980s also created anincreasingly bimodal distribution of farm sizes. Table 2 shows recent evidence of this trend.There is an increasing proportion of total farms smaller than 100 acres in size (Table 2). There isalso an increasing proportion of farms 2,000 acres and larger. In contrast, farms in the middleare shrinking as a proportion of all farms. This suggests that family farms are affected mostnegatively by recent trends in farming.These trends also explain why it is important that off-farm employment opportunities exist forfarm families. Many farmers are earning lower farm profits and rely increasingly on jobs off thefarm. These off-farm jobs provide health insurance, retirement benefits, and income when farmprofits are low. It is just this reason that the state established the GRAC and IIRA, which is tohelp foster off-farm rural economic and community development.A healthy rural economy requires not just a robust farm economy, it also requires a diverse andgrowing non-farm economy. There is a synergistic relationship between the farm economy andthe rural non-farm economy that is often overlooked by policymakers in Springfield andWashington, DC.Table 1. Illinois Farm Number Decline and Average Farm Growth, 1950 to mber of 076,00075,00072,200Percent Decline--21.7-19.5-16.4-22.4-08.4-03.9 04.1-01.3-03.7Average Farm Size (Acres)156193230269342368374348359358Source: Illinois Department of Agriculture (2017) and USDA (2012).6

In Illinois, rural economies that rely predominantly on agriculture production experienced peakpopulation a century or more ago (Fig. 2). Consider Hancock County located in west-centralIllinois, whose population peaked in 1870. It is heavily reliant on agriculture, with not mucheconomic diversity.In contrast, the population of McDonough County, located to the east of Hancock County,peaked in 1980. This more recent peak occurred because of significant manufacturing (e.g. PellaWindows) and public sector (e.g. Western Illinois University) investment, which helps todiversify and stabilize the economy. A similar situation occurs to the south of Hancock County.Adams County, with Quincy as its county seat, has a strong manufacturing base supported by arobust regional health care sector, and even a small liberal arts college. The comparativedemographic resilience displayed by Adams and McDonough explains why rural developmentpolicies need to focus on economic diversification as a key component. It is not enough to justfocus on agriculture if we want demographically sustainable rural communities in Illinois.Table 2. Farms by Farm Size and by Sales, as Percent of Total Farms, 2002 to 2017Farms by size (% of total farms)1 to 99 acres100 to 499 acres500 to 999 acres1000 to 1,999 acres2000 or more acresFarms by sales, current dollars (% of total farms)Less than 9,999 10,000 to 49,999 50,000 to 99,999 100,000 to 499,999More than 8.810.37.13.7201744.714.814.819.812.8Source: Parker (2019).This section has focused on long term demographic decline. Notable changes occurred withinthe last two decades, too. First, maps show that a few places experienced accelerated declinesince 2010. For example, downstate counties that host public institutions of higher educationhave all experienced population decline (Fig. 4). Example here include Jackson County, home toSouthern Illinois University-Carbondale (SIUC), Coles County, home to Eastern Illinois University(EIU), and McDonough County, home to WIU. The resident student population of theseuniversities are included in their respective host county census counts. Each of theseuniversities experienced recent enrollment declines. This decline is reflected in the overallcounty population decline. The recent state budget impasse made things worse. During theimpasse, public universities did not receive their regular monetary support from the state. Notsurprisingly, student enrollments declined and so did the host county populations (Fig. 5).7

Figure 4. Population Change by County in Illinois, 2010 to 20188

Figure 5. Population Change by County in Illinois, 2017 to 20189

The following series of three figures reveal demographic trends with significant economicdevelopment implications for Illinois in general, and for rural Illinois in particular. These threefigures provide population growth indices using the year 2000 as a base year. Each of thefollowing three figures reveals deeper demographic trends based on geography, age cohortdifferences, and then a combination of geography and age cohorts.The first index compares population growth trends in rural versus urban counties (Fig. 6). Inessence, this index merely documents in a different form the long-term rural population declinediscussed earlier in the report. It shows that there are diverging rural versus urban growthrates. This has important governmental management implications because with fewer andfewer people living in rural areas, questions arise about where tax revenues will come from topay for transportation, education, and other social services.Some researchers have suggested that unless rural counties get serious about reversingpopulation decline, they should consider embracing the concept of “shrinking smart.” Insteadof trying to prop up existing government and social infrastructure with a declining populationand tax base, rural governmental entities should consider ways to collaborate, merge, orconsolidate to reduce the per capita taxpayer burden (Walzer and Chockalingam 2016). Thereis, of course, some resistance to this idea, but many communities have already been forced toreduce the services they offer, and have had to do so in an ad hoc manner. It might help somecommunities to plan for decline. This offers a better strategy for maintaining the quality of lifedespite population loss in rural places (Peters 2017).Figure 6. Index of Metro versus Non-Metro Population Growth, 2000 to 201710

Figure 7 presents an Illinois population growth index broken out by age cohorts. This index hasimportant workforce development and healthcare implications. First, the figure below showsthe age cohort of people 65 years of age and older is the fastest growing cohort within Illinois.Second, it reveals that the working age populations of 20-39 and 40 to 64 years of age arerelatively unchanged since 2000. Third, and most ominously from an economic developmentperspective, the figure shows that the population under aged 20 is shrinking (Fig. 7).The fact that senior citizens represent the fastest growing segment of the Illinois populationraises several issues. Health care costs increase as people age because people are more proneto diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis, among other health-relatedchallenges. It is not clear that Illinois is prepared for the onset of an aging population that willneed increasingly expensive health care. This is particularly alarming for rural communities,where there are increasing shortages of health care professionals and health care services.From a future economic development perspective, it is bad news for Illinois that the populationrepresenting the future workforce is in fact shrinking. Illinois policymakers have focused on theproblem of businesses leaving for lower-tax destinations in the Sun Belt (Vasilogambros 2019).Pro-business advocates have called for cuts to state spending and reduced taxes as a remedy(Pearson and Riopell 2018). However, this emphasis on businesses neglects the workforce. Asuniversity tuition has increased, and because of the state budget impasse, thousands ofuniversity-aged students have left the state. Many will never return.Figure 7. Population Growth Index by Age Cohorts, 2000 to 201811

A closer look at Illinois’ declining youth and young adult population reveals a significant ruralversus urban difference. Rural youth outmigration has contributed to rural population declinefor decades. Since the 2010 census, the downward trend has accelerated. This demographictrend has significant economic development trends for rural communities. Many businesssectors are confronting worker shortages. This trend is having a hugely negative impact on ruralmanufacturers, struggling to find young, skilled workers (Rosen 2018). With an inadequate rurallabor pool from which to recruit workers, some manufacturers are looking to recruit urbanworkers to rural areas.There are also many aging “main street” business owners looking to retire. As these businessproprietors begin to create a business succession plan, they soon realize that there is a lack ofyounger people willing to manage their own business in rural areas. This is a big problem forrural communities because if the business owner looking to retire cannot find a new buyer, thebusiness will close. The outcome is a vacant storefront and laid off employees. This outcomes isno different than if the business had simply gone bankrupt.The next section expands on the population decline implications for the rural workforce.Solutions exist, but it will take investment by local communities and state agencies to sustain avibrant rural workforce.Figure 8. Metro versus Non-metro Population Growth Index of Population Less than 20 years12

2.3Workforce and Economic Development Trends in Rural versus Urban IllinoisGiven the evidence provided in the previous section focused on rural demographics, it is notsurprising to see that there is a direct connection between a declining rural population and adeclining rural workforce (Fig. 9). The evidence suggests that the Illinois rural workforce neverfully recovered from the Great Recession that occurred a decade ago (Drum 2017). Thedownward point of inflection in the figure below shows that the state budget impasse madethe situation worse in the rural Illinois workforce (Fig. 9).Figure 9. Workforce Index for Metro versus Non-Metro Counties, 2000 to 2018Rural development experts have offered several strategies to retain young people in ruralareas, thereby bolstering the rural workforce. One way to keep young people in Illinoisgenerally, and in downstate and rural areas in particular, is to make attending communitycollege or university more affordable. State support for higher education in Illinois peaked in2002. Since then, tuition costs have been increasingly shifted onto students and their families.As Illinois tuition costs increased, a growing number of Illinois young adults attended collegesand universities out of state. The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) reported that in2017, of all Illinois high school graduates who enrolled at a four-year university, 48.4% of themenrolled at a school outside Illinois (Hahn 2019). The IBHE also reported that the state budgetimpasse significantly contributed to the student outmigration. This occurred because the statecut funding to university operating budgets as well as tuition grants for students from low- andmiddle-income families. Without this assistance, many young adults simply could not attendschool.13

Every state has a business recruitment, retention, and expansion plan to spur businessdevelopment, spur job growth, and promote overall economic development. Illinois mightconsider implementing a student recruitment and retention plan to increase the number ofbright, young people who stay in Illinois. A first step in this plan would be to reinvest in Illinoishigher education to make tuition cost-competitive with neighboring states.Promise programs are a second strategy used by some communities to retain young people.These community-based programs use the promise of a subsidized or free tuition to youngpeople who are willing to attend a local community college or university, with the quid pro quobeing that the student will remain within the local region for a specified period of time aftergraduation. By 2018, there were an estimated 350 promise programs in the United States,funded through philanthropy or government, both state and local (Harris 2018).Several communities in Illinois have implemented promise programs, including towns located innon-metropolitan counties, such as Galesburg which implemented its program in 2014(Sundberg 2014). The Galesburg Promise program is linked to Carl Sandberg Community College(CSCC). The program offers to pay full tuition for Galesburg students to attend CSCC, after allstate and federal student aid options have been used by the student (Carson 2016). By 2016,the program had 70 students, which was exceeding the budget used to pay for student tuition.The bottom line is that local communities can take initiatives to make it attractive for youngadults to attend school locally. The potential outcome will be for more skilled young people,with certificates and degrees, who remain part of the rural workforce.Youth entrepreneurship programs represent a third strategy for rural communities todevelopment their own next generation of business owners. Many rural business owners arewaking up to the fact that there are not enough young people willing to take over the existingbusinesses that populate small town main streets. Youth entrepreneurship programs such asthe CEO (Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities) program, offered by the Effingham-basedMidland Institute, offer hope to rural communities.The CEO program works with local school districts, but is funded entirely by local businessesand other benefactors independent of local school districts. Students work and meet with localbusiness owners before and after school, and are required to start their own businesses as partof the CEO curriculum (O’Dell 2018).Certainly not every student in the CEO program will become an entrepreneur as an adult. Som

Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs, Western Illinois University Illinois State Board of Education Rural Partners Southern Illinois University, Center for Rural Health and Social Service Development University of Illinois – Cooperative Extension Citizen Members Heather Hampto

Related Documents:

National Demographic and Health Survey, please contact The 2017 Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2017) is the sixth Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in the Philippines as part of The DHS Program and the 11 national demographic survey conducted since 1968. The survey is designed to provide

scale of public library services. They bring books to rural folk where there is no library service; they also provide resource persons and supervisors of reading centres to the communities, especially to rural communities. Rural Communities and Rural Libraries A rural library is a library or library system that serves a rural community or .

Leadership Report for Global MIL Consortium for Media Literacy March, 2021Volume No. 117 Confronting the Challenges of a Participatory Culture (Fifteen Plus Years Later) CML is pleased and proud to present this Special Report, Confronting the Challenges of a Participatory Culture (Fifteen Plus Y

other communication facilities between the rural and urban sectors. Keywords: Smart Cities, Smart Village . The phenomenon of dualism of rural-urban is seen in the continuum of the main cities, suburbs, urban-rural, rural-urban, rural, and rural. . the effect is still not satisfactory. Overview of the dig

extent, travel agencies still play a role of the organization of rural and tourism. Their main task is to arrange rural, accommodations and attractionsThe quality of tourism is greatly influenced by rural . conditions and rural itinerary. Therefore, rural itinerary optimization in tourism will have a direct effect on the profits of travel agencies.

into rural, rural-mixed, and urban categories, see Ayres, Waldorf, and McKendree, 2012.) Rural Indiana has the worst educational deprivation. Only 13.4% of rural residents had a college degree in 2010 (Table 2). The share of rural residents without a high school degree had decreased substantially since 1970, but it was still higher than the .

Prior reviews suggested that health professional edu-cation delivered in rural areas is positively associated with rural retention, although participating in rural training may reflect pre-existing intention and moti-vation for rural practice rather than the intervention itself increasing rural retention [11]. Many of the 10,

Fall 2016 Volume 9 Issue 2 . Rural Behavioral Health: Telehealth Challenges and Opportunities . This . In Brief . looks at common acceptability, availability, and accessibility barriers to mental and substance use disorder (behavioral health) treatment and services in rural * *There are many deinitions of . rural,

Creating and maintaining a broad portfolio of wealth may be central to sustainable rural prosperity. However, the impacts that rural development strategies have on wealth and the impacts of existing wealth on those strategies are generally not well understood. The success of rural wealth creation strategies is

The National Rural Health Association is a national nonprofit and nonpartisan membership. . and stroke). Nineteen percent of rural Americans, including 25% of. rural children, are living in. poverty. Rural economies, still. struggling to recover from the. Great Recession, have seen greater increases in

Structural changes in Lithuanian society are directly related to changes faced by rural residents and rural areas, which, in turn, are contingent on the rural . community‘s activity or vitality, as J.M. Cavaye (2001) pointed out, also relies on communities . engage

PS Form 2240-R, Rural Pay or Leave Adjustment Request Use PS Form 2240-R, Rural Pay or Leave Adjustment Request, to correct an employee’s pay, leave or deductions. Rural Carrier Procedures 520 Contents August 2005 223 Exhibit 520f PS Form 4241, Rural Delivery Statistics Report

Federal Rural Development Programs More than 88 programs administered by 16 different federal agencies target rural economic development. The Rural Development Policy Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-355), however, named USDA as the lead federal agency for rural development. USDA

May 13, 2015 · Enrollment in rural schools has increased 15% while overall public school enrollment has increased by 1% from 2002-2003 and 2004-2005 (Johnson & Strange, 2007). Rural communities often conjure up images of Mayberry, Sheriff Taylor, Aunt Bea, and Opie, but rural communities are changing. Rural

Past year alcohol, OxyContin, and meth use is higher among rural youth Rural 8th graders are more likely to use amphetamines, crack cocaine, cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol Rural youth first try alcohol at a younger age and have higher rates of driving under the influence Opioid use is higher among rural youth, young adults,

3.1 The relationship between vocational training and rural women empowerment The vocational training programme for rural women aims to develop entrepreneurial skills among rural women. Ahamad (2016) states that skill development gained through vocational training is an agent of change in promoting rural women employment.

Findings Decline in 'generalist' specialists over the past 50 years - extreme in rural areas Decline in GP proceduralists - Differential rebates- a disincentive to rural procedural practice - Rural hospital and maternity services closures - Loss of a 'critical mass' necessary to provide procedural services - Loss of access to procedural training for GPs/Rural

with urbanization, over time for rural-urban migrants, and between generations. Abstract For the first time in history, more people live in urban areas than in rural areas. This trend is likely to continue, driven largely by rural-urban migration. We investigated how rural-urban migration, combined with urbanization and generational change, affects

Despite decades of attention to agricultural development, food security and rural poverty, poverty and food insecurity remain, especially amongst rural dwellers in Asia, Africa and Central America. With climate change the challenges only increase and will further intensify as extreme events and variable weather patterns make small-scale production

The book normally used for the class at UIUC is Bartle and Sherbert, Introduction to Real Analysis third edition [BS]. The structure of the beginning of the book somewhat follows the standard syllabus of UIUC Math 444 and therefore has some similarities with [BS ]. A major difference is that we define the Riemann integral using Darboux sums and not tagged partitions. The Darboux approach is .