CIT Linux Lab Manual - CSN

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CIT Li nux La b Ma nualCIT Linux Lab ManualVersion 2017-08-05CIT Linux Lab Manual .2Introducti on .2Linux fundamentals.2The Linux command line .2The shell progra m .2The command prompt .2Linux Tutorials .3Common Linux Comma nds .3CIT computer a ccounts .4Using SSH to a ccess the CIT Linux server remotel y .4Accessing the server from Windows.5Accessing the server from OS X or Linux.5Passwords.7Cha nging your password from the command line.7Cha nging your password from a Web browser .7Validity .7Automa ti c Ban.7Local Email.8Logging out.8Transferring files to/from the server .8File Transfer using Moba Xterm.9File transfer using FileZilla.9Serving Web pa ges.10Progra mmi ng tools.10Text edi tors .10Compiling and executing a C program .11Compiling and executing a C program .11Additional compiler options.12Using ma ke to compile a C or C progra m .13Compiling and executing a Ja va program .13Edi ting and executing a Python program.14Other tools useful to programmers .14Spell check your source code.14Automa ti cally forma t your source code .14Check for memory lea ks.15Anal yze progra m execution .15Softwa re version control.16Submitti ng homework assignments .172017-08-051

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualCIT Linux Lab ManualIntroductionThe following manual presents basic i nformation necessary for s tudents utilizing the College ofSouthern Neva da’s (CSN) Linux Server i n conjunction with a va riety of CIT, CS, a nd IS courses.Ma ny of the policies established in this document are security related. Effective s ecurity i sra rel y convenient.The most current version of this document i s always a vailable a thttp://bellagio.csn.edu/docs/labmanual.pdf.Linux fundamentalsThe Linux command lineThere a re two common kinds of user i nterfaces: gra phical user i nterfaces (GUI’s) and commandl i ne interfaces (CLI’s). With a GUI, you control things by pointing a nd clicking with your mouse,a nd i n a CLI you type commands with your keyboard.In the early days, before GUIs, the command line was the only i nterface available with anyopera ting s ystem. The CLI i s still i mportant; a ll modern operating systems have one. Forexa mple, Windows has a CLI called cmd tha t i s closely related to the old DOS prompt.Beca use the Li nux CLI ca n sometimes resemble cmd, s ome people confuse them and think theLi nux CLI i s just like Windows’ cmd. Don’t confuse these! The Li nux CLI i s much more powerfultha n cmd.The shell programWhen you type commands at the Li nux command line, there’s always aprogra m called the s hell running. The shell is the program that acts asthe i nterface between you a nd the kernel, the central core of theopera ting s ystem (see Figure 1).When you type commands to execute va rious tools/applications, i t’sthe s hell that reads those commands from your keyboard a ndprocesses them. There are many di fferent s hell programs, but on mostLi nux s ystems, bash (Bourne Again SHell) is the default s hell. Othercommon s hells i nclude i nclude csh, ksh, a nd zsh.Figure 1 - The shell is aninterface between the userand the kernel.The command promptWhen you l og i n, you will have a bash s hell prompt i n front of you. Itprovi des a great deal of information. Let’s deconstruct the prompt you’ll see.2017-08-052

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualUs ually the prompt consists of your user name and machine name, followed by s ome symbol,us ually . The standard prompt l ooks like this:username@bellagio: username@bellagio:/home/shared The fi rst example s hows the user’s name (your username), machine name (bellagio), thecurrent di rectory (i n this case the tilde character ( ) represents the user’s home directory), andthe cha ra cter i ndicating that this individual h as l ogged in as a regular user.The s econd example shows the user is currently i n the /home/shared di rectory.The prompt is waiting for you to type a command or a name of a program. Actually, these arethe s ame thing, because most Linux commands are s mall programs themselves. You run theprogra ms by typing their name. For example, we can list the files i n a directory l ike so:username@bellagio:/home/shared lsalphabet.txt emacs refcard.pdfcit131enquire.ccit176GDB Cheat Sheet.pdfcit231Introduction to xtcs135Makefile-ccs202Makefile-cppdarkness.txt nano exercise TLCL-13.07.pdfturnin-ng.pdfunits-2.11.tar.gzvi refcard.pdfwar and peace.txtZappos April 2015 Al l s hell commands shown in this manual use a s ingle to represent the prompt for clarity.Linux TutorialsTea ching Linux is beyond the s cope of this manual. However, there are s everal excellentres ources a vailable to you:http://bellagio.csn.edu/linuxtut/http://l inuxcommand.org/tlcl.phphttp://rya nstutorials.net/linuxtutorial/Li nux Tutorial for Beginners, hosted locallyThe Li nux Command Li ne – free PDF eBookLea rn the Bash Command Li neCommon Linux CommandsThere a re hundreds of Linux commands a vailable, but you need know only a few to unlock thepower of the command line. Here are s ome good references to the most useful htmlhttps ://www.howtoforge.com/useful linux commands2017-08-05A s hort list of useful commandsA more extensive list3

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualCIT computer accountsMos t CIT computer accounts are created from class enrollment lists taken from MyCSN.Students will receive an email at their CSN s tudent email address1 with their l ogin name a ndtemporary password. Your CIT a ccount will allow you to l og into CSN’s remote Linux s erver. Your a ccount username and initial password will be sent to your CSN s tudent email. Acces s to this server, i ncluding personal Web content, i s governed by CSN’s AcceptableUs e Policy. Failure to comply wi th official policy may result i n the deletion of youra ccount. CIT s tudent accounts are Web enabled for personal, non -commercial content. CIT s tudent accounts expire automatically. If you enroll i n another CIT course thatutil izes the department’s Linux s erver i n the following semester, your a ccount expirationda te will be extended a utomatically. CIT computer accounts unused for more than s ix months may be purged as storagerequi rements dictate. Accounts not a ctiva ted within 2 weeks of the beginning of class may be deleted. If you ca nnot remember your password, you can request a password reset by contactingthe a dministrator, Kevi n Mess. When your request i s received and your account verified,a n email with a new temporary password will be sent to your s tudent email a ddress. If you ha ve any problems with regard to your account, contact the administrator, KevinMes s .Using SSH to access the CIT Linux server remotelySecure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for secure data communication, remotecomma nd-line l ogin, remote command execution, and other s ecure network servi ces b etweentwo networked computers.bellagio.csn.edu (heretofore referred to a s bellagio) is a Linux s erver maintained by the CITdepartment to provide remote a ccess to computing resources for CIT s tudents. You mayconnect to this server from a ny CSN computer a nd/or your personal computer. However, youma y require a dditional software to access this s erver from your personal computer. Thi s server is accessible only from within the United States. You ca n expect good performance when accessing the s erver from the CSN l ocal areanetwork, but off-campus performance is dependent upon your Internet connection.1Students must establish a CSN student email account a t http://studentmail.csn.edu/.It i s i mportant that students check their s tudent email regularly.2017-08-054

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualAccessing the server from WindowsTo a ccess the Li nux s erver using Windows, you will need to download a nd i nstall MobaXterm(free from http://mobaxterm.mobatek.net/.) MobaXterm is i nstalled on many CSN l ab a ndcl a ssroom computers. Ask a lab monitor to direct you to the pods with this software.Moba Xterm is available as a s tandalone program, and it works well from a US B thumb drive ornetwork share.Figure 2 - Connecting to CSN's Linux server using MobaXterm for WindowsTo connect to the server, launch MobaXterm, then select “New Session” followed by “SSH”. Filli n the server name (bellagio.csn.edu). Leave the port number unchanged. You may optionallycheck the “Specify username” box a nd enter your username so that you do not need to typethi s with each login. (Note that MobaXterm is updated frequently, s o your Session Settingsdi a log may be different from shown in Figure 2.) If you ha ve entered and saved incorrect i nformation (e. g. an incorrect username orpa ssword) that prevents MobaXterm from connecting to the s erver, you ca n ri ght-click on thes a ved s ession a nd edit i t to correct the error(s). Or, you ca n delete the saved session and createa new one.Accessing the server from OS X or LinuxSSH i s normally i nstalled by default on most *nix operating sys tems (e.g. UNIX/Linux/OS X).Open a terminal window and type the following command, using your us ername. (Note: Linux isca s e s ensitive. The 'X' character is ca pitalized.) See Figure 3.2017-08-055

CIT Li nux La b Ma nual ssh -X username@bellagio.csn.eduFigure 3 - Connecting to CSN's Linux server from OS XThe Ma c computers i n CSN’s computer l abs are pre-configured to properly a ccess the Linuxs erver. However, Ma c users may need to i nstall XQuartz to run graphical applications. XQuartzi s a vailable free from http://xquartz.macosforge.org/. The first time you connect to a new host, SSH prints the following message:The authenticity of host 'bellagio.csn.edu (131.216.135.130)' can't beestablished.RSA key fingerprint is e you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?Thi s is a s ecurity feature. It is both expected a nd normal, and you should answer “yes.” Yourcl i ent should not prompt you again. When entering your password, the characters you type will not display on the screen. This isa s ecurity feature. Type your password ca refully, then press ENTER to continue. After you ha ve successfully cha nged your password, the s ystem may disconnect yours ession. This is a s ecurity feature. To continue, log i n again using your new password.2017-08-056

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualPasswordsPa s swords must meet a mi nimum set of rules to be considered a cceptable. Your new passwordmus t contain at l east eight alphanumeric characters i ncluding at l east one special character. As pecial character is defined a s a non-alphanumeric character (e.g., , !, @, #, , %, , &, *, (, ), -, , , ?, [, ], {, }). Longer a nd more complex passwords offer better security.Changing your password from the command lineThe passwd utility i s used to update your password. You ca n only change the password of yourown a ccount. The passwd utility will prompt you for your current password to proceed. Youwi l l then enter your new password twice. When entering your password, the characters you type will not display on the screen. This isa s ecurity feature. Type your password ca refully, then press ENTER to continue.Exa mple: passwdChanging password for 1234567890.(current) UNIX password:New password:Re-type new password:passwd: password updated successfully.Changing your password from a Web browserYou ca n change your password using a Web browser. Browse to https://bellagio.csn.edu:5950/. You mus t use a secure connection by using “https” to go to the correct Web page. If youforget to us e “https” you will be redirected to the CIT Department’s Web page. You mus t include the port number, 5950, to go to the correct Web page.Validity Pa s swords a re va lid for 180 da ys. The s ystem will generate reminders 30, 7, a nd 3 dayspri or to password expiration. These reminders are s ent to your CSN s tudent email. Accounts are disabled 30 da ys after password expiration and require a dministratora s sistance to reactivate. Accounts are s ubject to deletion 180 da ys a fter password expiration.Automatic BanRepeated failed login a ttempts will result i n temporary, a nd in some cases, permanent bans.Thi s is a s ecurity feature. If you ca nnot remember your username or password, contact thes erver a dministrator, Kevin Mess, for a password reset.2017-08-057

CIT Li nux La b Ma nual Don’t l ock yourself out!Local EmailEvery us er has a local email account used to forward important system messages (e. g.pa ssword expiration, excessive disk usage, etc.). By default, emails s ent to your l ocal a ccounta re forwarded to your CSN s tudent email a ccount. Do not edit or delete the .forwardfi l e i n your home directory.Logging outWhen you’re ready to end your session with the bellagio s erver, type logout or exit. Youma y now cl ose the program you are using to access the server (e. g. MobaXterm, Terminal). Al wa ys l og out using logout or exit!Transferring files to/from the serverTo tra ns fer fi les to/from the bellagio server, you will need a file transfer a pplication thats upports Secure Copy (scp) or the Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). There a re numerousa pplications that support each of these protocols on each operating s ystem. This manualexpl ains two of the a pplications.Rega rdless of the file tra nsfer a pplication used, you will use the same username and password.Confi gure your a pplication to connect to bellagio.csn.edu. If necessary, s pecify port 22. Li nux file s ystems a re case-sensitive; two filenames that differ only i n case, s uch asafile.txt a nd AFile.TXT, a re considered unique. Both files can exist in a single directory,a nd i f you enter the filename’s case incorrectly, Li nux won’t be able to a ccess a n existing file.Wi ndows, by contrast, is ca se-retentive: filename ca se is preserved when you save a file, butthe OS doesn’t care a bout case when you specify a filename. Wi ndows-based editors generally put a n extra carriage return a t the end of each line of text.Thi s may ca use problems for s ome Linux-based editors. To correct this problem, use thedos2unix util ity on each text file you upload from your Windows machine. This utility i s builti n to the MobaXterm program. It can also be executed at the command prompt on the bellagios erver:Exa mple: dos2unix filename.txtConvers ely, Li nux-based editors use a single newline character at the end of each line of text.Thi s may ca use problems with some Windows-based editors that expect a n extra carriagereturn. To correct this problem, execute the built-in utility unix2dos on ea ch text file you2017-08-058

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualdownload to your Wi ndows machine. This utility i s built in to the MobaXterm program. It ca na l so be executed at the command prompt on the bellagio server:Exa mple: unix2dos filename.txtFile Transfer using MobaXtermWhen you l og i n to a remote bellagio session using SSH, a graphical SFTP (Secure File TransferProtocol ) browser appears i n the l eft s idebar allowing you to drag a nd drop files directly to orfrom the bellagio server using the SFTP connection.To ma nually open a new SFTP session, create a new session (see Figure 4).File transfer using FileZillaFi l eZilla is a fast a nd reliable cross-platform SFTP client with an intuitive graphical useri nterface. An installable version can be downloaded for free from https://filezilla-project.org/. Aporta ble version (i.e. a version that can be stored on a USB thumb drive or network s hare) isa va ilable for free from http://portableapps.com/apps/internet/filezilla portable.To crea te a new connection to the bellagio server, open FileZilla a nd s elect File- Site Ma nager.Cl i ck the New Site button to open a dialog similar to that shown in Figure 5.Figure 4 - Opening a new SFTP connection in MobaXterm2017-08-059

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualFigure 5 - Creating a new SFTP connection in FileZillaEnter the s erver’s a ddress in the host field, select “SFTP - SSH” a s the protocol, then enter yourus ername and password i n the a ppropriate fields. Leave the port field blank to use the defaultport (22). Fi nally, click on the Connect button to connect to the s erver.Serving Web pagesEvery s tudent a ccount is enabled to serve Web pages and other documents using the ApacheWeb s erver. (Explaining how to write these documents is beyond the scope of this document.)Pl a ce your HTML files in the public html di rectory found in your home directory. Onl y put fi les you want to s hare with everyone i nto your public html di rectory!To vi ew your personal Web site, enter the following a ddress, using your username, into yourfa vori te Web browser:http://bellagio.csn.edu/ username/ The tilde character ( ) must a ppear before your username!Programming toolsText editorsThe bellagio server has many different editors that you can use to create and maintain yours ource code files. Editors may be console-based or Graphical User Interface (GUI) based. At ami nimum, the following console text editors are a vailable: na no – A fri endly, yet powerful editor with s yntax highlighting. vi m – A powerful editor, typically i nstalled by default on all *nix operating systems.2017-08-0510

CIT Li nux La b Ma nual ema cs – A powerful a nd extensible editor. Commonly found on *nix operating systems.2Severa l GUI editors are also a vailable. You will require a fast Internet connection for these to beus a ble: gedi t – A general purpose text editor with s yntax highlighting. gea ny – A l i ghtweight text editor a nd basic Integrated Development Environment (IDE). When launching a GUI application from the command prompt, always append thea mpersand character (&) to launch the program as a background task, freeing the commandl i ne for further use.Exa mple: gedit &Compiling and executing a C programThe C compi ler that is used to evaluate C programming assignments is called clang.3 In orderfor a fi le to be recognized by the clang compiler as a C program file, the name of the file mustha ve a n a ppropriate extension. The extension to be used for C programs is .c. Compile yourprogra m using the following command, substituting your s ource code file name: clang progname.cIf the program file contains no syntax errors, an executable file with the name a.out wi l l becrea ted. This file s hould not be displayed, as i t is not i n a human readable form. The programca n now be executed with the following command: ./a.outIf the program contained syntax errors, a series of error messages will be displayed. You mu stta ke note of the lines a t which the errors occurred a nd then go back to the original p rogram file(the .c fi l e) to l ocate and correct the mistakes. Save your updated file. Then, recompile.Compiling and executing a C programThe C compi ler used to evaluate C programming assignments is called clang .45 Inorder for a file to be recognized by the clang compiler a s a C program file, the name ofStudents tra nsferring to UNLV s hould learn emacs.Another very common C compiler is the GNU gcc compiler. Its command line interface iss i milar to clang. However, its warning messages ca n be cryptic.4 Another very common C compiler is the GNU g compiler. Its command line interface iss i milar to clang . However, i ts wa rning messages ca n be cryptic.5 Students tra nsferring to UNLV s hould practice using the g compiler.232017-08-0511

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualthe fi le name must have an appropriate extension. The extension to be used for C progra msi s .cpp. Compi le your program using the following command, s ubstituting your source codefi l e name: clang progname.cppIf the program file contains no syntax errors, an executable file with the name a.out wi l l becrea ted. This file s hould not be displayed, as i t is not i n a human readable form. The programca n now be executed with the following command: ./a.outIf the program contained syntax errors, a series of error messages will be displayed. You mu stta ke note of the lines a t which the errors occurred a nd then go back to the original program file(the .cpp file) to locate and correct the mistakes. Save your updated file. Then, recompile.Additional compiler optionsThe following compiler options a re quite helpful. See the compiler’s man pa ge for a listing anddes cription of a ll i ts options.Option-ansi-std -ggdb-o ything-lm2017-08-05DescriptionIns truct the compiler to a dhere to the ISO standard for the language.Ins truct the compiler to a dhere to the specified standard for thel a nguage. Exa mples: -std c99, -std c 14Ins truct the compiler to generate debug i nformation.Ins truct the compiler to use the specified filename for the executablei ns tead of a.out.Ins truct the compiler to optimize the resulting executable.-O0 Turn off a ll optimization. (Default if not specified.)-O1 Provi des a basic level of optimization.-O2 Provi des more adva nced optimization.-O3 Provi des the highest l evel of optimization.Generate profiling code in executable.Force compiler to issue all warnings demanded by s trict ISOs tandards.Ena bles warnings about questionable constructions that are easy toa voi d. (However, it does not enable all wa rnings.)Ena bles some extra warning flags that are not enabled by -Wall.Ena bles ALL warnings. Very picky (not a vailable with gcc or g ).(C onl y) Li nk the ma th library to your executable. Required when yourprogra m includes math.h. The -lm option should be a ppended tothe end of your compile command.12

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualAs a n example, to compile a program with maximum a dherence to standards, s pecify thefol lowing options: clang-std c99-pedantic -Wall -Wextra progname.c clang -std c 14 -pedantic -Wall -Wextra progname.cppNote tha t the commands a re very s imilar between C a nd C .Using make to compile a C or C programAn a l ternative method for compiling a C or C progra m is to use the Linux make utility. Thiswi l l automatically i nvoke the compiler using the –o option and create a n executable file withthe s ame name as the s ource code file. The command to compile a nd create the executable is: make progname The fi le extension s hould not be included i n this command!In order to execute the program, type the command: ./prognameYou ca n find general purpose Makefiles for the C a nd C l a nguages in the /home/shareddi rectory that simplify the build of large projects (multiple source code files).Compiling and executing a Java programThe Ja va compiler used to evaluate Java programming a ssignments is called javac. In orderfor a fi le to be recognized by the javac compiler a s a Java program file, the name of the filena me must have a n appropriate extension. The extension to be used for Java program filena mes is .java. Compi le your program using the following command, substituting your sourcecode fi le name: javac –Xlint:all Progname.javaIf the program file contains no syntax errors, an executable file with the nameProgname.class wi ll be created. This file should not be displayed, as i t is not i n a humanrea dable form. The program ca n now be executed with the following command: java PrognameNotice that you only use the class name (i.e. no extension) when executing the program. If theprogra m contained syntax errors, a s eries of error messages will be displayed. You must takenote of the l ines at which the errors occurred a nd then go back to the original program file (the.ja va fi le) to l ocate and correct the mistakes. Save your updated file. Then, recompile.2017-08-0513

CIT Li nux La b Ma nualEditing and executing a Python programPython provi des a n Integrated Development Environment for Python (IDLE) suitable forbegi nners. It has multiple windows, a Python shell, and an integrated debugger. It is a GUIa pplication, so remember to a ppend the ampersand (&) character: idle3 progname.py &There is a nice IDLE tutorial available a t http://www.annedawson.net/Python Editor IDLE.htm.Other tools useful to programmersThere a re several tools on the server to a ssist you in writing better programs.Spell check your source codeaspell i s a n i nteractive spell-checking tool you ca n use to check the spelling in a file. Whenchecki ng source code files, it may not recognize all the va riable names a nd keywords, even i fthey a re s yntactically correct. Ignore these words as they a re presented to you. It i s most usefuli n checking the s pelling of words within your documentation. To spell check a file: aspell –c filenameAutomatically format your source codeastyle i s a tool that will s tandardize the indentation a nd formatting of your source code (as ource code beautifier). If you do not specify a ny options, astyle wi l l replace tab characterswi th s paces and use four spaces per i ndent level, but i t will not change bracket placement orma ke other formatting changes.You ca n optionally s pecify predefined bracket s tyles for your code (seehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/indent styl e for details). Some examples include:–A2–A3–A4–A10Ja va s tyle formatting/indenting with attached brackets.Kerni ghan & Ri tchie s tyle formatting/indenting with Li nux bra ckets.Strous trup style formatting/indenting with Stroustrup brackets.One True Brace Styl e formatting/indenting with Li nux Bra ckets and adds bracketsto a l l conditionals.Comma nd to format and indent your C s ource code in Kernighan & Ri tchie style: astyle –A3 progname.cComma nd to format and indent your C s ource code in Stroustrup styl e: astyle –A4 progname.cppComma nd to format and indent your Java s ource code i n Java s tyle:2017-08-0514

CIT Li nux La b Ma nual astyle –A2 Classname.javaCheck for memory leaksYou ca n check your compiled C or C progra m for memory l eaks by using valgrind, afl exible program for debugging and profiling Li nux executables. At i ts simplest, try: valgrind ./a.out 24298 Memcheck, a memory error detector 24298 Copyright (C) 2002-2013, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al. 24298 Using Valgrind-3.10.0.SVN and LibVEX. 24298 Command: ./a.out 24298 24298

Aug 05, 2017 · CIT Linux Lab Manual 2017-08-05 2 CIT Linux Lab Manual Introduction The following manual presents basic information necessary for students utilizing the College of Southern Nevada’s (CSN) Linux Server in conjunction with a variety of CIT, CS, and IS courses. Many of the po

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