Simulia Tech Brief 06 Fluid Structure Interaction . - Abaqus

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Abaqus Technology BriefTB-06-FSI-2Revised: April 2007.Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Flow Control DeviceSummaryThe Vernay VernaFlo flow controls are custom-designedfluid flow management devices used in a wide range ofapplications and systems where consistent, reliable operation is essential. Elastomeric rubber components inthese devices deform under the influence of upstreamvariations in fluid pressure. These deformations adjustthe orifice diameter and help maintain a constant downstream flow rate. In this Technology Brief the performance of a custom VernaFlo device is evaluated using thefully coupled fluid-structure interaction solution providedby the Abaqus co-simulation capability. The effects ofcavitation on the flow are considered. The computationalresults compare favorably to available experimental data.BackgroundFlow control devices are used in a wide range of fluidmanagement applications and are commonly employed inthe automotive, bio-medical, and consumer appliancesindustries. These devices are designed to maintain aconstant bulk flow rate for varying inlet pressures; suchpressure variations may result from pipe friction loss,downstream restrictions, distance from the water tower,elevation of the water tap, etc. Minimizing the impact ofinlet pressure variation on the flow is essential for the reliable and consistent operation of the applications in question.In this Technology Brief, the performance of a customVernaFlo flow control device from Vernay Labs, YellowSprings, Ohio, will be studied, and the results will be compared to the experimental flow-rate data sheet of the device.Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the cross-sectionof typical VernaFlo device. An elastomeric rubber component is housed inside the flow path. This rubber insertrests on a rigid seat and deforms under the influence ofincoming flow. At low operating pressures the rubbercomponent undergoes very little deformation and allowsthe flow to develop. With increasing upstream pressure,the deformation increases, restricting the orifice diameterand thus limiting the fluid flow. Capturing the interactionbetween the fluid flow and the structural deformation iscritical to accurately predicting the device shape and thesubsequent flow behavior; a bi-directional fully coupledfluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis is thus required.Key Abaqus Features and BenefitsFluid-structure interaction analysis capabilityusing co-simulation with MpCCIRange of hyperelastic material models for thesimulation of large deformation in elastomericpartsDeformable-to-rigid body contact capabilityAnalysis ApproachThe effects of the fluid-structure interaction will be studiedby coupling Abaqus and FLUENT using the co-simulationtechnique with MpCCI. With this method the fluid and thestructural domains are modeled and solved separately,with solution information exchanged at the fluid-structureinterface.Figure 1: Schematic cross-section of a typical VernaFlo device

2Defining the sub-domain modelsThe inherent symmetry in the VernaFlo device allows anaxisymmetric analysis to be performed. The Abaqus subdomain (Figure 2) includes the rubber component, whichis modeled using reduced order hybrid axisymmetric elements.The rubber component presses against a rigid seat whichis modeled using a discrete rigid part. Penalty contactwith a friction coefficient of 0.5 is defined between therubber and the rigid seat. The simulation is completed inAbaqus/Standard and includes the effect of geometricaland material non-linearities.The CFD domain shown in Figure 3 models the flow path,which includes a short upstream section, followed by thesection around the rubber component, and ending a longdownstream section. The upstream variation in pressureis accounted for using a pressure-inlet boundary conditionwhile the outlet uses a pressure outlet boundary conditionwith zero gage pressure. To enable local remeshing, theflow path is modeled using triangular elements. The water is modeled as an incompressible fluid and turbulenceand multi-phase fluid models are employed to enable thesimulation of cavitation. The flow equations are solvedusing the steady-state implicit segregated solvers in FLUENT.After the Abaqus and the FLUENT sub-domains havebeen created the fluid-structure interface is defined usingMpCCI. A schematic diagram of the interaction definitions, which include the interaction surfaces and the desired solution quantities to be exchanged, is shown in Figure 4. Abaqus receives the fluid pressures from FLUENTand returns the resulting structural deformation to FLUENT.Figure 3: Axisymmetric model of the flow pathFigure 4: MpCCI interface definitionsAddressing Domain pinching issuesDuring the analysis, a constant fluid topology is requiredin FLUENT. As the rubber component deforms in response to the upstream fluid pressure, it will come intocontact with its rigid seat, thus “pinching” the fluid domaincompletely. Since pinching terminates the coupled analysis, a special modeling technique has been used to prevent such an occurrence.In addition, MpCCI automatically handles the transformations necessary to account for the difference in axisymmetric conventions used by Abaqus and FLUENT.As shown in Figure 5, the rigid contact surface in Abaqus(dashed line) represents the true location of the rigid seat;however, the FLUENT wall zone that corresponds to therigid seat has been slightly offset. The offset helps maintain a small, finite clearance at all times during contactbetween the rubber insert and the rigid seat. While thisclearance leads to some localized flow behavior, the overall impact of this gap on the constriction path and the corresponding bulk flow behavior was found to be relativelysmall.Figure 2: Axisymmetric model of the rubber insertFigure 5: Contact offset to avoid domain pinching

3Solution MethodologyThe analysis is driven by an applied boundary conditionon the fluid inlet pressure; specifically, this quantity isramped up from 0 to 827 kPa (120 psi). During the simulation, the pressures acting on the rubber insert in thefluid sub-domain are mapped and transferred to the structural sub-domain in Abaqus via MpCCI. Abaqus thencomputes the deformations and the resulting stress statein the structure. The interface deformation quantities arethen mapped and transferred from the structural subdomain to the fluid sub-domain in FLUENT via MpCCI.This process of exchanging solution quantities continuesincrementally until the analysis completes.Figure 7: Computed bulk flow rate vs. inlet pressureResults and DiscussionsThe main objective of the FSI analysis is to determine theeffect of the variation of inlet pressure on the bulk fluidflow rate through the device. After presenting these results, the effect that each sub-domain has on the coupledresults will be examined.Global convergenceThe fluid inlet pressure boundary condition is applied inan incremental fashion; specifically, the pressure is increased in fixed increments during the analysis. Globalconvergence between the two sub-domain solvers is obtained by iterating the exchange process several times atthe given pressure level.The nature of the convergence for this analysis is apparent from Figure 6, in which the displacement magnitude ofthe trailing edge of the rubber insert is plotted versus theglobal exchange number. This plot considers the increase in pressure from 13.8 kPa (2 psi) to 34.5 kPa (5psi). During each pressure increment, the converged solution was obtained after five global exchanges.Effect of fluid flow on deformationAt any given inlet pressure level, the upstream surface ofthe rubber device is subject to a fairly uniform pressuredistribution. These forces acting on the leading surfaceare largely responsible for compressing the device andforcing it down on the rigid seat. The pressure drop in theconstriction region contributes to further narrowing of theflow path and results in a region of very high stresses asshown in Figure 8.Effect of deformations on the fluid flowAt a given deformation state, as shown in Figure 9, thecross-section through the constriction path governs theflow behavior. As the flow quickens through the narrowconstriction region the fluid pressure drops significantly,resulting in a dramatic drop in the absolute pressure ofthe liquid; this may lead to cavitation in the fluid.Bulk flow rate vs. Inlet pressureThe computed flow rate as a function of inlet pressure isshown in Figure 7. Initially, as the pressure is rampedfrom zero the flow rate increases. As the inlet pressureapproaches 138 kPa (20 psi) the flow is found to stabilizeat approximately 2.1 liters/min. Further changes in theinlet pressure do not affect the flow rate significantly.FlowConvergedFigure 6: Displacement solution at trailing edge of rubberinsertFigure 8: Mises stress in rubber insert at 276 kPa (40 psi)inlet pressure

4FlowFigure 10: Static flow pressure at 138, 414, and 621 kPaFlowFigure 9: Static flow pressure at 276 kPa (40 psi) inletpressureFluid-structure coupling effects on the flow rateFigure 10 shows contour plots of the fluid pressures atinlet pressure levels of 138, 414, and 621 kPa (20, 60 and90 psi). The corresponding deformed shapes are shownin Figure 11 with contour plots of Mises stress.Figure 11: Mises stress at 138, 414, and 621 kPa inletpressure (20, 60 and 90 psi)With an increase in the inlet pressure the rubber devicedeforms and experiences increased contact with the rigidseat. Partial contact is observed at 138 kPa, with full contact being established at the higher pressure of 621 kPa.The constriction path narrows during the inlet pressurerise resulting in an increased resistance to the fluid flow.However, the increased material stiffness helps maintainthe bulk flow rate at a fairly constant level.CavitationFlowFigure 12: Volume fraction of vapor at 276 kPa (40 psi)inlet pressureAs discussed earlier, cavitation effects are observed athigher upstream pressures. Figure 12 shows the vaporregion in the flow at an inlet pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi).The phase change is prominent in the downstream regionright after the narrowest flow path. As the inlet pressureincreases the vapor envelope stretches further downstream but the vapor region collapses before reaching theoutlet.Experimental ValidationFinally, the results from the analysis are compared to experimental results. Figure 13 shows a close match of thecomputational flow rate results to the experimental data.The flow rate increases from 0 to 2.1 liters/min during theinitial pressure ramp-up from 0 to 138 kPa (20 psi) andhas near constant flow in the operating pressure range of138 to 827 kPa (20 to 120 psi).ConclusionIn this Technology Brief, a fluid structure interactionanalysis of the VernaFlo flow control device using theAbaqus co-simulation technique for FSI is presented. Theresults obtained are in good agreement with experimentalresults. This study highlights the importance of FSI in thisFigure 13: Experimental validation of computation resultsclass of problems and successfully demonstrates thecapability of Abaqus to perform such advanced coupledphysics simulations.AcknowledgmentsDassault Systèmes SIMULIA Corp. would like to thankJim Bailey at Vernay Labs for providing the model andexperimental data for the Vernay VernaFlo device; andDavid Schowalter at Fluent, Inc. for assisting with thecavitation modeling.

5References1.Vernay VernaFlo flow devices and related product information can be found at: ReferencesFor additional information on the Abaqus capabilities referred to in this brief please see the following Abaqus 6.11 documentation references:Abaqus Users' Guide on Fluid Structure Interaction Using Abaqus and FLUENT, available via Abaqus Answer2420.Abaqus Analysis User's Manual- “Co-simulation: overview,” Section 16.1.1FLUENT References1. For additional information on Fluent Inc. and the FLUENT capabilities shown in the brief see: References1. For more information on MpCCI and Fraunhofer SCAI see: http://www.scai.fraunhofer.deAbout SIMULIASIMULIA is the Dassault Systèmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions including the Abaqus product suite for Unified Finite Element Analysis, multiphysics solutions for insight into challenging engineering problems, and lifecyclemanagement solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual property. By building on established technology, respected quality, and superior customer service, SIMULIA makes realistic simulation an integral business practice that improves product performance, reduces physical prototypes, and drives innovation. Headquartered in Providence, RI, USA, with R&D centers inProvidence and in Suresnes, France, SIMULIA provides sales, services, and support through a global network of over 30 regionaloffices and distributors. For more information, visit www.simulia.comThe 3DS logo, SIMULIA, Abaqus and the Abaqus logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiaries, which include ABAQUS, Inc. Other company, product andservice names may be trademarks or service marks of others.Copyright 2007 Dassault Systèmes

Abaqus co-simulation technique for FSI is presented. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental results. This study highlights the importance of FSI in this Flow Figure 10: Static flow pr

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