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What Is MES (Manufacturing Execution System) In Complex .

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WHITE PAPERWhat is MES (Manufacturing Execution System)in Complex Discrete Manufacturing?

What is MES in Complex Discrete ManufacturingContentsForeword . 41. Defining MES and Complex Discrete Manufacturing . 51.1. What is unique about Complex Discrete Manufacturing? . 51.2. What is a Manufacturing Execution System?. 62. Requirements for MES in Complex Discrete Manufacturing . 82.1. Product and Process Definition . 92.1.1. Bills of Material (BOMs) . 92.1.2. Process Routings, Work Instructions . 102.1.3. Change and Configuration Management. 102.2. Resources Management. 112.2.1. Personnel Qualifications and Certifications . 112.2.2. Tooling Calibration . 112.3. Production Jobs Dispatch . 122.3.1. Daily Jobs Dispatch List . 122.3.2. Assignment of Resources to Jobs. 132.4. Production Process Execution Management . 132.4.1. Guiding the Technician through Work Steps . 132.4.2. Production Job Progress Tracking . 142.4.3. Events and Alerts . 142.4.4. Production Control. 152.4.5. Work Order Splits. 152.4.6. Online System with High Availability . 152.5. Programmable Equipment and Data Collection. 162.5.1. Running Machine Programs . 162.5.2. Data Collection . 172.5.3. Job Buyoff/Signatures and Status . 192.6. Product and Parts Tracking and Genealogy . 202.6.1. Parts Issue, Kitting. 202.6.2. WIP Product Tracking. 202.6.3. Parts Installation Records and Product Genealogy . 212.6.4. Material Shelf Life and Expiration . 212.7. Production Quality Management . 212.7.1. Production Inspection Planning and Execution . 21 Copyright 2014Page 2 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete Manufacturing2.7.2. Product Configuration Verification . 222.7.3. Nonconformance and Defect Management . 222.8. Production/Plant Performance Analysis . 232.8.1. Schedule/Capacity Performance Analysis . 242.8.2. Cost and Quality Performance Analysis . 242.9. Systems Integration Services. 252.9.1. Engineering Product and Process Design Systems . 252.9.2. Business Procurement/Inventory and Financial Systems . 262.9.3. Enterprise Business Intelligence . 262.9.4. Enterprise Continuous Improvement Management. 273. A Few Other Considerations . 27 Copyright 2014Page 3 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete ManufacturingWhat is MES (Manufacturing Execution System)in Complex Discrete Manufacturing?ForewordToday’s competitive manufacturing arena demands lower cost, more product variants, shorterproduct introductions, and better compliance to industry standards and regulations. This has ledmany manufacturing companies to move beyond the old paper‐based processes, and startimplementing new streamlined business processes for their shop floors with the use of commercialinformation systems.This paper is intended for Operations, Operations Support, Quality Assurance and InformationTechnology personnel who are evaluating software solutions to improve production managementcapabilities in complex discrete manufacturing industries. These industries include: aerospace,defense, shipbuilding, nuclear energy, industrial electronics, industrial equipment, and complexmedical devices.Defined are common and unique business process requirements (including verification anddocumentation requirements) needed to support the effective management of operations incomplex discrete manufacturing. Many of the capabilities outlined are not just nice‐to‐have or bestpractices for some of these industries, they are required for regulatory compliance by industry andquality management system standards such as ISO9001, AS9100, and ISO13485.For organizations looking to improve their business processes and implement new informationsystems, the general requirements provided in this paper can be used as a starting point for creatinga requirements list for these initiatives. Copyright 2014Page 4 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete Manufacturing1. Defining MES and Complex Discrete Manufacturing1.1. What is unique about Complex Discrete Manufacturing?Figure 1. Complex discrete manufacturers make product to order and track each serialized unitComplex discrete manufacturing industries manufacture complex highly engineered products withlonger product cycle times and multiple levels of subassemblies in their bills of material. Many ofthese companies make and engineer products to order. They also have a need to trackmanufacturing history down to each “discrete” serialized product unit. In contrast, batch productionmanufacturers only have to track products by work center, day, batch, or lot.Complex discrete manufacturers include companies that manufacture products for aircraft, space,military weapons, complex medical devices, robots, and specialized industrial equipment. For manyof these products it is necessary to manage complex diverse product configuration, long product lifecycle, along with increased market pressure for shorter time to market for new products and stricterregulatory compliance oversight.Some of the major characteristics that define a complex discrete manufacturing environment are: Long cycle times, low volume, make‐to‐order or engineer‐to‐orderComplex product with deep bills of material (BOM)Highly skilled labor performing manual assembly and fabrication work including complex NCmachines and special materials such as compositesComplex process routing sequences with decision points and loopsHigh flow of engineering changes affecting work‐in‐processProduction is not repetitive and mechanics must be alerted to changesData collection during production includes manual data entry, verifications and signaturesPersonnel have qualification requirements and equipment have calibration certificationrequirementsDocumentation requirements include a complete history for every produced unit, andtraceability of the components installed and material used Copyright 2014Page 5 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete Manufacturing1.2. What is a Manufacturing Execution System?Many production environments have historically been serviced by paper‐based procedures andhomegrown applications. These have not kept up with newer requirements for increased speed,agility, and traceability. The combination of paper and unlinked data silos at the shop floor increasesthe difficulty to integrate the required plant data into a complete and accurate top‐level view ofoperations. The demand for more efficient practices is motivating plants to modernize and movebeyond running the facilities with spreadsheets, paper, and knowledge held by a few keyexperienced employees that might be nearing retirement. Manufacturers are realizing the need tointegrate real‐time manufacturing data into their corporate information view.A Manufacturing Execution System (MES) is an information system that drives effective execution ofmanufacturing operations. Using current and accurate data an MES triggers, guides, verifies, andreports on plant activities in real time—from order release, to manufacturing, to delivery, to thefinished goods inventory. MES systems have been evolving and broadening functionality, to manageinternal quality and the supply chain. The term Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM),which came from the batch and process industry, is also used as a synonym to MES. Regardless ofthe term you prefer, the definition and requirements listed in this paper are the same.The diagram in Figure 2 shows eight typical functional areas inside of the scope of MES. This is aslight modification of the MESA (Manufacturing Enterprise Systems Association) collaborative‐MESmodel. The perimeter of the MES boundary shows other enterprise functions and applications thattypically integrate with MES. This paper will expound on these eight areas, identifying where uniqueMES capabilities are required by complex discrete manufacturing.Ideally, an MES system should provide all the functionality needed by shop floor personnel in onesimple user interface—avoiding the need to jump between different applications to get information.One application to learn and one user interface that integrates all the information needed toeffectively manage operations.Figure 2. An MES provides the functions needed by Manufacturing Management personnel Copyright 2014Page 6 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete ManufacturingThe requirements for MES have been grouped into eight functional areas, to allow for easy crossreference with the MESA, ISA‐95 and ISO‐9001 frameworks. Process Definition ManagementResources ManagementProduction Jobs DispatchProcess Execution ManagementData Collection and Programmable EquipmentProducts and Parts Tracking and GenealogyProduction Quality ManagementProduction Performance AnalysisThe diagram in Figure 3 shows how MES functions map into Level 3 of the ISA‐95 model. The ISA‐95reference model is an international standard for systems integration, spanning from enterprise levelsystems to control systems. Though the ISA‐95 model evolved out of the batch, continuous, andrepetitive process industries—not complex discrete manufacturing; it is still useful as a generalreference framework, providing some consistent terminology to compare MES applications.The model describes how Level 4 applications (including CAD, PLM, ERP, and APS) pass productdefinitions, capabilities, and schedule information to Level 3. Enterprise applications at Level 4 needimproved integration to Level 3 applications to get up‐to‐date data from manufacturing—dataneeded by corporate executive decision makers. The model also describes how plant floorautomation applications at Levels 1 and 2 can provide detail measurement and event data to theMES on Level 3.Figure 3. MES functions are described in Level 3 of the ISA-95 model Copyright 2014Page 7 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete Manufacturing2. Requirements for MES in Complex Discrete ManufacturingA checkmark or grade on each of the eight functional areas, is not enough to evaluate the fit of anMES to your industry or company’s needs. On the surface, many MES seem to have a similarfunctional footprint, but some MES cater to specific industries with very specialized functionality. Tomake an informed assessment, it is necessary to drill down to more specific requirements, to findthe solutions that can truly handle your industry and manufacturing needs. Finding the right solutionfit can hugely affect the effort, time frame, cost (total cost of ownership), and results of an MESimplementation initiative.Complex discrete manufacturing organizations have unique requirements in their manufacturing andquality management business processes including: (a) Vigilant Resources Certification Management,(b) Complex Product/Process Configuration and Change Management, (c) Detailed IntegratedQuality Control Processes, and (d) Detailed Product Unit History and Records Archival.Vigilant Resources Certification ManagementPersonnel must be certified as competent on the basis of education, training, skills, and experience.Personnel qualification processes must be standardized and documented. In addition, equipmentresources must also be maintained to assure their capabilities, especially measurement equipmentused to verify the product. The equipment and tools maintenance and calibration processes must bestandardized and documented. An MES can verify calibration status for equipment, and also verifythat personnel signing off on a job have the required active certifications.Complex Product/Process Configuration and Change ManagementThe manufacturing of a complex product like an aircraft or satellite involves the management of acontinuous stream of engineering changes directed at work in process. The integration of theengineering system with MES can create a seamless link between product development,manufacturing planning, and manufacturing execution functions. This link would close the loop onengineering changes, and assure that as‐built configurations match as‐designed.Detailed Quality Control ProcessesBeyond providing visibility into areas for improvements, the manufacturing information systemshould provide process control procedures to implement and sustain quality improvements. Thisincludes in‐process inspection and verification steps, statistical process control (SPC), alerts to out‐of‐control conditions, and integrated handling for discrepancies found during production (includingdefect containment and corrective actions) to eliminate recurrence.With the high investment that goes into these types of products (for parts and labor), they are rarelyscrapped. Instead, these industries require rework, repair, and deviation handling procedures toensure that deviations are documented, reviewed, and approved by the appropriate personnel. Theintegration of production and quality systems can ensure that deviation instructions cannot beskipped by the mechanic performing the work. Deviation history is also considered part of eachproduct unit history.Detailed Product Unit History and Records ArchivalMES maintains production history documentation down to the details for each product unit, versustracking to the batch level. MES documents exactly who, what, when, how, and why―like whocompleted the job, what equipment was used, which parts were replaced, and who approved thechanges. Copyright 2014Page 8 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete ManufacturingThe following sections define requirements for an MES in the complex discrete manufacturingenvironment. In addition to the eight functional areas outlined above in Figures 2 and 3, a ninth areais discussed describing the high‐level requirements for integration to enterprise systems.2.1. Product and Process DefinitionThe MES must manage the documentation package required at theshop floor to execute product manufacturing. This documentationincludes design engineering specifications in the form of 2Ddrawings, 3D models, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing(GD&T) information, and work instructions.The MES system can either provide its own document managementsystem for production documentation (including illustrations andwork instructions), or link to a shared repository with engineeringdocumentation.The revision level of engineering documentation should be crossed referenced between theengineering system repository, and the MES documents for change management purposes.Engineering drawings and models for tool fixtures are maintained and crossed referenced withproduct designs and process plans.Some parts, aspects of the product, or process design might need to be protected for export control(or intellectual property) purposes. If your organization has these requirements, it is important toassess the capability of the MES to support these types of security controls. These requirements aremore than the common user privilege and role administration found in most MES solutions.2.1.1. Bills of Material (BOMs)An MES system should allow for multiple BOM management scenarios. The Engineering BOM(eBOM) defines the product structure in terms of part numbers linked to 3D CAD models. They areorganized in a hierarchy of subassembly structures that are revision controlled and managed by aProduct Data Management (PDM) or Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) system.The Manufacturing BOM (mBOM) defines the product structure in terms of how the product is goingto be built. The mBOM does not necessarily mirror the eBOM, because complex products are oftenreorganized into temporary kits and subassemblies with the use of phantom and synthetic partnumbers. These reflect the different manufacturing stages, and allow improved tracking of thesubassemblies as they are completed by different suppliers and manufacturing facilities.Organizations try to align these BOM structures as much as possible. However, some Engineeringdepartments do not want to change the product definition every time the manufacturing process ischanged or reorganized. The MES should support either (a) receiving an mBOM from an externalsystem, or (b) receiving the eBOM and managing the transformation from the eBOM to the mBOMwithin the MES system. The development of the mBOM is closely tied to the development of themanufacturing process, which is captured in the definition of Process Routings.An MES must support configuration management in BOMs through effectivities for each componentpart, with ranges in end units, serial/lot numbers, or dates. Some companies might also useconfiguration codes on components, to manage variations of the product within a single BOM. Copyright 2014Page 9 of 28

What is MES in Complex Discrete Manufacturing2.1.2. Process Routing

manufacturing planning, and manufacturing execution functions. This link would close the loop on engineering changes, and assure that as‐built configurations match as‐designed. Detailed Quality Control Processes Beyond providing visibility into areas for improvements, the manufacturing information system