TELEMATICS 2017 - Western Cape - Free Download PDF

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Directorate: Curriculum FETTELEMATICS 2017GEOGRAPHYPage1Grade 11

Dear Grade 11 LearnerThe Telematics Teaching Project stems from cooperation between the Western CapeEducation Department and the Stellenbosch University.To be able to have success at the end of the year it will be very important to keep on learningand applying the prescribed key concepts/processes and process skills in the differentknowledge areas throughout the year. Make sure that you are able to analyse and interpretgeography related concepts in newspapers and magazines to the concepts and content youhave discussed in the classroom. In addition, spend at least a few hours per week studying /reading / making summaries about the four components in the theory section and attempt tointegrate it with the mapwork section.This resource pack includes the following:x Theory: Mindmaps of the lessons that will be broadcast. This is a good summary ofyour class notes and can help you with your examination preparation.x Geomorphology and Mapwork: Notes, techniques, questions and answers as wellas a guideline to calculations.TELEMATICS TEACHING SCHEDULE FOR 2017GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SUPPORT – FIRST QUARTERDATETIMETOPICTuesday14 February16:00 – 17:00ClimatePage2GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SUPPORT – FOURTH QUARTERDATETIMETOPICWednesday25 October16:00 – 17:00Geomorphology

THE ATMOSPHEREGLOBAL AIR CIRCULATION1High and low pressuresComplete the table below by choosing the following words: Cyclone; Anticyclone;Sinking air; Rising air; Clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere; Anticlockwise in theSouthern Hemisphere.HIGH PRESSURELOW PRESSUREAppearance onsynoptic weather mapType of air movementAir movement aroundthe systemOther names3Relationship between air temperature, air pressure and windPage2

3World pressure belts, Tri-cellular circulation and global aircirculation4Coriolus forceThe force that causes air to be deflected to the RIGHT in the Northern Hemisphereand to the LEFT in the Southern Hemisphere.4Pressure gradientPage5

The force that causes air to move from to a pressure6Geostrophic flowHow do the Coriolus force and pressure gradient together affect wind direction?The diagram represents the movement of air in the SOUTHERN HEMISPHEREGeostrophic wind is caused by the combinedeffects of pressure gradient and Coriolus forceFöhn winds5Föhn is a general name used for any dry, hot wind that originates in a mountainousarea.Page7


HORIZONTAL LAYERSHow buttes, mesas andconical hills are formedButteMesa eroded to form asmall flat-topped hill. Hasa hard top layerMesaRivers dissect plateau intolarge blocks. Has a hardtop layerConical hillPointed hill after the hardtop of a butte has beenremoved by erosionTorFreestanding exposureof bedrock formed bydifferential weatheringusually in the form ofcore stonesINCLINED LAYERSMASSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKSSLOPESPage27Batholith: Very largestructure of irregular shapeLaccolith: Mushroom shapedLopolith: Saucer shaped

ACTIVITYStudy the diagram below and complete the table regarding slope elements andcharacteristicsABCDSlope elementShapeProcessMASS MOVEMENTPage38Indicate the position of the knickpoint with X.DEFINITIONThe movement of weathered materials down a slope

xxxxMASSTYPES OF MASS MOVEMENTSoil creepVery slow downslope movementof soil. Difficult to notice. Takesplace at a rate of 1mm a year.SolifluctionVery slow down-slope movementof water saturated soil. Occurs inarid regions when debris becomesaturated with water.LandslidesOccurs when a large mass of landbreaks loose and plunges down aslope. Causes great economicloss through destruction ofinfrastructure.xxxxxxxxEFFECTS OF MASS MOVEMENTDamage to railroads, buildingsExpensesLoss of productivityInterruption of transportRoad closuresSTRATEGIESRestrict activities on slopePlant natural vegetationEngineering techniquesSafety nets to stop rock fallsStabilise slopesDrain excess waterReduce deforestationFasten unstable rocksMud flowsOccurs on steep slopes afterheavy rain. Like a stream of mudand exceeds 1 km/h. Happens inarid regions after heavy rain fall.SlumpsSlope failure involving rotationalmovement. Occurs in areaswhere softer materials overliemore resistant rocks.GEOGRAPHICAL MAPWORK SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES1CONTOURS AND SLOPES9xxxxxRock fallsVery rapid movement of materialon slopes exceeding 40 . Rocksbreak loose due to weatheringfrost action and earth quakes.Rocks collect at the bottom of theslopePageMOVEMENTEVIDENCE OF MASSMOVEMENTTilted telephone polesBroken fencesCracks in tiles and wallsDoors and windows stuck

1.1Concave slope1.2Convex slope1.3Terraced slope2MAP REFERENCE10Contour lines join places with the same height above sea level.Contours far apart show a gentle slope.Contours close together show a steep slopePagexxx


5DIRECTION OF RIVER FLOWPageREAD AND INTERPRETATION OF MAPS AND ORTOPHOTOS12The following methods can be employed in determining the direction of river flow.

The goal of this guide is to empower you with regard to the answer of interpretation questionsin mapwork. Remember that there is a large amount of information on the topographical- andortophoto map. To answer these questions successfully, you must know what to look at toget to the answer. Most of these questions come from previous exam question papers. Otherquestions have also been included. Remember that this is not a memorandum which hasbeen given with the questions, but an attempt to show what you should look at to get tothe answers. It is important to take note that ALL content, modules and skills can beassessed in the mapwork paper. Use this guide to study and prepare yourself for themapwork question paper (Paper 2).CLIMATOLOGY1Does the area receive seasonal rainfall or rainfall throughout the year?Seasonal: Non-perennial rivers/ dams/ cultivated lands near rivers/ irrigation/ furrows2Which slope is the warmest?The northward-facing slope – identify the northward-facing slope3In which direction will an airplane take off and land?(Remember that airplanes take off and land against the wind.)Physical aspects influencing the construction of railways and roads.Mountains/ steep slopes/ marshes/ rivers/2In which direction does the river flow?-To the sea-Always from high to low-Contours bend upstream-Dam wall on downstream side-Tributaries join at acute angles4Identify the landforms regarding structural landscapes:-Horizontal layers: Mesas/ buttes/ conical hills-Inclined layers: dip and escarp slopes-Massive igneous rocks: dome-shaped landforms5In which direction do the layers dip?Layers always dip in the direction of the GRADUAL slopePage113GEOMORPHOLOGY

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND SUSTAINABILITY1Evidence of nature conservationNature reserve/ hiking trail/ fire break/ game reserve2Evidence of conservational farming.Anti-erosion walls/ camps/ rows of trees to reduce wind/ contour ploughing3Are there sources of air pollution in the area?-Air pollution: Industries-Noise pollution: Airport-Water pollution: Factories / camping sites/ Power station near riverPRIMARY ACTIVITIES (FARMING / MINING)1Commercial or subsistence farming?Commercial: Good infrastructure/ irrigation/ large farms/ farm names/ cellar/ dippingtank/ experimental farm/ estate/ sugar mill/ service rail/ abbatoir/ dairySubsistence: Few roads/ footpaths/ no power lines/ small patches of cultivated land2Describe factors that advantage/disadvantage farming activitiesAdvantage: Rivers/ dams/ flat land/ power lines/ railway linesDisadvantage: Steep slopes/ water scarce/ marshes3Identify mining activitiesExcavations/ mine dump/ conveyer belt/ terraces/ names of mines/ old mines/subsiding ground4Identifying of fishing activitiesFishing harbours/ fishermen’s houses/ factories near coast5Identifying of forestryTrees/ woodlands/ saw mill/ lookout towers/ fire break/ state forest(b)SECONDARY ACTIVITIES ( INDUSTRIES)1Describe the factors that influenced the location of the industriesFlat surface/ raw material/ Transport(name the types)/ power (power station, powerlines, coal mines)/ water/ labour(residential areas)/ Market/ outskirts/2Heavy or light industries?Heavy:Far from CBD/ railway transport/ Raw material-mining/ large spaces/Light:close to CBD / road transport/ raw material - farmingPage(a)14ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

(c)TERTIARY ACTIVITIES (SERVICES)1Tourist attractions, holiday resorts, camping sitesClose to beaches/ close to road railway/ wine tasting/ historical buildings/ monuments/museums2Types of services foundElectricity supply/ telephone/ medical/ pot office/ educationl(school/ college/ university)transport (roads airport railway)/ police services etc. (buildings on map)3Recreation facilities?Golf course/ athletics/ rifle range/ racing track/ etc4Factors that determined the location of the airportFlat area/ far from built-up area for safety/ noise/ roads/5Does the railway line and the road follow the same routs? Why not?The same? NB influence of topographyRoad: through mountain pass . Railway around mountain (between Paarl andWorcester)6For what is the dam on the map used? Give reasonsDrinking water: Water purification worksIrrigation: cannels and furrowsRecreation: Yacht club, Hotels at dam, camping site, caravan park, slipway, etc.Why is the settlement located there?Flat area/ roads/ river/ mountain/ sea/ etc2Is it an urban or a rural settlement?Rural: Primary activitiesUrban: Secondary and Tertiary activitiesPage115SETTLEMENT

CALCULATIONSDISTANCEFORMULA:Distance Map distance x Scale100 000Calculate the length of the national road from A to B.B4,8cmDistance 4,8cmSTEP 2Place in FormulaDistance Map distance x Scale100 000STEP 3Answer in km 4,8 x 50 000100 000 4,82 2,4 kmPageSTEP 1Measure distance on mapin cm16A

AREAFORMULA: AREA Length x BreadthCalculate the area of Blok X.X3cm5cm 5 cm x 50 000100 000 STEP 2Calculate breadth of blockin cmBreadth 3 cm x 50 000100 000 STEP 3Place in FormulaSTEP 4Answer in km²Area2,5 km 1,5 kmlxb 2,5 x 1,5 3,75 km²17LengthPageSTEP 1Calculate length of blockin cm

GRADIENTFORMULA: Gradient VI (Difference in height)HE (Horizontal distance)Calculate the gradient from C to D.460mDCSTEP 1Calculate difference in heightSTEP 2Calculate distanceSTEP 2Convert to METERSSTEP 4Place in formula andSIMPLIFYSTEP 5Answer as a ratio460 – 340 120mDistance Map distance x Scale100 000 4,8 x 50 000100 000 2,4 km 2 400mGradient Difference in height (VI)Distance (HE) 120m2 400m 120 1:20184,8cmPage220m

MAGNETIC DECLINATION AND MAGNETIC BEARINGMagnetic declination is the difference between true North andmagnetic North (on compas).Mag NWestTrue NEastNB The following when you work with Magnetic Declination1. What is the mean mag. declination (in degrees & minutes?2. In which direction is the magnetic declination?3. In which year is the magnetic declination given?4. What is the mean annual change?5. In what direction is the average yearly change?6. For what year must the mag. declination be calculated?SouthMean magnetic declination 23 53’ West of true north (Julie 2002).Mean annual change 6’ Westwards.Calculate magnetic declination for 2009.STEP 3Add or subtract frommagnetic declinationSTEP 4Remember: Minutes cannotbe more than 60 !6’ x 7 years 42’ West23 53’ 42’23 95’STEP 3 NB: FOR SOUTH AFRICAIf the chabge is towards the WEST, itis ADDED.If the change is towards the EAST it, isSUBTRACTED 24 35’ WestMAGNETIC BEARINGMagnetic bearing is calculatedby simply adding the bearing19STEP 2Calculate total change2009 – 2002 7 yearsPageSTEP 1Calculate difference in years

5VERTICAL EXAGGERATIONFORMULA: V E VERTICALE SCALEHORIZONTAL SCALECalculate the vertical exaggeration of the followingVV (same units)VERTICAL SCALEHORIZONTAL SCALE1 15 00050 0001X5 00050 0001 10 Times20STAP 2Place informula4mm 20m4mm 20 000mm4 : 20 0001 : 5 000PageSTEP 1Convert VS toratio scale

Geomorphology and Mapwork: Notes, techniques, questions and answers as well as a guideline to calculations. TELEMATICS TEACHING SCHEDULE FOR 2017 GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SUPPORT – FIRST QUARTER DATE TIME TOPIC Tuesday 14 February 16:00 – 17:00 Climate GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SUPPORT – FOURTH QUARTER DATE TIME TOPIC