Overview on Drinking Water Quality Management inJapanMayuko HATTORI*Division of Water Supply, Health Service Bureau,Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare1. IntroductionIn Japan, the Drinking Water Quality Standards (DWQSs) have been set asMinistry’s order so that water supply systems are always able to supply potable waterfrom taps. In 2003, responding to situational changes surrounding water qualitymanagement, as well as taking the third edition of the WHO’s Guidelines for DrinkingWater Quality into account, the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) laiddown a new set of the DWQSs, which went into effect on April 2004.Considering some cases that took place in 2006, the government is now preparingfor new revision of the DWQSs: there were several water quality incidents at smallfacilities, which involved some people infected by drinking water, a high level ofunregulated substance was detected in Kanto Area (near Tokyo), Japan.2. Revision of the DWQSs2.1 Fundamental principlesIn addition to the Drinking Water Quality Standards (50 items), which are based onthe Water Works Law, the Complementary Items for Water Quality Management (27items) have been set by the Director General of Health Bureau of the MHLW since 2003,whereas the Items for Further Study (40 items) have been suggested by the Minister’sHealth Science Council to put under observation in order to cope with various emergingand future issues on water quality management.・ Drinking Water Quality StandardsTap water quality must meet the DWQSs based on the Water Works Law. Thirty*1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8916 Japan,e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
items are set from the viewpoint of human health, and twenty items are set from otherreasons including user needs on water quality and control level at purification plants.The Water Works Law requires the water suppliers to monitor the tap water qualityregularly to make sure that the water meets the standards. The DWQSs basicallyinclude items that are detected or can possibly be detected in purified water at levels of10% of the health-based value or higher.・ Complementary ItemsThe Complementary Items for Water Quality Management are items that theMHLW requests water suppliers to monitor. Fifteen items (including the total of 101agricultural chemicals) are set from the viewpoint of human health and twelve items areset from other reasons including user needs on water quality and control level atpurification plants・ Items for Further StudyThe Items for Further Study are items of which health-based value are provisional,or items of which detect level and frequency in purified water are not clear. Furtherstudies are needed to collect more information and knowledge on these items.2.2 The state of the water quality in JapanThe present DWQSs and Complementary items went into effect on April 2004.Since then, water suppliers have monitored these items and the results show that watersuppliers have to pay attention to the items which follow.・ DWQSsLead is sometimes detected in purified water at higher level than the standardvalue. This is caused by lead water pipes which still have been used in privatebuildings or houses.Nitrate and Nitrite are detected in purified water at level of higher than thestandard value in a few points. Many private drinking water wells are at risk andwould need precaution against contamination.Bromate is sometimes detected in purified water at higher level than thestandard value. The major causes for the formation are impurities included inSodium hypochlorite. In addition, formation in the ozone treatment system is also tobe noted.・ Complementary ItemsChlorate is detected in purified water at 10% level of the health-based value inmany points. And it is detected at higher level than the health-based value in a fewplaces. It has been reported that chlorate may be formed in oxidation of Sodiumhypochlorite, being used as disinfectants, more rapidly at warmer temperatures.
2.3 Addition of chlorate to the DWQSsConsidering frequent detections of high level of chlorate, the MHLW took an actionto the Health Science Council, held on Aug 4, 2006, to add chlorate to the DWQSs.Itwas agreed by the Council to forward to the Food Safety Commission, which wasestablished in July 2003 to undertake risk assessment under the Food Safety Basic Lawto respond to the growth of national concern about food. The Commission isindependent from management organizations such as the MHLW. The Commissionconducts risk assessment on food in a scientific, independent, and fair manner. Hence,the MHLW have been requested to inquire the Commission to conduct risk assessmentwhen the MHLW wishes to make any changes on the DWQSs. According to this rule,the MHLW submitted the draft for deliberation to the Commission on Aug 31, 2006 inorder to conduct risk assessment to add chlorate to the DWQSs. After receiving theCommission’s report, the draft will be disclosed by the MHLW for public comments forone month. After checking public comments, the MHLW will finalize the standard. Theproposed standard value is 0.6mg/L, which is decided from the viewpoint of humanhealth, as it causes damage to the oxidation of blood cells.3. Recent water quality incidents3.1 The state of the occurrence of water quality incidentsWater suppliers in Japan always make efforts to supply potable water under theproper water quality management. However, a few water quality incidents take placeevery year. In 2006, more than ten incidents which lead to cutting off the water supplyhappened. When the MHLW receives the report of the incidents, it takes measures toprevent recurrence of the accident. For example, when an incident happened as a resultof inappropriate coagulation management, The MHLW would issue a letter to all watersuppliers in Japan in order to remind of the importance of appropriate use of coagulationchemicals. When it happened because of contamination of water source, the letterwould focus on observation of water source.3.2 Infectious diseases caused by drinking waterA few infectious diseases caused by drinking water happened in 2006. InFukushima Pref., a small-scale water supply service supplied water without chlorinationand 71 persons who drunk the water showed the symptoms of diarrhea, stomachache,or fever. The facility was not inspected appropriately. As a result, the deposition ofsodium hypochlorite clogged the chlorine injecting nozzle. To make matters worse,
measures taken against the accidents was delayed because they disregarded theaccident when they recognized that chlorine was not detected in the water. Theinspection of untreated water of the facility and feces of the patients proved that thebacteria which caused the symptoms were Campylobacter.The table shows the infectious diseases caused by drinking water in Japan. Manyof them occurred because of the inappropriate management or defects of disinfection,therefore, taking proper management is essential in small-scale water services. Now theinformation of virus is so limited that further studies are necessary to gain moreinformation and knowledge.Table: Infectious diseases caused by drinking water in 1999July Naganospringenterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157homeunknown302000Feb. Kyotowellenteropathogenic E. coli O126restaurantunknown502001June Naganospringenterotoxigenic E.coli O169accomodations3101812002Oct. Akitaspring, swampCampylobacter jejunihomeunknown13Mar. NiigatawellNoroviruses, Clostridium perfringens,Staphylococcus aureus,Campylobacter, restaurantE. coli227151June IshikawawellNorovirus52276July Chibasmall water supply systemRotavirus group A(water cooler)school8647July Oitawellenterohaemorrhagic E. coli（ verotoxin-producing ）home43Sep. Ehimeprivate water supplysystem(water cooler)Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobactercolischool52569Mar. HiroshimawellGenus Escherichiahome1715Aug. Ishikawasmall water supply systemCampylobacter jejuni, Campylobactercoliaccomodations7852Mar. Akitasmall water supply system Norovirushomeunknown29June Yamanashismall water supply systemhomeunknown76Jyly Oitasmall water supply system Plesiomonas shigelloidesaccomodations280190Jyly Oitawellenterotoxigenic E.coli O168campsite348273Aug. Naganospringenteroaggregative E.coli O55accomodations8143Aug. Kochiwellunknownhome2816Aug. FukushimaspringCampylobacter jejunihomeunknown71Sep. Miyagiwell?Clostridium botulinum type Ahome91200320042005Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobactercolirestaurant2006
4. Measures to unregulated substancesAlthough the Water Works Law does not require regular monitoring onunregulated substances, unless listed in the DWQSs, observation of water sourceshould be done wider perspective. With this in mind, the MHLW has been investigatingunregulated substances in collaboration with research institutes and water laboratoriesof large water suppliers. It is also necessary to take measures immediately whenunregulated substances are detected in tap water, as they might be caused by disorderof treatment facilities or some other important reasons. In other case, agriculturalchemicals should also be monitored even if they were prohibited from marketing: itwas the case in groundwater in 2006, and the water supplier had to stop taking waterfrom the groundwater and strengthened the watching for water source.In 2006, perchlorate, one of the unregulated substances, was detected byresearchers’ investigation in Tone River, which flew down through Kanto Plains.Although no body paid any attention to perchlorate by that time, the MHLW tookmeasures and requested researchers to keep investigation on perchlorate andadvocated investigating its level in wide- ranging area.5. ConclusionWater suppliers in Japan always supply potable water, which we can drink directlyfrom taps without any cares or any special treatment. But recent researches reportedthat the number of people who drink tap water directly is decreasing. This may havebeen caused by a discontent on the tastes of tap water or popularity of bottled mineralwater due to its convenience. Under this situation, in order to improve the popularity oftap water and improve the reliability of consumers on safety and reliability of drinkingwater, the MHLW will continue further efforts in cooperation with all water suppliers totake measures for appropriate water quality management, such as preventive measureagainst water quality incidents, encouragement to introduce advanced water-treatmentfacilities, and valuable information exchange on water quality management.
Overview on Drinking WaterQuality Management in JapanMayuko HATTORIWater Supply DivisionHealth Service BureauMinistry of Health, Labour and WelfareOverview on Drinking WaterQuality Management in Japan1. Introduction2. Revision of the DWQSs(Drinking Water Quality Standards)3. Recent water quality incidents4. Measures to unregulated substances1
1. Introduction1. IntroductionState of Water Quality in Japan Source water quality has been improved The overall situation is good① Current state depends on continuous efforts② Further safety expected③ Rising Concern about tasty water2
2. Revision of the DWQSs2. Revision of the DWQSsDrinking Water Quality StandardsJuly 2002MHLW inquired the Health Science Council aboutrevision of the DWQSsApril 2003The Council submitted a reportMay 2003MHLW laid down a new set of the DWQSsApril 2004New DWQSs went into effect3
2. Revision of the DWQSs2.1 Fundamental principlesDrinking Water Quality StandardsDWQSs(50items)Complementary Items(27items)(Based on The Water Works Law)・ The Water Works Law requires the watersuppliers to monitor・ Detected in purified water at 10% of thehealth based value or higherItems for Further Study(40items)2. Revision of the DWQSs2.1 Fundamental principlesDWQSs(50items)Complementary Items(27items)Items for Further StudyComplementary Items for Water QualityManagement(Set by the Director General of Health Bureau ofMHLW)・MHLW requests to monitor・Risk assessments are provisional ordetected at few points(40items)4
2. Revision of the DWQSs2.1 Fundamental principlesDWQSs(50items)Complementary Items(27items)Items for Further StudyItems for Further Study (Suggested by the Minister’s Health Science(40items)Council to put under observation)・Risk assessments are provisional・Detected level and frequency in purifiedwater is unclear・Further study to collect more informationand knowledge is needed2. Revision of the DWQSs2.2 The state of the water quality in JapanResults of water-quality monitoringDrinking Water Quality StandardsLeadNitrate and Nitrite・Higher than standard ---- 6 / 2,886 (points)・ Causes: lead water pipes・ Higher than standard ---- 1 / 4,158 (points)・ Private drinking water wells need precaution・ Higher than standard ---- 18 / 5,695 (points)Bromate・ Causes: impurities in Sodium hypochloritealso formed in Ozone treatment systemComplementary ItemsChlorate・ Higher than health-based value ----6 / 248(points)・Causes: oxidation of Sodium hypochlorite5
2. Revision of the DWQSs2.2 The state of the water quality in JapanCauses of excess Chlorate・Oxidation of Sodium hypochlorite, beingused as disinfectants・More rapidly at warmer temperatures・Temperatures and purchase frequencyare to be notedComplementary Items・ Higher than health-based value ----6 / 248(points)・Causes: oxidation of Sodium hypochloriteChlorate2. Revision of the DWQSs2.2 The state of the water quality in JapanCauses of excess ChlorateTerm of Validity 〔days〕100806030 4020 25 2000246810Concentrationof Chlorine Injection �注入率 有効塩素濃度)chlorine times Sodium hypochlorite injection ratio )6
2. Revision of the DWQSs2.3 Addition of chlorate to the DWQSs【Background】Result of water quality monitoring in FY2004 shows–Chlorate is detected in purified water at 10% levelof the health-based value in many points–Chlorate is detected at higher level than thehealth- based value in a few places2. Revision of the DWQSs2.3 Addition of chlorate to the DWQSs【Action】Aug 4, 2006 MHLW took action to the Health ScienceCouncil to add chlorate to DWQSsIt was agreed by the Council to forward to theFood Safety CommissionAug 31, 2006 MHLW submitted the draft for deliberation tothe Commission7
2. Revision of the DWQSs2.3 Addition of chlorate to the DWQSsAssessment and ManagementInformationCabinet OfficeFood Safety Commission(Risk assessment org.)Inquire riskassessmentOther Countries,International Org.ReportMHLW(Management org.)Risk management about sanitary・Setting DWQSs・Playing a leading part for water safety・Implementation of Risk CommunicationRisk CommunicationConsumer2. Revision of the DWQSs2.3 Addition of chlorate to the DWQSs Afterreceiving the Commission’s reports,the draft will be disclosed by the MHLW forpublic comments MHLWwill finalize the standard Chloratecauses damage to the oxidation ofblood cells Proposedstandard value is 0.6mg/L8
3. Recent water quality incidentsNumbers of serious incidents3. Recent water quality incidents3.1 The state of the occurrence51%23%20002001200220032004(FY)oilorganic matterturbidityodorpHothersPollutants(FY2004)In 2006, more than ten incidents leading to cutting off thewater supply9
3. Recent water quality incidents3.2 Infectious diseases caused by drinking waterA few infectious diseases happened in 2006One Case at small-scale water supply service– Aug 17-25, 2006– Supplied water without chlorination– 71 persons showed the symptoms of diarrhea,stomachache, or fever– This facility was not inspected appropriately– The bacteria is CampylobacterMHLW issued a letter to all water suppliers toremind of the importance of appropriatemanagement on chlorination3. Recent water quality incidents3.2 Infectious diseases caused by drinking waterInfectious diseases in Japan (2004-2006)WHENWHEREPATHOGENGenus EscherichiaFACILITIESEATERPATIENTMar. Hiroshimawellhome1715Aug. IshikawaCampylobacter jejuni, Campylobactersmall water supply systemcoliaccomodations7852Mar. Akitasmall water supply system Norovirushomeunknown29June YamanashiCampylobacter jejuni, Campylobactersmall water supply 34827320042005ORIGINJyly Oitasmall water supply system Plesiomonas shigelloidesJyly Oitawellenterotoxigenic E.coli O168Aug. Naganospringenteroaggregative E.coli O55accomodations8143Aug. Kochiwellunknownhome2816Aug. FukushimaspringCampylobacter jejunihomeunknown71Sep. Miyagiwell?Clostridium botulinum type Ahome91200610
3. Recent water quality incidents3.2 Infectious diseases caused by drinking waterMeasures to incidents Manyof incidents happened byinappropriate or poor management Appropriatemanagement in small-scale water service Informationof Virus in drinkingwater is limited Furtherstudy and knowledge4. Measures to unregulated substances11
4. Measures to unregulated substances Investigate Researchinto unregulated substancesunknown substances Gatherinformation on toxicity andknowledge4. Measures to unregulated substancesDetection of Perchlorate10Water IntakeUpper Tone RiverMiddle and Lower Tone RiverOther regionTone RiverNumber of sample86420 0.05 11 55 1010 2020 3030 40Range of perchlorate concentration (μg/L)Relationship between the water intake for drinking water supplyand perchlorate in the tap waters.Tokyo(Department of Water Supply Engineering,National Institute of Public Health )12
ConclusionConclusionImage of Tap Water in CityReason for discontent① Bad tasety(61.8%)② Concern about safety(42.7%)③ Smell of chlorine(28.7%)④ Tepid (26.1%)Discontent不満Content満足13%やや ��足Questionnaire Survey(2006, Tokyo, 453 persons)13
ConclusionReal Taste of Tap Water in CityWater supplied ��ﾗﾙｳｫｰwater BﾀｰBWhich is the bestwater?ﾐﾈﾗﾙｳｫｰBottledwater AﾀｰＡTasting test about drinking water(1998, Tokyo, 392 persons)ConclusionIn order to improve the popularity of tap waterand improve the reliability of consumers onsafety and reliability of drinking water,the MHLW will continue further efforts incooperation with all water suppliers to takemeasures for appropriate water qualitymanagement.Thank you14
Japan Mayuko HATTORI* Division of Water Supply, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare 1. Introduction In Japan, the Drinking Water Quality Standards (DWQSs) have been set as Ministry’s order so that water supply systems are always able to supply potable water from taps.File Size: 578KB
1.1 Drinking Water Quality 1.2 Community and Household Water Treatment 1.3 Need for Drinking Water Quality Testing 1.4 Drinking Water Quality Guidelines and Standards 1.5 Drinking Water Quality Testing Options 1.6 Lessons Learned 1.7 Summary of Key Points 1.8 References Section 2 Planning f
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Best Practices Manual Office of Drinking Water Small Drinking Water Systems 1.0 Introduction New regulations pursuant to The Drinking Water Safety Act, administered by the Office of Drinking Water, resulted in changes to the approval, licensing, monitoring, record-keeping
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