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SCHAUM'S OUTLINEOFENGLISHGRAMMARSecond EditionEUGENE EHRLICHFormer Senior LecturerDepartment of Englishand Comparative LiteratureSchool of General StudiesColumbia UniversityDANIEL MURPHYEmeritus Professor of EnglishCity University of New YorkSCHAUM'S OUTLINE SERIESMcGRAW-HILLNew York Sun Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogota' Caracas LisbonLondon Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New DelhiSun Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

EUGENE EHRLICH served as Senior Lecturer in the Department of Englishand Comparative Literature, School of General Studies, Columbia University.DANIEL MURPHY is a retired Associate Professor in the Department ofEnglish, Baruch College, CUNY.Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems ofENGLISH GRAMMARCopyright O 1991, 1976 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without theprior written permission of the publisher.9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 BAW BAW 9ISBN 0-07-019V04-XSponsoring Editors: John Aliano, Patricia AndrewsProduction Supervisor: Leroy YoungEditing Supervisors: Meg Tobin and Maureen WalkerLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataEhrlich. Eugene H.Schaum's outline of English Grammar 1 Eugene Ehrlich, DanielMurphy.-2nd Edition.p. cm.-(Schaum's outline series)Includes index.ISBN 0-07-0 19484-XI . English language-Grammar-1950 - I. Murphy, Daniel Joseph,1921- . 11. Title. 111. Series.PE1112.E33 199190-6533428.2 - dc20CPIMcGraw-HillA Division of TheMcGmw ii.llCoatpomes

The study of English grammar has two principal advantages. It facilitates mastery ofwriting and enables students to study the grammar of other languages more efficiently.This second edition of English Grammar was developed to make the study of Englishgrammar as current and as effective as possible for all students, whether or not English istheir first language. A Glossary of Grammatical Terms is provided as a reference to beused at any time. We hope that students will continue to find our exercises andexplanations helpfulChapter 1 discusses the principal elements of the sentence, and the next six chaptersprovide information and practice in all the parts of speech: nouns and articles, verbs andverbals, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions and conjunctions. Each chapterof the book first presents necessary definitions and discussions, complete with examples.This presentation is then followed by exercises designed to help the student achievemastery of the subject. Answers to all exercises are provided at the end of the book. Thestudent is advised to work step by step through each chapter, doing each exercise in turnand checking the answers before proceeding further.

ContentsGLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMSChapter1PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE1Verb .1Subject .1Direct Object .1Complement .1Indirect Object . 6Modifiers .7Multiple-word Modifiers .8Clauses .14Phrases .15Chapter2NOUNS AND ARTICLES17Nouns .17Noun Functions .18Types of Nouns .25Plural Forms of Nouns .28Possessive Forms of Nouns.29Collective Nouns .30.31Articles . 32Definite Article. Omission of the Definite Article.Noun ClausesIndefinite Article. Choosing between a and an.Chapter3VERBS AND VERBALSVerbs .Predicate .Transitive and Intransitive Verbs .Copulative (Linking) Verbs .Auxiliary Verbs .Shall and Will. Should and Would.Mood .Uses of the Subjunctive Mood.Voice .Number .Agreement of Subject and Verb. Compound Subjects and Their Verbs.Collective Nouns and Their Verbs.

CONTENTS. . . .,.,.,.,.,Tense . .,.Person,,Principal Parts of the Verb. Selection of Tense. Agreement of TensesPresent Tense for Ideas True for All Time.Consistency of Verbs .Consistency of Voice. Consistency of Person. Consistency of Tense.Consistency of Mood. . .Verbals .Infinitive . . . . .,. .,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,Infinitive Phrases. Tenses of the Infinitive. Split Infinitives.Participle . . . .,.,.,.,. .,.Tenses of the Participle.Gerund.,.Verbals Used as Modifiers .Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers .Dangling Participles. Misplaced Participles. Dangling Infinitives.Auxiliary Verbs and Infinitives in Compound Constructions .Auxiliary Verbs. Infinitives.Parallel Structure and Verb FomsChapter4.PRONOUNSTypes of Pronouns .76Personal and Impersonal Pronouns. Relative Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns.Interrogative Pronouns. Reflexive Pronouns. Intensive Pronouns.Reciprocal Pronouns. Indefinite Pronouns.Pronoun Agreement .86Plural and Singular Antecedents. Antecedents Joined by And. Or, or Nor.Collective Nouns. Singular Pronouns as Antecedents.Pronouns in the Subjective Case .90.91Pronouns in the Objective Case .Pronouns as Objects of Verbals. Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions.Chapter5Pronouns in the Possessive Case .93Pronouns as Appositives .,.,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93ADJECTIVES95Types of Adjectives .95Limiting Adjectives. Predicate Adjectives.Position of Adjectives .98Comparison of Adjectives . 99Adjective Phrases . .99Adjective Clauses .100Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses. That and Which with Adjective Clauses.

CONTENTSNouns Used as Adjectives.vii102Adjectives Used as Nouns.Participles as Adjectives.103Dangling Participles.Infinitives as Adjectives .105Chapter6ADVERBSRecognizing Adverbs .Adverbs Ending in .ly . Recognizing Adverbs by Their Functions.Comparison of Adverbs .Nouns and Phrases Used as Adverbs .Adverbial Clauses .Distinguishing Adverbs from AdjectivesConjunctive Adverbs .Intensifiers .Infinitives as AdverbsChapter7.PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONSPrepositions119.119Commonly Used Prepositions. Object of Preposition. DifferentiatingPrepositions from Other Parts of Speech. Prepositional Phrases as Modifiers.Conjunctions.125ANSWERS128INDEX141

Glossary of Grammatical TermsAccusative case. Form of a pronoun showing that the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition: me, her,him, us, them, whom. Also called objective case.Active voice.See Voice.Adjective. Word or words used to modify a noun, pronoun, or verbal: good food, nlonderful you, poorfishing.Adjective clause. Subordinate clause used as adjective: Everyone who approves should vote for him.Adjective phrase. Phrase used as adjective: The woman in the red dress is beautiful.Adverb. Word or words used to modify a verb, verbal, adjective, adverb, or entire clause or sentence: runquickly, to sit quietly, quite fresh, Naturally he was elected.Adverbial clause. Subordinate clause used as adverb: John left whenever he felt like it.Adverbial phrase. Phrase used as adverb: She sent her son to the store.Antecedent. Word or words to which a pronoun refers: Alice (antecedent) asked for her (pronoun) dessert.Apposition. Placement of a noun or noun substitute next to another to explain or identify it: New York, theEmpire State; Richard the Lion Hearted. The Empire State and the Lion Hearted are known as appositives.Article. A, an, and the are articles. Their function is to modify a noun or noun substitute. A and an are theindefinite articles. The is the definite article.Auxiliary verb. Verb used with other verbs to form tense or voice: We should go to the movies. He wasslaughtered.Case. Form of a noun or pronoun to show function. The three

The study of English grammar has two principal advantages. It facilitates mastery of writing and enables students to study the grammar of other languages more efficiently. This second edition of English Grammar was developed to make the study of English grammar as current and as effective as possible for all students, whether or not English is

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