AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Jkt.qxp Layout 1 12/05/2017 09:18 Page 1Then you need theProgressive Skills in English CourseThe course builds the skills required for lectures, tutorials,reading research and written assignments in English.Reading skills include: finding information quickly predicting content distinguishing betweenfact and possibilityunderstanding signpost languagerecognizing the organization of a lecturerecognizing change of sub-topicpredicting content from linking wordsnote-taking: classificationWriting skills include: Speaking skills include:showing understandingshowing lack of understandingtalking about researchtaking part in a tutorialgiving a talk with slidescomparing events and ideasconnecting ideas with and/butrecording and displaying resultsusing basic paragraph structure:point, explanation, exampleTerry Phillips and Anna Phillips Level 2 Teacher’s BookListening skills include:Progressive Skills in EnglishDo you need English in your studies?NEW EDITIONPROGRESSIVESkillsin EnglishLevel 2 Teacher’s BookLevel 2 Course components:Course Book with audio DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978-1-78260-304-7Workbook with audio DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978-1-78260-307-8Teacher’s Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978-1-78260-310-8IELTSLevelCommon EuropeanFramework LevelFlesch-Kincaid Level forListening and Reading Texts4.0– 4.5B1Listening: 4–5 (max. 400 words)Reading: 4–5 (max. 250 omG A R N E T E D U C AT I O NOutput writing texts: 1–5 paragraphsTerry Phillips and Anna Phillips
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 1NEW EDITIONPROGRESSIVESkillsin EnglishLevel 2 Teacher’s BookTerry Phillips and Anna Phillips1
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 2Published byGarnet Publishing Ltd.8 Southern CourtSouth StreetReading RG1 4QS, UKCopyright 2017 Garnet Publishing Ltd.The right of Terry Phillips and Anna Phillips to be identified as the authorsof this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright,Designs and Patents Act 1988.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the priorpermission of the Publisher. Any person who does any unauthorized act inrelation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civilclaims for damages.Second edition 2017ISBN: 978-1-78260-310-8British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British Library.ProductionProject manager:Editorial team:Research:Design & layout:Illustration:Photography:Audio:Richard PeacockDr Sally Rabi, Emily McIntyre, Sarah Mellowes,Sarah Curtis, Sam Lacey, Clare ChandlerLucy PhillipsEd Du Bois, Neil Collier, Mike Hinks, Sarah ChurchDoug NashAlamy, Clipart, Getty Images, iStockphoto,ShutterstockEFS Television Production Ltd; Silver Street Studios,Reading, UKAcknowledgementsThe Publishers would like to thank the following who contributed to thepiloting of the Garnet series at AOU:1. FLS Deanship:Professor Ahmad Y. Majdoubeh and ProfessorSaleh Al-Salman2. Kuwait Branch:Mr Mohammed Farran andMs Hiba Tayyara3. Egypt Branch:Dr Heba Badreldin, Dr Manar Shalaby, Ms AmiraFouad, and Dr Marine Milad4. Lebanon Branch: Dr Hayat Al-Khatib, Mr Ralph Sleiman, Ms MirnaAbdel Malak, and Ms Helen ZadourianPrinted and boundin Lebanon by International Press: firstname.lastname@example.orgPage 9Page 9Photograph of Bar Mitzvah, Robert Mulder/Getty ImagesPhotograph of sunrise dance, Anders Ryman/GettyImagesPage 9Photograph of Korean coming of age ceremony,REUTERS/Alamy Stock PhotoPage 11Photograph of incense smoke performer,istock.com/bluecluePage 13Photograph of Japanese girls having photo taken, JohnLeung/Shutterstock.comPages 21 & 152 Photograph of horse racing, Jay Dickman/Getty ImagesPage 23Photograph of people in costume for medieval festival,Atlantide Phototravel/Getty ImagesPage 25Photograph of buffalo chariot race in Bali, emran/Shutterstock.comPages 25 & 152 Photograph of bull racing in Bali, Barry Kusuma/GettyImagesPage 28Photograph of traditional Eid foods, Philippe Lissac/Getty ImagesPage 33Photograph of Thanksgiving parade in New York,a katz/Shutterstock.comPage 36Photograph of drummers at festival, Yang Liu/GettyImagesPage 42Photograph of taxi rank in London, Bert Hardy/GettyImagesPage 46Photograph of Fred Rompelberg in 1979 sourced fromWikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred Rompelberg#/media/File:Fred Rompelberg.jpg. JPGused under CC-BY-SA 3.0 Netherlands License, deed.en.Page 49Photograph of a penicillium colony, Lester V. Bergman/Getty ImagesPage 50Photograph of the Dakota building in New York,Stocksnapper/Shutterstock.comPage 52Photograph of Brougham Castle ruins, ATGImages/Shutterstock.comPage 55Photograph of parachute landing, Dennis Hallinan/GettyImagesPage 63Photograph of Alberto Santos Dumont stamp,irisphoto1/Shutterstock.comPage 68Photograph of paddle steamer, Richard Cummins/GettyImagesPage 68Photograph of air force radar operator, Dave Bartruff/Getty ImagesPage 79Photograph of family watching TV, C. Moore/GettyImagesPage 79Photograph of Vogue magazine, istock.com/EstherrrPages 79 & 199 Vogue is a registered trademark of Condé NastPublications Ltd.Page 84Photograph of magazines, istock.com/skodonnellPages 86 & 87 Photograph of a magazine stand, iStock.com/KIVILCIMPINARPage 100Photograph of Chinese students reading magazines,xPACIFICA/Getty ImagesPage 100Photograph of a sadhu during his Kumbh Mela journey,Frederic Soltan/Getty ImagesPages 101 & 103 Photograph of the starting line of a race, Denis Kuvaev/Shutterstock.comPage 103Photograph of swimming lesson, Anna Peisl/GettyImagesPage 103Photograph of table tennis tournament, Gideon Mendel/Getty ImagesPage 113Photograph of board games, Paul Seheult/Getty ImagesPage 119Photograph of camel rider at the Pyramids, Jose FusteRaga/Getty ImagesPage 123My Town is a trademark of My Town Games Ltd.Pages 123–124 Downhill Racer is a trademark of bestflashracers.com.Page 124Photograph of family playing video games, ReedKaestner/Getty ImagesPage 130Photograph of ice hockey game, Bob Martin/GettyImagesPage 130Photograph of baseball game, rick seeney/Shutterstock.comPage 137Photograph of limes, Envision/Getty ImagesPage 139Photograph of supplements aisle, Niloo/Shutterstock.comPage 141Photograph of Starbucks café, Atlantide Phototravel/Getty ImagesPage 149Photograph of drying codfish, Bo Zaunders/Getty ImagesPage 151Photograph of peanut butter and jelly sandwich,Smneedham/Getty ImagesPage 153Figure 1: Reprinted from Prevalence of obesity, ages18 , 2010 – 2014 (age standardized estimate) Male:2014., WHO, Copyright (2015)., World HealthOrganisation, Copyright (2015). http://gamapserver.who.int/gho/interactive charts/ncd/risk factors/obesity/atlas.html. Accessed 18 July 2016.Page 157Photograph of stone flints, Maurice Nimmo/GettyImagesPage 161Photograph of Pot Noodle, Lenscap Photography/Shutterstock.comPages 196–197 General Electric Company is a registered trademark ofthe General Electric Company plc.
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 3ContentsBook map4Introduction6Theme 1Culture and civilization21Theme 2Technology65Theme 3News and media113Theme 4Sports and leisure157Theme 5Nutrition and health207Word list254
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 4Book map1ThemeTopics & VocabularyListeningSpeakingCulture and civilization Coming of age Festivals Fireworks, horses andbulls CelebrationsSkills: following a sequenceof events understanding signpostlanguage identifying singular andpluralSkills: showing understanding:echo comment/questionGrammar: present simple wh- questions joining sentences withafter and before2Technology Who? What? When? Transport inventions A brief history of spacetravel The historic momentSkills: recognizing theorganization of a lecture recognizing change ofsub-topicGrammar: present simple open questions andnegativesSkills: talking about researchGrammar: checking questions subject questionsGrammar: grammar of dates going to and will34News and mediaSports and leisure News, news, newsAdvertisingThe values of magazinesMedia studies researchreportsSkills: hearing related words predicting content fromlinking wordsClassifying sportsSports in educationBoard gamesFor and againstSkills: note-making:classificationSkills: taking part in a tutorialGrammar: first conditionalGrammar: very/a lot/too/enoughGrammar: prepositions after verbsSkills: giving a talk with slides explaining laws andrules giving adviceGrammar: must and should54Nutrition and healthBook map A balanced dietPortionsHow to eat healthilyObesitySkills: revisionSkills: revisionGrammar: revision question tagsGrammar: revision
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 5ReadingWritingPhonologyEveryday EnglishPortfolioSkills: finding informationquickly: using capitalletters predicting content:using prepositionsSkills: writing descriptiveessays spelling vowel sounds comparing events andideas hearing andsaying vowels:/u:/ and /ʌ/ sayingconsonants: /t/and /d/The right thing tosayFestivals around theworldGrammar: recognizing extrainformationGrammar: using time prepositionsSkills: finding informationquickly: using numbers predicting contentSkills: writing biographies connecting ideas hearing andsaying blends:/tʃ/ and /ʃ/Using technologyGreat transportinventions hearing andsayingdiphthongs:/eɪ/ and /aɪ/Talking about themediaMass-media usage hearingvowels: /əʊ/and /aʊ/Talking about gamesTeam games revision pronouncingvowels stressingwordsGetting somethingto eatFast foodGrammar: understanding complexsubjectsSkills: distinguishing betweenfact and possibilityGrammar: pronouns andpossessive adjectivesGrammar: pronouns andpossessive adjectivesSkills: designing andconducting aquestionnaire recording and displayingresults spelling the sounds /aɪ/and /eɪ/Grammar: percentages andquantifiersSkills: referring back: usingthen/thereGrammar: use of zero article, e.g.,with country names (1)Skills: writing argumentativeessays spelling schwa /ə/ paragraph structure:point, explain, exampleGrammar: use of zero article, e.g.,with country names (2)Skills: revisionGrammar: revisionSkills: writing analytic essays thesis statementsGrammar: revisionBook map5
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 6Introduction: ContentsThe seriesThe themesThe sectionsThe lessonsAdditional pagesEveryday EnglishKnowledge quizPortfolioApproachAimsMoving from teaching generalto academic EnglishDiscrete skills or integrated?Receptive skills – listening and readingProductive skills – speaking and writingSyntactic grammar for EAPSyntactic grammar at Level 2Exercise namingExercise typesVocabulary boxesSkills ChecksPronunciation ChecksRecurrent activitiesActivating (background)knowledge/ideasUnderstanding words in contextTransferring information (to thereal world)/Using new skills ina real-world taskReviewing key wordsIdentifying a new skillPredicting contentPreviewing vocabularyHearing/Understanding/Studying amodel/discourse structurePractising a modelProducing a modelProducing key patternsShowing comprehensionResearching informationDeveloping 121212131313131313131313131313Developing independent learningDeveloping critical thinkingRemembering real-world knowledgeUsing/Applying a new skillMaking and checking hypothesesMethodologyEveryday EnglishKnowledge quizPortfolioListeningFurther speaking practice/drillingSetting up tasksUse of visualsPronunciationComparing answers in pairsMonitoringFeedbackConfirmation and correctionHighlighting grammarSelf-checkingGap fillTwo-column activitiesOrderingTables and chartsError 1819191919
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 7IntroductionThe seriesThis course is part of the multi-level Progressive Skillsin English series. The series as a whole preparesstudents to study wholly or partly in English mediumat tertiary level, or to join the world of academicEnglish, on the internet and in print.This new edition has been extensively revised to takeinto account feedback from both teachers andstudents. The accompanying Workbook providesfurther practice in all the skills areas.The themesIn each level of Progressive Skills in English there arefive themes, covering a wide range of areas of humanknowledge.Level 2Theme 1:Theme 2:Theme 3:Theme 4:Theme 5:Culture and civilizationTechnologyNews and mediaSports and leisureNutrition and healthThe sectionsWithin each theme there are four main sections, eachdealing with a discrete skill: listening, speaking,reading or writing. A number of related topics areexplored within each theme. For example, in Theme 3the following areas are explored:Listening: the history of mass media, and theadvantages and disadvantages of massmedia newsSpeaking: Advertising – stereotyping, bias, targetaudience and persuasionReading:the place of magazines in society, andhow they influence society’s valuesWriting:how to construct a media studiesresearch report (on mass-media usage)The focus in each section is on one specific skill. TheMethodology notes in the lessons stress the discreteskills focus and caution against spending too much timeon, for example, speaking in a listening section. This isnot because the writers dislike integrated skills. Indeed,each theme ends with a section called Portfolio, whichprovides detailed guidance on integrated skills activitiesfollowing the completion of a particular theme. Theinsistence on the target skill is because the writersbelieve that both the teacher and the students shouldfocus on improvement in a specific skill in a particularlesson, rather than moving constantly between differentskills. However, the key word here is focus. More thanone skill will, of course, be involved in any particularlesson. For example, in listening lessons there is almostalways a speaking output, and in writing lessons thereis almost always a reading input.The commonality of theme across the four skillsections means that, by the end of a theme, studentshave a much deeper knowledge of both theinformation and vocabulary that it comprises thanis normally achieved in ELT course books.The lessonsEach skill section contains two or four main lessons,and each lesson has a clear focus and purpose.Additional pagesEvery theme contains three additional pages:Everyday EnglishThis page is in the speaking section and builds skills insurvival language and social English. In Theme 1, forexample, this page covers The right thing to say and inTheme 2, Using technology. See the Methodologysection for more guidance.Knowledge quizThis page is in the reading section and tests studentson their acquisition of common core knowledge andthematic vocabulary from the theme. In Theme 1,for example, this page ask students to rememberinformation about Culture and civilization. See theMethodology section for more guidance.Introduction7
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 8PortfolioThis section comes at the very end of each theme andprovides an opportunity to integrate skills learnt duringthe course. Students are provided with tasks andresearch information in additional listening and/orreading texts, and asked to produce talks and/or writtentexts. In Theme 3, for example, students are asked toresearch and talk about the usage of mass-media radioand news in the mass media. See the Methodologysection for more guidance.ApproachAimsIn Progressive Skills in English, students learn tounderstand the main types of academic spokenlanguage, lectures and tutorials, and the main typesof academic written language, journal articles andencyclopedia entries. They also learn to produce themain kinds of student academic language, oralpresentations, contributions to a tutorial andwritten assignments.Moving from teaching general to academic EnglishMany of the teaching techniques and approaches usedin general English teaching can be transferred to theteaching of academic English. The differences aremore to do with the syllabus and course content.Some of the key differences we have noted include:GrammarMost general English courses are driven by tensegrammar. Since 80 per cent of academic English is ina present tense, the focus needs to move fromtenses to syntactic grammar. For more details on thispoint, see Syntactic grammar for EAP on page 9.SkillsA general English course will focus mainly on oralcommunication. Listening will be extremely varied,from conversations and anecdotes to radioprogrammes. Reading is often relegated to thirdplace and writing to a very distant fourth. For theacademic learner, reading and writing are at leastas important as the other skills. For more details,see Discrete skills or integrated?ContentIn EAP, listening to lectures will be more relevantthan listening to anecdotes and stories. Academicstudents need to learn to ‘grab’ relevantinformation from a lecture after one listening only.Similarly with reading, required content will mostlybe fact or theory or a mixture, rather than fiction8Introductionand anecdote. Students need to be able to decidequickly which texts, or parts of texts are relevant tothe task and extract the information. Listening andreading texts in general will be much longer in EAPthan in a general English course.VocabularyStudents need a wide range of formal language.Academic texts about a single subject tend to use alot of synonyms for key nouns and verbs, sostudents need to deepen and broaden their lexicalrange all the time.Topics and themesSometimes you find very familiar ‘EFL’ topics inProgressive Skills in English, but then you will seethat the approach to that topic is different. InTheme 4: Sports and leisure, for example, studentslearn about the rules of games, but then theydiscuss why particular games are taught at school.Critical thinkingStudents are encouraged to ask why and howthroughout the course, and to relate informationfrom a particular text to their own selves or theirown country/area. They are shown the importanceof evaluating information and looking for stance orbias on the part of the speaker or writer.Discrete skills or integrated?In terms of presentation, Progressive Skills in English isvery definitely a discrete skills course. Research hasshown that students need to have a clear focus, withmeasurable objectives in order to make real progress,and this is only really possible if the skills are initiallyseparated out. However, integration is the norm in thereal world and, since the course aims to mimic realworld skills usage, integration is automatic once onemoves from presentation. For example, in thereceptive skills lessons, as in the real world, studentshave to make notes from reading and listening andthen discuss their findings, thus bringing in writingand speaking to listening and reading lessons. In theproductive skills lessons, as in the real world, studentshave to research before producing, thus bringing inreading and listening skills.Receptive skills – listening and readingResearch strongly suggests that listening and readingare based on a continuous interaction between topdown and bottom-up processes. Top-down processesprepare the listener or reader to understand theinformation in the text. Bottom-up processes ensurethan the listener or reader can decode information inreal-time, i.e., as it is actually being heard or read.
AOU PROG SKILLS 2 TB Prelims Layout 1 15/06/2017 16:42 Page 9Top-down processesBefore we can understand information, we need torecognize the context. We expect to hear differentthin
reading research and written assignments in English. IELTS Common European Flesch-Kincaid Level for Level Framework Level Listening and Reading Texts 4.0–4.5 B1 Listening: 4–5(max. 400 words) Reading: 4–5(max. 250 words) Output writing texts:1–5 paragraphs Listening skills include:
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