ENCE717 – Bridge Engineering Long-Span Bridges

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Classification Based on Main Span LengthENCE717 – Bridge EngineeringLong-Span BridgesShort Span Bridges (up to 15m)Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m)Long Span Bridges (50-150m*)Extra Long Span Bridges (over 150m*)Chung C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E.(http: www.best.umd.edu)* (or 200 m)1Long & Extra Long Span BridgesAkashi Kaikyō BridgeLongest Suspension Bridge (Longest span 1,991 m)Long Span Bridges: Composite Steel Plate Girder Bridge Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned concrete Box Girder Post-Tensioned Concrete Segmental Construction Concrete Arch and Steel ArchExtra Long Span Bridges: Cable Stayed Bridge Suspension Bridge4

Russian Russky BridgeChaotianmen BridgeLongest Cable-stayed Bridge (Longest span 1,104 m)Longest Steel Arch Bridge (Longest span 552 m)56Canada Pont de Quebec BridgeWanxian BridgeLongest Steel Truss Bridge (Longest span 549 m)Longest Concrete Arch Bridge (Longest span 420 m)78

Brazil Rio-Niterói BridgeShibanpo BridgeLongest Prestressed Concrete Bridge (Longest span 330 m)Longest Steel Box/Plate Girder Bridge (Longest span 300 m)910Economical Span Ranges forSegmental ConstructionConstruction MethodSpan-by-spanPrecastPrecastSpan by Span Segmental ConstructionSuperstructure Depth – Economical Span Rangeft (m)– ft (m)Constant 6 (1.8)up to 110 (to 33)Constant 6 to 8 (1.8 to 2.4) 110- 150 (33 - 45)Precast/ Cast-in-place Constant 7 to 12 (2.1 to 3.6) 120- 160 (36 – 48)Incremental anced Cantilever PrecastCable StayConstant 8 to 12 (2.4 to 3.6) up to 240 (to 72)Constant 8 to 10 (2.4 to 3.0) up to 200 (to 60)Constant 6 to 12 (1.8 to 3.6) 160 – 260 (48 – 78)PrecastVariable 6 to 20 (1.8 to 6.0) 200 - 450* (60 – 135)Cast-in-placeVariable 6 to 40 (1.8 to 12.0) 260 – 750 (78 – 225)Precast or Cast-inplace by cantilevererectionConstant 6 to 15 (1.8 to 4.5) 500-1500 (150 – 450) 11Disadvantage - the capital investment in the equipment for this typeof construction is considerable.Advantage – quick, simple erection (2-3 spans/wk); Easy geometrycontrol; savings from less MOT; min. user delays; simple design; 12durable structures

Incrementally Launched Segmental Construction Progressive Cantilever Segmental ConstructionDisadvantage - Inefficient useof materials. Stringentdimensional control is anabsolute necessity at thestationary casting site.Straight or constant radius.(not recommended) 13Free Cantilever Segmental Construction Note - The form traveler moves forward on rails attached to the deckof the completed structure and is anchored to the deck at rear.154 to 6 segments/day (45 ft)Note – Various radius. a movable temporary stay arrangement must14be used to limit the cantilever stresses during construction to areasonable levelCable Stay Segmental Construction Viaduct main span 66.5 m16

Post-tensioned Precast PiersPrecast Pier Details & Erection1718Precast JointsSingle-cell Box with Inclined Struts Current trends in cross-section design lead to single cell box girders19for increasingly wider bridges. Ribs or struts are used to provideadditional transverse capacity. Type A joints includes cast-in-place concrete joints, wet concretejoints or epoxy joints.Type B joints consist of dry joints between precast units20

Grouting top & bottom slab cantileverand continuity tendonCast-in-Place Joints21Anchor protection for interior & exterioranchors2322Sava River Bridge, Serbia24

Cable-Stayed Bridge DemonstrationProjectCable-Stayed Bridge Construction2526Free Body Diagram for Member Forcesin a Cable-Stayed BridgesTypology of Cable-Stayed BridgesType 1 - symmetric forward cable arrangement with straight pylonType 2 - symmetric reverse cablearrangement with straight pylonType 4 - asymmetric cablearrangement without back-staysType 3 - asymmetric cablearrangement with inclined pylon2728

Form and Force Diagrams of a BasicThree-force SystemForm and Force Diagrams for a SimpleSymmetric Cable-stayed Bridge System(a) form diagram(b) force diagram for theright end loading(a) from form diagramto force diagram(c) force diagram for both loadings(d) force diagram completed(b) from force diagram toform diagram29Form and Force Diagrams for a SimpleAsymmetric Cable-stayed Bridge System30Symmetric forward cable arrangement(modified harp case)(a) form diagram for astraight tower(c) form diagram for aninclined tower(b) form diagram for thestraight tower(d) form diagram for theinclined tower31(a) form diagram(b) force diagram32

Symmetric forward cable arrangement(reverse of the modified harp case)Asymmetric Cable Layout with Forwardand Reverse Arrangement(a) form diagram(b) force diagram (deck and cable forcesfor right side)(c) balanced loadings(a) form diagram(b) force diagram (deck and cable forces)(c) force diagram (tower forces)33Form and Force Diagrams showing Multilevel Load Path (d) force diagram (deck and cable forces);(e) force diagram (tower forces)34Bridge ReconstructionBridge Destruction and Constructionform diagramforce diagram– Port Mann Bridge Construction– Port Mann Bridge DeconstructionBridge Replacement– NJDOT Accelerated Bridge ConstructionBridge Widening– Illinois Tollway Fox River BridgeThe Sheikh JaberAl-Ahmad AlSabah Causeway3536

ENCE717 – Bridge Engineering Long-Span Bridges Chung C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E. (http: www.best.umd.edu) Classification Based on Main Span Length Short Span Bridges (up to 15m) Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m) Long Span Bridges (50-150m*) Extra Long Span Bridges (over 150m*) * (or 200 m) Long & Extra Long

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