2013 VSA Intersections:Arts and Special EducationA Jean Kennedy Smith Arts and Disability ProgramExemplary Programs and Approaches
Acknowledgments and CreditsThe John F. Kennedy Centerfor the Performing ArtsDavid M. RubensteinChairmanMichael M. KaiserPresidentDarrell M. AyersVice President, Education and JazzBetty R. SiegelDirector, VSA and AccessibilityAuthorsSally Bailey, MFAJean B. Crockett, PhDRhonda Vieth Fuelberth, PhDKim Gavin, MABeverly Levett Gerber, EdDDonalyn Heise, EdDVeronica Hicks, MALynne Horoschak, MAEditorSharon M. Malley, EdDSophie Lucido JohnsonKaren T. Keifer-Boyd, PhDEditorial reviewersL. Michelle Kraft, PhDBeverly Levett Gerber, EdDLinda Krakaur, MStKaren T. Keifer-Boyd, PhDLynda Ewell Laird, MMAlice Hammel, PhDBarbara Pape, EdMLaurie MacGillivray, PhDTim McCarty, MAMark Tomasic, MFAYou are welcome to copy and distribute this publication with the following credit:Produced by The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, 2014.The content of this publication, developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education,does not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education. You should not assume endorsement by the federal government.
ContentsIntroduction5Sharon M. Malley, EditorNext Steps: New Research and Teaching Journals10at the Intersection of the Arts and Special EducationBeverly Levett Gerber, Karen T. Keifer-Boyd, and Jean B. CrockettExemplary Theatre Practices: Creating Barrier-Free Theatre25Sally BaileyVisual Theatre: Building a Bridge for Student Success46Tim McCartyMastering the Curriculum: Students Framed as Experts70Linda KrakaurEmotional Intelligence Through Art: Strategies for Children with87Emotional Behavioral DisturbancesSophie Lucido JohnsonFostering Resilience in an Intergenerational Art and Literacy103Program for Homeless Families: An Analysis of CurriculumDonalyn Heise and Laurie MacGillivrayReflections on Moore College of Art and Design’s Master’s Degree127Program in Art Education with an Emphasis in Special PopulationsLynne Horoschak, Kim Gavin, and Veronica HicksIDEAEmpowerment Through DifferenceFind Card Strategies147Communitarian Approaches to EmpowermentKaren Keifer-Boyd and L. Michelle KraftTools and Stories: Preparing Music Educators for Successful Inclusive159Classrooms Through Universal Design for LearningRhonda Vieth Fuelberth and Lynda Ewell LairdDeveloping Curricula and Assessment Tools for the PhysicallyIntegrated Dance ClassMark Tomasic182
2013 VSA Intersections: Arts and Special EducationExemplary Programs and ApproachesIntroductionSHARON M. MALLEY, EDITORThe John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (Kennedy Center) is dedicatedto promoting opportunities for students in kindergarten–grade 12 arts education through itsvaried VSA, Jean Kennedy Smith Arts and Disability Programs. When teachers and facilitatorsfully include students with disabilities in well-designed arts education, chances for achievementin many domains can increase (Malley & Silverstein, in press). Students with disabilities whoparticipate in the arts are given opportunities to convey sophisticated ideas, experiencevalidation in their work, and enhance their academic pursuits. Inherent in arts education aremeans of diverse and variable expressions, responses, and outcomes, allowing studentsopportunities to diverge from the rote learning often required in other subjects. Thus, studentswith disabilities can exercise cognitive processes, find and develop their unique voices, andexperience overall success (MacLean, 2008).This second edition of Exemplary Programs and Approaches originates from the KennedyCenter’s 2013 VSA Intersections: Arts and Special Education Conference and Forum, a JeanKennedy Smith Arts and Disability Program. The conference included over 50 sessions coveringan array of topics within the intersecting fields of arts and special education. Following theconference, national leaders met in a forum to identify and discuss needs and issues integral tothe education of children with disabilities in the arts.Findings from the 2013 Forum indicated several areas of need, similar to those of the2012 VSA Examining the Intersection of Arts Education and Special Education: A National Forum(Silverstein, 2012). Participants’ recommendations can be expressed in five broad statements(Malley, in press):a. Professional learning should be designed to ensure that all teachers are teaching allstudents (with an emphasis on inclusion of students with disabilities).b. Communication should be reciprocal across all levels of the educational system, fromstudent, to teacher, to school, to district, to the wider society.5
INTRODUCTIONc. Arts educators should be evaluated appropriate to their roles, which require differentskill sets and scope of work from those of other educators.d. There should be a unified message on the benefits of arts education for students withdisabilities, which is communicated across all levels of stakeholders and policy makers.e. There should be a robust body of easily accessible knowledge, through research, on thebenefits of arts education for students with disabilities.With this second edition of VSA Intersections professional papers, the Kennedy Centercontinues to respond to many of the recommendations from both the 2012 and 2013 Forums.The publication itself addresses the need for increasing contributions to the knowledge base,with several articles demonstrating positive research findings. Within the articles there aredescriptions of exemplary graduate and applied programs, innovative practices, and modelsfor partnerships. All of the authors are well-respected leading practitioners and/or educators inan arts discipline with expertise devoted to educating students with disabilities. Their collectivevoices within this publication provide readers with some of the most current exemplarypractices and expertise representing a range of arts education disciplines: drama, visual arts,music, and dance.A continuing theme emerging from both Forums is the need for an ongoing singlepublication, such as a professional journal, for current practices and research in the arts andspecial education. In their paper, “Next Steps: New Research and Teaching Journals at theIntersection of the Arts and Special Education,” Gerber, Keifer-Boyd, and Crockett demonstratethe need for two professional journals, one for practitioners and one for researchers, and offerexamples of similar journals and their online accessibility. Beverly Levett Gerber, renowned inher work as both a visual art and special educator, is Professor Emeritus of Special Educationat Southern Connecticut University and the recipient of the National Art Education Association2011 Lowenfeld Award. Karen Keifer-Boyd, Professor of Art Education and Women’s Studies,School of Visual Arts, University of Pennsylvania, co-founded the journal Visual Culture andGender. In this article she shares her knowledge as co-editor of that publication. Jean Crockettis Professor and Director of the School of Special Education, School Psychology, and Early6
INTRODUCTIONChildhood Studies at the University of Florida. Her research addresses leadership and policyin the administration of special education, and she is currently conducting an analysis ofpublished articles on arts and special education.In “Exemplary Theater Practices: Creating Barrier-Free Theatre,” Sally Bailey drawsupon 25 years of experience to share her approaches and strategies including students withdisabilities in drama education and theatre production. Sally is Associate Professor of Theatreat Kansas State University and the author of the book “Barrier-Free Theatre,” a comprehensivemanual for including students with disabilities in all aspects of theatre arts.Tim McCarty’s paper “Visual Theatre: Building a Bridge for Student Success” narrowsthe scope of drama education to address the needs of students who are Deaf and hard-ofhearing attending the Maryland School for the Deaf. In his paper he describes the QuestTheatreBridge program, including elements of lessons designed to address communicationand literacy skills. Tim is the Founder and Artistic Director of Quest Visual Theatre, Lanham,Maryland, and has worked for over 20 years developing theatre programs for Deaf and hardof-hearing students. Quest has achieved international recognition, and most recently Tim hasshared his expertise with the Deaf community in China.Continuing with the topic of drama in education, Linda Krakaur provides readers with aframework for teaching literacy to students with learning disabilities through drama techniquesand Universal Design for Learning. Her paper, “Mastering the Curriculum: Students Framed asExperts,” encapsulates key aspects of her Master’s degree thesis. She is currently pursuing herDoctorate in Teacher Education and Professional Development in the College of Education atthe University of Maryland.Sophie Lucido Johnson, an artist and special education teacher in New Orleans,developed an arts integrated social emotional curriculum for students with emotionalbehavioral disorders. In her paper “Emotional Intelligence through Art: Strategies for Childrenwith Emotional Behavioral Disorders” she shares strategies and outcomes of the program,which targets students who developed post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of hurricaneKatrina. The program is currently offered in four New Orleans charter schools.7
INTRODUCTIONIn “Fostering Resilience in an Intergenerational Art and Literacy Program for HomelessFamilies: An Analysis of Curriculum,” Donalyn Heise and Laurie MacGillivray developed andanalyzed a literacy program they implemented with homeless children and their mothers whoare in a drug/alcohol addiction program. The curriculum incorporates a variety of visual artlessons and literacy skills building, with the goal of supporting resilience. The authors sharetheir strategies and research findings. Donalyn is Associate Professor of Art Education at theUniversity of Memphis, and coordinates the art education program in the Department of Artwithin the College of Communication and Fine Arts. Laurie is a Professor in the Department ofInstruction, Curriculum, and Leadership at the University of Memphis, with a research focus onliteracy practices in urban areas.Lynne Horoschak and two of her students, Kim Gavin and Veronica Hicks, describea unique college curriculum in “Reflections on Moore College of Art and Design’s Master’sDegree Program in Art Education with an Emphasis in Special Populations.” Lynne developedthe program drawing on her over 30 years experience as an art educator. She is nowDistinguished Professor and Program Manager of the Moore College program. The paperincludes summaries of each of Kim and Veronica’s thesis research. Kim, currently an art teacherin Philadelphia Public Schools and adjunct professor at Moore College, describes her studyof art classroom assessment strategies for special education and English language learnersin the acquisition of language and literacy skills. Veronica, who is pursuing her doctorate atPennsylvania State University, summarizes her action research with female foster students withdisabilities, examining the impact of an after-school art club on self-efficacy.In “IDEAEmpowerment Through DifferenceFind Card Strategies:Communitarian Approaches to Empowerment,” Karen Keifer-Boyd and L. Michelle Kraftprovide a strategy for including all students in visual art curriculum assessment through the useof “Find Cards.” They describe a communitarian approach to teaching and learning in the artclassroom, and how “Find Cards,” developed by Keifer-Boyd in the 1970’s, provides a tool forinclusion in a variety of disciplines and settings. Michelle is Professor of Art in the Departmentof Communication and Fine Arts and Assistant Dean of the J. E. & Eileen Hancock College ofLiberal Arts and Education, Lubbock Christian University in Lubbock, Texas.8
INTRODUCTIONAddressing the needs of music educators to effectively include students withdisabilities, Rhonda Vieth Fuelberth and Lynda Ewell Laird provide an explanation of UniversalDesign for Learning and guidelines and strategies for inclusion in the music classroom. Theirpaper, “Tools and Stories: Preparing Music Educators for Successful Inclusive Classroomsthrough Universal Design for Learning,” originates from the work of their graduate students,who contributed to a strategy bank based on experiences as in-service teachers. Rhonda isAssociate Professor of Music Education and the Graduate Music Education Coordinator in theGlenn Korff School of Music, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Lynda is a doctoral student andgraduate teaching assistant at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln where she is the recipient ofthe prestigious Hixson-Lied Fellowship.To conclude this edition of exemplary papers Mark Tomasic draws upon over 20 years ofexperience working with the Dancing Wheels Company and School, in “Developing Curriculaand Assessment Tools for the Physically Integrated Dance Class.” He is currently ArtisticAdvisor for the company and school and serves on the Dance Department faculty of SantaMonica College in California. His paper provides dance educators with practical strategies forincluding dancers with physical disabilities in modern dance training and performance, basedon his book, “Physically Integrated Dance: The Dancing Wheels Comprehensive Guide forTeachers, Choreographers, and Students of Mixed Abilities.”ReferencesMaclean, J. (2008). The art of inclusion. Canadian Review of Art Education, 35, 75-91.Malley, S. M. (in press). Proceedings report, 2013 VSA Intersections: Arts and Special EducationForum. Washington, DC: The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.Malley, S. M., & Silverstein, L. B. (in press). 2012 VSA Examining the intersection of artseducation and special education. Arts Education Policy Review.Silverstein, L. B. (2012). Proceedings report Examining the Intersection of Arts Educationand Special Education: A National Forum. Washington, DC: The John F. KennedyCenter for the Performing Arts.9
Next Steps: New Research and Teaching Journalsat the Intersection of the Arts and Special EducationBEVERLY LEVETT GERBER, KAREN T. KEIFER-BOYD, AND JEAN B. CROCKETTThe John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts’ Office of VSA and Accessibilityhas twice brought together leaders in the fields of special education, arts education (visual andperforming) and arts research, with representatives from the U.S. Department of Education.The 2012 VSA Examining the Intersection of Arts Education and Special Education: A NationalForum produced two tangible results: (a) a new on-line arts/special education bibliography (TheJohn F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, n. d.); and (b) a book of professional papersthat focused, for the first time, on issues relevant to their intersection (Malley, Ed., 2012). Thebibliography will have periodic updates by Kennedy Center staff.One year later, the 2013 VSA Intersections: Arts and Special Education Conference andForum again brought together people with an emerging professional focus to share their ideas,concerns, and goals regarding the intersection of arts and special education. One expressedconcern was the need “to tell our professional story” – the collective voices of arts educatorswho reach and teach students with disabilities and the researchers who contribute to andvalidate their knowledge base. It is also the story of special educators who value and use thearts to teach their students.The arts/special education professional story is multi-faceted, continually unfolding andneeds to be told. Arts/special education stories tell about students with special learning and/orbehavioral needs who experience school as a difficult place. Yet, many of these students makeit through school due to their arts experiences (Gerber, 2011). The arts offer a global way ofinterpreting and expressing information. Difficulties in traditional classroom subjects need nottransfer to the artroom. Arts/special education stories are told by classroom arts teachers whoobserve students with disabilities blossom in studio art classes as they gain recognition andapproval from their peers, often for the first time (Lokerson & Joynes, 2006).Countless actors who win acclaim on stage and screen, despite diagnosed learningdifficulties, demonstrate the value of performing arts education. Students with disabilities can10
INTERSECTION OF THE ARTS AND SPECIAL EDUCATION JOURNALexcel in and through the arts. Over the past decade, a small but growing body of research isbeginning to document and demonstrate the importance of the arts in the lives of studentswith disabilities.Currently, there is no home or central professional location for arts/special educationresearch and inspirational and innovative stories of teaching and learning. Information onintersections of art and special education is dispersed among many journals and is difficult toaccess. “An Attack on the Tower of Babel: Creating a National Arts/Special Education ResourceCenter” (Gerber & Horoschak, 2012) addressed the problems encountered by such a search.Arts/special education information is available in textbooks (Anderson, 1992; Gerber & Guay,2006; Gerber & Kellman, 2010; Kellman, 2001; Kraft & Keifer-Boyd, 2013; Nyman & Jenkins,1999; Wexler, 2009), journal articles (Blandy, 1994; Blandy, Pancsoar, & Mockensturm, 1988;Derby, 2011; Guay, 2003; Kellman, 2004; Kraft 2006), research (Burton, Horowitz, & Abeles,1999; Catterall, 2009; Malley, Dattilo, & Gast, 2002), and doctoral dissertations.However, there are no journals specifically for research and teaching the arts to studentswith disabilities. Information spans a multitude of professional journals (see Appendix A),many different (and unrelated) professional organizations, and sometimes obscure communitypublications. New journals that focus on the emerging intersection of the arts and specialeducation professional fields are needed. Student assignment to an “arts rich classroom”(Burton, Horowitz, & Abeles, 1999) with a knowledgeable arts/special education teachershould not be the “luck of the draw.” All teachers should have access to arts/special educationinformation.Based on experiences and practices of the National Art Education Association (NAEA)and the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), our largest and oldest art education andspecial education professional organizations, two journals are necessary. One journal wouldfocus on arts/special education research. The second journal would address innovative arts/special education teaching approaches and programs developing around the country. Withouteasy access, many arts/special education exemplars are missed. Arts/special educationprofessional journals not only can make information easy to find, no small matter as notedbelow, but can also encourage new special education/arts teaching practices and research.11
INTERSECTION OF THE ARTS AND SPECIAL EDUCATION JOURNALJournal Exemplars from the National Art Education Associationand the Council for Exceptional ChildrenIntersections: Arts/Special Education journals would be new, but can be establishedquickly. Special education and the visual and performing arts professions have developed awealth of information about teaching practices and research and for many years have publishedboth research and teaching professional journals. These peer reviewed journals are ongoingresources for the dissemination of innovative practices and promising discoveries. Throughprinted materials and the Internet, the journals have become accessible knowledge bases forboth current research and best practices in each field.The authors represent the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and the National ArtEducation Association (NAEA) and have served as liaison between the organizations and ontheir journals’ editorial boards. They draw on their extensi
This second edition of Exemplary Programs and Approaches originates from the Kennedy Center’s 2013 VSA Intersections: Arts and Special Education Conference and Forum, a Jean Kennedy Smith Arts and Disability Program. The conference included over 50 sessions covering an array of topics within the intersecting fields of arts and special education.