Lab 10 – Sound Waves Webquest

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Name: Period: Date:Lab 10 – Sound Waves WebquestHASPI Middle School / Medical Physical ScienceBackgroundThe Human VoiceThe human voice is our principle means ofcommunication and can be a very powerful tool.As a few examples, babies use their voices tocry and “tell” their mothers when they are hungryor tired. Kids use their voices to scream whenthey are hurt, and laugh when they thinksomething is funny. Parents use their voices toread bedtime stories or sing lullabies to theirchildren. Teachers use their voices to pass oninformation to their students, while students usetheir voices to answer questions and participatein group activities.The human voice is a product of work done /global//images/the lungs, vocal folds (also known as vocalimage popup/r7 vocalcords.jpgcords) located in the larynx at the top of thetrachea, and the articulators, which consist of the pharynx, tongue, palate, cheeks, and lips. As air isexpelled out of the lungs, it travels through the trachea and into the larynx. Located deep in the larynxare a set of twin infoldings of mucous membrane, or in other words the vocal folds that are stretchedhorizontally across the airway. As air moves through the larynx, the vocal folds vibrate. This vibrationalternately traps and releases air into the pharynx (cavity connecting mouth/nasal passages withesophagus). Each puff of air becomes the beginning of a sound wave, which can be enhanced as ittravels through the pharynx and mouth t.aspx?DocID DS00670The body is built to make different kinds ofsounds in different situations, or from person toperson. The vocal folds in the larynx aresurrounded by cartilage, connective tissue, and anumber of muscles that can stretch or loosen thevocal folds. This can alter how fast the vocal foldsvibrate, which alters the sound that is eventuallyproduced. Fast vibration produces high-pitchedsounds, while slower vibrations produce lowerpitches. The overall pitch of someone’s voicedepends on the thickness, length, and tension ofthat person’s vocal cords. Furthermore, themouth and nose can amplify and shape soundswhile movements of the lips and tongue helpmake more complex sounds.Infoldings: The folding inward of a layer of tissueSound Travels in WavesHASPI Middle School194Medical Physical Science 2014

There are two different types of waves: transverse waves and longitudinal waves. A transversewave travels through a medium at a right angle to the direction of the wave. Ocean waves and allelectromagnetic waves, like radio waves, microwaves, light, and x-rays are examples of transversewaves. Longitudinal waves travel through a medium in a direction parallel to the direction of travel ofthe wave. Mechanical waves such as sound waves, seismic waves created by earthquakes, andexplosions are all examples of longitudinal waves.A medium can be defined as any collection of matter. Examples of a medium might be air, water,land/rock, ice, glass, metal, or any material other than a vacuum, in which matter is not present.Some waves, like electromagnetic waves do not require a medium to travel between two given points,while mechanical waves do.Longitudinal WaveTransverse WaveMovementMovementDirection of WaveDirection of /telecommunications/communication using waves/revision/3/A sound wave is a chain of vibrating molecules. When an individual speaks, the vibration of his/hervocal cords causes nearby air particles to vibrate back and forth. This causes the local air pressure torise and fall in a cyclic pattern of compressions and rarefactions (lessening of density), as seen in thepicture below. Just like dropping a pebble into a lake, the initial vibration of an individual’s vocal cordscauses a ripple effect in air molecules to create a sound wave. Notice, the movement of particles isparallel to the direction of the sound wave, making it a longitudinal Middle School195Medical Physical Science 2014

Detecting SoundThe ear is the bodily organ that giveshumans the ability to detect sound.The ear can be broken down into threedifferent parts: outer ear, middle ear,and inner ear.The outer ear, or pinna, is the visiblepart of the ear and is made ofcartilage. The ridges and folds of theouter ear funnel sound waves into themiddle ear. The sound waves thentravel down the auditory canal and hitthe tympanic membrane, or cochlear.html#in the middle ear. Vibrations of soundwaves make the eardrum vibrate,much like a musical drum. The eardrum’s vibrations are then transferred to small bones in the innerear. The hammer, which is connected to the eardrum, bounces against the anvil, which passes itsmomentum to the stirrup, creating vibrations in the inner ear, or cochlea. The inner ear is connectedto nerve fibers that send electrical signals to the brain. Finally, the brain converts these electricalsignals into sound.Hearing Loss and DeafnessHearing relies on a complex chain of events in the ear. If parts of the chain do not function properly,loss of hearing or deafness can result. This can be caused by a multitude of factors, including:genetics, aging, exposure to noise, illness, chemicals, and physical trauma. Although manyindividuals are born without the ability to hear, hearing loss is more often acquired by individuals whoat some point in life had full hearing capabilities.Review Questions1. What parts of the body are responsible for creating the human voice?2. What is another name for the vocal cords?3. What happens when the vocal cords vibrate at different speeds?4. What purpose do the mouth, nose, lips and tongue serve in creating sound?5. What is the difference between transverse waves and longitudinal waves?6. List several examples of transverse waves and longitudinal waves. (Separate the lists.)7. What is a medium?8. A sound wave is a chain of .9. Are the sound waves that travel to the ear for hearing transverse or longitudinal?10. What are the three parts of the human ear?11. What is the tympanic membrane and what is its function?12. The inner ear is connected to nerve fibers that send signals to the brain.13. List the factors that can contribute to hearing loss and deafness.HASPI Middle School196Medical Physical Science 2014

Name: Period: Date:Lab 10 - Sound Waves WebquestHASPI Middle School / Medical Physical ScienceMaterialsComputer with Internet AccessDirectionsGo to the following websites and answer the related questions on a separate sheet of paper.Wave Relationships1. “Waves are vibrations that transfer energy from place to place. They do this without transferringmetaparticles.” Explain your own example to depict this concept?2. What is a medium?3. What types of waves do not need a medium?4. Waves can be described by their , , and.5. Define frequency.6. 2 Hertz (Hz) means 2 per .7. What happens to the frequency as the speed of a wave increases? Decreases?8. A wave machine in a swimming pool produces 10 waves each second. The waves travel 30 metersalong the pool in 6 seconds.a. What is the frequency of the waves?b. What is the speed of the waves?c. What is the wavelength of the waves?HASPI Middle School197Medical Physical Science 2014

Frequency, Wavelength, Amplitude & Wave SpeedGo to the following sics/telecommunications/communication using waves/revision/5/1. Define the following terms and label them on the following transverse wave.a. Amplitude b. Wavelength c. Frequency -2. Fill in the following chart.QuantitySymbolUnitWavelengthFrequencyWave Speed3. Take the Bite Test at the bottom of the page. Copy down the questions and answers of any questionsyou answered incorrectly.HASPI Middle School198Medical Physical Science 2014

Wave MotionGo to the following s/wavemotion.htmlAnswer the question in 3 complete sentences1. Watch the animation shown for longitudinal waves. Pick a single particle and watch its motion.Describe what it is doing: Where does its motion start/finish? Which direction does it travel? Whatdo you think is causing it to change motion?2. Watch the animation shown for transverse waves. Pick a single particle and watch its motion.Describe what it is doing: Where does its motion start/finish? Which direction does it travel? Whatdo you think is causing it to change motion?3. Watch the animation shown for water waves. Pick a single particle and watch its motion. Describewhat it is doing: Where does its motion start/finish? Which direction does it travel? What do youthink is causing it to change motion?HASPI Middle School199Medical Physical Science 2014

The Human VoiceGo to the following ocalcordswork1. What is another name for the vocal cords?2. What is the size difference between the vocal folds of men and women?3. How fast can the vocal folds oscillate?4. What makes one person’s voice unique and unlike anyone else’s?5. What determines the pitch of someone’s voice?Sound Waves and the EardrumGo to the following es/edl.cfm1. When pressure waves reach the ear, a series of impingeupon the eardrum, causing it to .2. As the bones of the middle ear vibrate, sound signals are from a pressurewave traveling through air to the vibration of the bone structure of the middleear. These vibrations are then transmitted to the fluid of the inner ear where they are converted tonerve impulses, which are sent to the brain.HASPI Middle School200Medical Physical Science 2014

3. What is the relationship between the frequency of sound waves and the pitch of a particularsound?4. What determines the intensity of a given sound?Sound FrequenciesGo to the following website: qNf9nzvnd1kAnswer the following questions as you watch and listen to the video.1. At what frequency were you first able to hear a sound?2. How would you describe what happens to the sound as the frequency increases?3. What happens to the wavelength of sound as the frequencies increase?HASPI Middle School201Medical Physical Science 2014

Frequency Ranges of AnimalsGo to the following tmlScroll down to the table that outlines the approximate frequency ranges of different animals, and use the data toanswer the following questions.1. What is the approximate frequency range that can be recognized by humans?2. Which animal(s) would you argue have about the same frequency range as humans?3. Which animal is the most sensitive to low frequency sounds?4. Which animal is the most sensitive to high frequency sounds?HASPI Middle School202Medical Physical Science 2014

Hearing LossGo to the following mlClick the START button to find out how people with hearing loss experience situationswhere being able to hear well is important.Follow the directions provided to adjust the volume on your computer.1. What 4 different categories of hearing loss are listed?Hearing TestsTake the online hearing tests at the following websites and record your results for each:1. ng-loss/online-hearingtest.html2. opy the following table onto your answer sheet and fill in your results.Online Hearing TestResultsWebsite 1Website 2HASPI Middle School203Medical Physical Science 2014

Hearing AidsGo to the following odern-technology/hearing-aid.htm1. Complete the following table to organize the pros and cons of the different types of hearing aids.Type of Hearing AidProsCons2. Hearing loss can be classified into two different types. What are the two types of hearing loss andwhat is the difference between the two?3. To make a hearing aid, an audiologist will first make an imprint of the patient’s ear. Whatmaterial(s) does the audiologist use to make the imprint?4. What are the main parts of a hearing aid?HASPI Middle School204Medical Physical Science 2014

5. The article states that hearing aids are not 100% effective for all individuals with hearing loss.Explain why.6. What is the difference between analog and digital hearing aids?7. What is the difference between traditional hearing aids and cochlear implants?8. Define direct bone conduction.9. Which two inventors does this article credit for the development of the modern hearing aid?HASPI Middle School205Medical Physical Science 2014

electromagnetic waves, like radio waves, microwaves, light, and x-rays are examples of transverse waves. Longitudinal waves travel through a medium in a direction parallel to the direction of travel of the wave. Mechanical waves such as sound waves, seismic waves created by earthquakes, and explosions are all examples of longitudinal waves.

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