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Selected excerpts fromExploring Digital VideoSecond Editionby Lisa RysingerPrepared expressly for the31st Annual Trenton Computer FestivalBook available for purchase online @ www.amazon.comCopyright 2006 Thomson-Delmar Learning All rights reserved.For the express use of the Trenton Computer Festival 2006 Proceedings CD only. Do not edit this PDF or distribute it electronically.

exploringe x p l o r i n gDIGITAL VIDEOLisa RysingerWritten specifically for the digital video novice, this comprehensive new edition of Exploring Digital Video blendsindustry experience with practical and informative instruction to create a state-of-the-art introduction to digital video.DV expert Lisa Rysinger explores the fundamental concepts for those new to the field while featuring such popular DVediting programs as Adobe After Effects, Apple Final Cut Pro, and Adobe Premiere Pro. Coverage of these top editingprograms for both the Mac and PC makes this the perfect all-in-one guide, bringing together the latest in softwareinstruction and the best in digital video techniques.Look inside for these outstanding featuresD I G I TA L V I D E OSecond EditionSecond EditionServes as a valuable resource for both students and consumers who have a serious interest in digital video andwant a solid overview of the technology and the field.Offers practical and useful information—such as how to configure a digital video editing station and how toevaluate cameras—while examining fundamental techniques like creating transitions, motions, and effects.Includes a full-color insert showcasing digital video in action, with stills from Lucasfilm’s Star Wars: Episode IIAttack of the Clones and in-depth interviews with the ILM professionals behind the movie’s digital magic.Provides an extensive glossary of DV terminology, a troubleshooting guide for common problems, a productguide listing DV hardware and software, and a resource guide with contact information for groups, organizations,Web sites, and training.Includes a back-of-book DVD featuring a behind-the-scenes documentary with the Emmy award-winningPhiladelphia Eagles Television network plus software trials, tutorials, product information, special offers, and more.D I G I TA L V I D E OSecond Editione x p l o r i n gAbout the AuthorAlso Available from Thomson Delmar LearningExploring Visual Effects/Woody/Order # 1-4018-7987-XExploring Sound Design for Interactive Media/Cancellaro/Order #1-4018-8102-5Exploring Digital Software on the Mac/Rysinger/Order # 1-4018-7791-5Exploring DVD Authoring/Rysinger/Order # 1-4018-8020-7ISBN-13: 978-1-4180-4206-6ISBN-10: 1-4180-4206-4Visit www.designexploration.com or www.delmarlearning.com/graphic commfor your lifelong learning solutionsFor more learning solutions by Thomson: www.thomson.com/learning9781418 04206690000RysingerLisa Rysinger is the owner of VIDE Productions, a digital video company that produces everything from corporatetraining videos and television commercials to multimedia and DVDs. Lisa is also the author of Exploring DV Softwareon the Mac and Exploring DVD Authoring.A Definitive Guide to Digital Video Technology & TechniquesFeaturing Today's Best Pro Editing ApplicationsLisa Rysinger

exploringe x p l o r i n gDIGITAL VIDEOLisa RysingerWritten specifically for the digital video novice, this comprehensive new edition of Exploring Digital Video blendsindustry experience with practical and informative instruction to create a state-of-the-art introduction to digital video.DV expert Lisa Rysinger explores the fundamental concepts for those new to the field while featuring such popular DVediting programs as Adobe After Effects, Apple Final Cut Pro, and Adobe Premiere Pro. Coverage of these top editingprograms for both the Mac and PC makes this the perfect all-in-one guide, bringing together the latest in softwareinstruction and the best in digital video techniques.Look inside for these outstanding featuresD I G I TA L V I D E OSecond EditionSecond EditionServes as a valuable resource for both students and consumers who have a serious interest in digital video andwant a solid overview of the technology and the field.Offers practical and useful information—such as how to configure a digital video editing station and how toevaluate cameras—while examining fundamental techniques like creating transitions, motions, and effects.Includes a full-color insert showcasing digital video in action, with stills from Lucasfilm’s Star Wars: Episode IIAttack of the Clones and in-depth interviews with the ILM professionals behind the movie’s digital magic.Provides an extensive glossary of DV terminology, a troubleshooting guide for common problems, a productguide listing DV hardware and software, and a resource guide with contact information for groups, organizations,Web sites, and training.Includes a back-of-book DVD featuring a behind-the-scenes documentary with the Emmy award-winningPhiladelphia Eagles Television network plus software trials, tutorials, product information, special offers, and more.D I G I TA L V I D E OSecond Editione x p l o r i n gAbout the AuthorAlso Available from Thomson Delmar LearningExploring Visual Effects/Woody/Order # 1-4018-7987-XExploring Sound Design for Interactive Media/Cancellaro/Order #1-4018-8102-5Exploring Digital Software on the Mac/Rysinger/Order # 1-4018-7791-5Exploring DVD Authoring/Rysinger/Order # 1-4018-8020-7ISBN-13: 978-1-4180-4206-6ISBN-10: 1-4180-4206-4Visit www.designexploration.com or www.delmarlearning.com/graphic commfor your lifelong learning solutionsFor more learning solutions by Thomson: www.thomson.com/learning9781418 04206690000RysingerLisa Rysinger is the owner of VIDE Productions, a digital video company that produces everything from corporatetraining videos and television commercials to multimedia and DVDs. Lisa is also the author of Exploring DV Softwareon the Mac and Exploring DVD Authoring.A Definitive Guide to Digital Video Technology & TechniquesFeaturing Today's Best Pro Editing ApplicationsLisa Rysinger

Rys DV2e FM.qxdx11/28/05 6:16 PMPage xexploring digital video TEXTBOOK ORGANIZATIONExploring Digital Video explores the fundamental concepts of DV technology andillustrates how industry professionals use this technology today in the field today.This second edition features popular professional editing programs for both theMacintosh and the PC, like Adobe After Effects, Apple’s Final Cut Pro, and AdobePremiere Pro, in addition to demonstrating must-know editing techniques likeadding transitions, applying motion, using layers, and creating effects.Chapter 1—Understanding Digital Video TechnologyChapter 1 provides a solid overview of digital video technology. It brieflydiscusses its history and evolution, as well as how it is currently used in thefield today. It also delves into the fundamentals of traditional video, which mustfirst be understood before digital video can be fully grasped. Chapter 1 explainsthe necessary terms, concepts, principles, and conventions governing digitalvideo technology.Chapter 2—Digital Video Cameras and Tape FormatsChapter 2 will clearly explain the current videotape formats for both analog anddigital video in the consumer, prosumer, and professional arenas. It will alsoexplain the parts and functions of the digital video camera. This chapter willhelp readers understand and evaluate which type of digital video equipment isrequired to create digital video at any level.Chapter 3—Configuring a Digital Video ComputerEditing SystemChapter 3 will explain how to configure a digital video computer editing system.It will examine all of the relevant computer technology required to edit digitalvideo at any level—consumer, prosumer, or professional. It will also discuss howto research an editing system, as well as address various budget considerations.

Rys DV2e FM.qxd11/28/056:16 PMPage xi Chapter 4—Digital Video PreproductionChapter 4 will discuss the various stages of preproduction. It will examine thedifferent styles of script writing for video, television, and film. It will also talkabout how to create storyboards and production schedules. The importance ofobtaining legal permission in writing to shoot video will also be emphasized.Chapter 5—Digital Video ProductionChapter 5 will discuss the fundamental techniques of video production. Workingwith the video camera, framing shots, and basic lighting and basic audio will becovered. Shooting for bluescreen and greenscreen will also be addressed.Chapter 6—Preparing Photographsfor Digital VideoChapter 6 will explain how to properly incorporate photographs intodigital video without distorting them. Acquiring photographs andcropping them while maintaining image quality and resolution will beexamined step by step in Adobe Photoshop. Panning photographs inAdobe After Effects, Apple’s Final Cut Pro, and Adobe Premiere Prowill also be demonstrated.Chapter 7—Incorporating Titles,Graphics, and AudioChapter 7 will discuss how to prepare titles, graphics, alpha channels, audio,and music for digital video. Digital video rarely consists of video alone, and thischapter will examine how to successfully incorporate these additional elementsinto a digital video production.Chapter 8—Connecting Equipment andCapturing Digital VideoChapter 8 will discuss how to connect equipment and capture digital video. It willexamine how to properly cable and connect digital video cameras, video decks,and monitors to a computer editing station. It will also address the steps tocapture digital video and audio in Apple’s Final Cut Pro and Adobe Premiere Pro.P R E FA C E xi

Rys DV2e FM.qxdxii11/28/05 6:16 PMPage xiiexploring digital video Chapter 9—Editing Digital VideoChapter 9 will demonstrate basic editing techniques, like adding transitions,applying motion, using layers, and creating effects, using Adobe After Effects,Apple’s Final Cut Pro, and Adobe Premiere Pro. Important concepts likeunderstanding the project file, importing media files, using the timeline, andworking with keyframes will also be addressed.Chapter 10—Rendering and Outputting Digital VideoChapter 10 will examine how to render a digital video project in Adobe AfterEffects, Apple’s Final Cut Pro, and Adobe Premiere Pro. Chapter 10 will also explain how to output digitalvideo to tape. Standards for CDs, DVDs, and video for the Internet will also be addressed.Appendix A—Digital Video Resource GuideThis appendix will be a valuable resource, providing information about digital video-related books,magazines, Web sites, mailing lists, groups and organizations, hardware and software developers,educational classes, seminars, and workshops.Appendix B—Digital Video Troubleshooting GuideThis appendix will address common problems that occur in digital video and how to solve them.Appendix C—Digital Video Product GuideThis appendix will help readers evaluate digital video hardware and software at the consumer,prosumer, and professional levels.Appendix D—ILM’s Fred MeyersSee excerpts from an exclusive interview with digital cinema expert and HD supervisor Fred Meyers ofIndustrial Light & Magic.Appendix E—ILM’s Ben SnowSee excerpts from an exclusive interview with Academy Award-nominated visual effects supervisorBen Snow of Industrial Light & Magic.GlossaryThe comprehensive glossary includes traditional video, computer, and digital video terms.

Rys DV2e FM.qxd11/28/056:16 PMPage xiii P R E FA C E IndexAn in-depth index provides fast access to information.Color InsertA special color insert features Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones. Learn how the Star Wars sagahas impacted the field of digital video. Go behind the scenes with exclusive interviews of top IndustrialLight & Magic personnel.Back of Book DVDA DVD includes digital video tutorials, software, vendor and product information, and much more,including a unique behind-the-scenes look at how the Philadelphia Eagles football franchise is usingstate-of-the-art digital video technology.FEATURESThe following list provides some of the salient features of the text: Profiles of successful digital video professionals offer important industry advice and inspiration. Articles by leading professionals in the field give valuable insight into the creative process. Objectives clearly state the learning goals of each chapter. Photographs and illustrations supplement the text throughout. Review questions reinforce the material presented in each chapter. A resource guide provides contact information for groups, organizations, Web sites, training,and more. A troubleshooting guide addresses common digital video problems. A product guide features current digital video hardware and software. A glossary clearly defines both computer and video terminology. A reader-friendly index provides quick information. A color insert showcases how Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones used cutting-edge digitalvideo technology to create its special effects. A DVD includes software, tutorials, product information, and more, including a behind-the-sceneslook at how the Philadelphia Eagles use digital video.xiii

fromCHAPTER 1Understanding Digital Video Technology

Rys DV2e Ch01.qxd11/22/059:16 AMPage 15 There are three primary factorsthat determine file size in digitalvideo: resolution, frame rate, andcolor depth. Resolution is thesize of the video frame, which ismeasured in pixels. Frame rate isthe amount of frames that aredisplayed in one second of video,which is measured in frames persecond. Finally, color depth isthe number of colors representedin a video image, which ismeasured in bits.FACTORS DETERMININGFILE SIZE IN DVtableCHAPTER 115 1-2 1. Resolution (pixels)2. Frame Rate (fps)3. Color Depth (bits)To edit digital video, you have to understand how to manipulate thesefactors to control file size. If you were creating digital video for theInternet, you would need to work with very small file sizes. If you werecreating digital video content for CD-ROMs, file sizes would bemoderate. Likewise, if you were creating digital video for broadcasttelevision, your file sizes would be much larger.The size of a digital video file directly corresponds with how long it takesto render and move that file. The larger the file, the longer it takes to renderand move; the smaller the file, the less time it takes to render and move.It would be counterproductive to work with digital video files largeenough for broadcast television, if you only needed to create digitalvideo for the Internet. There are typical standards used to create digitalvideo for broadcast, multimedia, and the Internet. NOTE A render is the process acomputer takes to carry out aparticular set of instructions. Theterm render is commonly used indigital video and 3D animationbecause significant amounts oftime are required to completeregular tasks in both fields.BROADCASTThere are several resolutionsused today for broadcast digitalvideo. The resolution for videothat was originally shot on ananalog video camera is 640 x 480pixels. The resolution for videothat was originally shot on adigital video camera is 720 x 480pixels. Both resolutions are alsoreferred to as full-screen video. BROADCAST1. 720 x 480 pixels2. 30 (29.97) fps3. 32-bit colortable 1-3

Rys DV2e Ch01.qxd11/22/05 169:16 AMPage 16understanding digital video technology NOTE DPI, LPI, or PPI?DPI (dpi) stands for dots per inch.LPI (lpi) stands for lines per inch.PPI (ppi) stands for pixels perinch. Digital video uses DPIbecause it is typically used tomeasure monitor resolution. Fora more detailed discussion of theuses of DPI, LPI, and PPI, consultthe help guide for AdobeIllustrator or Adobe Photoshop. NOTE A waveform monitor measuresthe luminance portion of thevideo signal, and a vectorscopemeasures the chrominanceportion of the video signal. Furthermore, HDTV can be either one of two resolutions: 1280 x 720pixels (progressive) or 1920 x 1080 pixels (interlaced). Video is 72 dpi,or dots per inch, be it for broadcast, multimedia, or the Internet. Imagescreated for the print media are typically a much higher DPI than thosecreated for video.The frame rate for broadcast digital video is 30 (29.97) frames persecond. This is also referred to as full-motion video. Video for broadcasttelevision must have a color depth of 32 bits. Waveform monitors andvectorscopes are professional test equipment used to measure the qualityof video signals. If you were creating a commercial for television, thisequipment would be used to test the video signal before it was broadcast.Full-screen, full-motion video that is not intended for broadcast istypically 24-bit color. This is often the standard for industrial orprosumer digital video.Audio is also relevant to the size of a digital video file; however, it ismuch smaller in comparison to the video portion. Nevertheless, itbecomes an issue when smaller file sizes are imperative. Typically,broadcast quality audio is either 48 kHz (digital) or 44 kHz (analog),16-bit stereo.MULTIMEDIAThe conventional standards for multimedia are more flexible than they are for broadcast. Itoften depends upon the configuration of the computer that will be playing the digital video.Computers with faster processors, faster CD-ROM drives, and a lot of RAM will play largerdigital video files more smoothly than slower systems. Typically, digital video to be played ona computer is often quarter screen video. The resolution is usually either 320 x 240 pixels(analog) or 360 x 240 pixels (digital). Again, the dots per inch will be 72 because the computermonitor, like the television set, is only capable of displaying 72 dpi. *table 1-4 MULTIMEDIA1. 360 x 240 pixels2. 15 fps3. 16-bit colorThe frame rate for multimedia is often 15frames per second. However, this is one of thefactors that may be increased to 30 frames persecond if the computer system that is playingthe digital video is fast enough. It is less taxingto increase the frame rate to full motion than itis to increase the resolution to full screen. Color

Rys DV2e Ch01.qxd11/22/059:16 AMPage 17 CHAPTER 117 depth for multimedia is usually 16 bits, but it can sometimes be increased to 24 bits. Colordepth can be adjusted by using the quality slider when compressing digital video. Multimediaaudio can be 48 kHz or 32 kHz (digital), or 44 kHz or 22 kHz (analog), 16-bit stereo.INTERNETBecause many people still connect to the Internet via phone lines, using large digital video fileson the Internet is not a viable option. There are two basic methods for transmitting video overthe Internet: downloadable video and streaming video.With downloadable video, the user receives a copy of the entire digital video movie on his orher computer. Files are larger and this option takes longer to download, but one advantage isthat the user has a copy of the digital video movie. The movie file remains on the user’scomputer until he or she deletes it. Some downloadable video can be configured to startplaying while the actual download is still taking place. This is called a fast-start or aprogressive download.A second alternative is to stream the video overthe Internet. Streaming video temporarily loadsthe video into the user’s computer frame byframe while it plays. Files are smaller and thisoption is faster, but the digital video file is notactually downloaded onto the user’s hard driveand cannot be saved and played back. Thequality of streaming video is usually lower thandownloadable video.INTERNETtable1. 180 x 120 pixels2. 10 fps3. 8-bit colorTypical video resolutions for the Internet are varied. They can be as small as 160 x 120 pixels(analog) or 180 x 120 pixels (digital). Often, larger resolutions are made available to users withhigh-speed Internet connections. These sizes can be 400 x 300 pixels, 360 x 240, or otherdimensions, as long as the original aspect ratio of the video is preferred. Frame rate is seldommore than 10 frames per second. Color depth is usually 8-bit color. Audio for the Internet is aslow as 11 kHz, 8-bit mono, but can also be 22 kHz (analog) or 32 kHz (digital), 16-bit stereoor higher if audio quality is a priority. 1-5

fromCHAPTER 2Digital Video Cameras and Tape Formats

Rys DV2e Ch02.qxd3211/22/05 9:18 AMPage 32digital video cameras and tape formats TIP No matter which type of lens youbuy, it’s a good idea to invest in anultraviolet filter, which can protectthe lens from being accidentallyscratched and damaged. NOTE Most video cameras will also letyou choose between automaticfocus and manual focus. ZoomsMost digital video cameras come with a zoom lens. As its name suggests,a zoom lens will allow you to move closer to a subject or magnify anarea. A 24x zoom will make the subject appear 24 times closer than itactually is in reality. The better the zoom capability, the more expensivethe lens. There are two types of zooms: optical zooms and digital zooms.An optical zoom is the built-in capability of the lens to magnify, whichis determined by the construction of the lens itself. A digital zoom is acomputer representation of what the image would look like as it ismagnified. Digital zooms can dramatically extend a zoom capability ofthe lens, but the resolution is not as high quality as that of the opticalzoom.figure 2-12 This zoom lens combines normal,wide-angle, and telephoto capabilitiesinto a single lens.Exposure ModesDigital camcorders have automatic exposure modes that are optimizedfor everything from low light situations to capturing quick actions likethose in sports. Exposure regulates the light’s intensity over time. Checkto see if the camera will allow you to override the automatic settings andadjust your exposure manually.Exposure is controlled by two factors, aperture and shutter speed. Theaperture controls the amount of light that is let in by adjusting anopening called the iris, which changes sizes to let in more or less light.These sizes are measured in increments known as f-stops. The shutterspeed of the camera controls the rate of exposure of the light. The speedof the shutter is measured in fractions of a second and typically rangesanywhere from 1/4 of a second to 1/10,000 of a second.

Rys DV2e Ch02.qxd11/22/059:18 AMPage 33 LightingtableThere are other features of the video camera besides exposure that relateto light. All light has color, which is called color temperature. Daylightis a different color from artificial light. Color temperature is measuredin degrees Kelvin (K). Daylight is 5,600 K, while artificial tungsten lightis 3,200 K.CHAPTER 233 2-5 This color temperature chart depictstypical light sources and theirtemperature measurements.COLOR TEMPERATURETypical Light Sources(Measured in degrees Klevin)White BalanceThe video camera can adjust to the differences in color temperature byresetting its white balance. Most cameras will adjust white balanceautomatically, but higher-end models will allow you to manually controlthe white balance.CandleLight BulbStudio LightsSunsetSunlight (Noon)HMI LightsBlue SkyND FilterAnother feature that is directly related to lighting is the neutral density, orND, filter. The ND filter decreases the amount of light to reproduce animage without altering the image’s color. ND filters are useful to controloverexposure when shooting video outside on a bright, sunny day.figure 2-13 This camera has built-in neutral density(ND) filter capability.LuxThe intensity or brightness of light is measured in lux. One lux is theamount of light that falls on a surface area of one square meter when acandle is placed one meter away. Video cameras are rated in lux toidentify their ability to shoot in low light conditions. A camera rated toshoot at one lux requires less light to produce an image than a camerarated to shoot at three lux.1200-1500 K2500-3000 K3200 K3000-4500 K5400-6500 K5600 K10,000-15,000 K

fromCHAPTER 3Configuring a Digital VideoComputer Editing System

Rys DV2e Ch03.qxd5411/22/05 9:24 AMPage 54configuring a digital video computer editing system FIREWIRE AND VIDEO CARDSEither FireWire or a video card is required to capture video and outputit to tape again. NOTE IEEE stands for the Instituteof Electrical and ElectronicsEngineers.FireWire (IEEE 1394)FireWire is Apple Computer’s trade name for the interface IEEE 1394. Itis an international standard that allows high-speed connections andtransfer rates between a computer and peripherals.FireWire can be used to connect a digital video camera to a computer.Most major electronics manufacturers have adopted FireWiretechnology. Sony has its own version called i.LINK, which adheres to theIEEE 1394 standard.FireWire has revolutionized the digital video industry by allowingdigital video cameras to communicate directly with the computer.Digital video hobbyists can purchase a FireWire card for their PCs.FireWire comes built-in on all Macintosh computers, so there is no needto purchase an additional card.Video CardsHowever, the creation of FireWire did not lead to the extinction of thetraditional video card, which translated the analog video signal intodigital form, rather it led to its evolution. There is a new generation ofvideo cards that do more than just convert the analog signal into afigure 3-8 Matrox makes video cards thatwork with popular digital videoediting programs for both PCand Macintosh computers.

Rys DV2e Ch03.qxd11/22/059:24 AMPage 55 CHAPTER 3 55digital one. These new video cards, with both analog and digital videosupport, offer multiple layers of real-time video editing. This meansthat special effects created in popular video editing software programs,such as basic transitions, motion, and transparency, no longer have to berendered before they can be viewed.Many of these video cards also support a second computer monitor andan NTSC video monitor for previewing and playing the video. Withouta video card, a FireWire camera must be attached while editing in orderto view the video in its actual resolution. Many professional digitalvideo editors will purchase one of these new video cards because theadded features will save time and money. The next generation of videocards can range in price from 600 to thousands of dollars.Manufacturers of popular video cards include Avid, Pinnacle Systems,Media 100, and Matrox. NOTE CODEC is short for Compression/Decompression.CODECsWhether you are using FireWire or one of the newer generations ofvideo cards, the digital video files are compressed using a CODEC.A CODEC is a mathematical algorithm used to decrease the file size ofa video image. Because digital video files are so large, they need to becompressed to make them more manageable.Typically, a high-quality, five-minute digital video clip, compressedusing the DV-NTSC (used by FireWire) CODEC, will occupy over agigabyte of hard drive space. There are many different types ofCODECs; MPEG and Cinepak are two popular ones. Cinepak is oftenused for CD-ROMs, while MPEG is used for DVDs. Most CODECs aresoftware-based, meaning they don’t require any additional hardware tobe viewed.However, certain video cards require hardware CODECs as well. If youare purchasing a video card, check to see if it requires a hardwareCODEC, or if it also has a software CODEC available. If it does not, youwill not be able to view digital video files recorded with that model videocard’s CODEC on any other computer that doesn’t have that modelvideo card installed. If the video card has a software CODEC, you canmove the digital video files to any computer and view them by installingthe software CODEC into the operating system.figure 3-9 In Adobe Premiere, there are varioussoftware CODECs from which tochoose using QuickTime.

fromCHAPTER 5Digital Video Production

Rys DV2e Ch05.qxd9611/22/05 9:29 AMPage 96digital video production CablesMaintaining the quality of the video signal is dependent upon the type ofcables you use. High-quality cables are more expensive for a reason. Theycan be shielded to maintain the integrity of the video signal by reducingthe amount of interference. Also, gold-plated connectors provide betterconductivity, but do add to the cost. Predominantly, the type of cable andconnection itself dictates the quality of the video signal.Professional cables used to transmit the component video signal usuallyhave BNC connectors. A separate cable is used for the color red, the colorblue, the color green, and the luminance portion of the video signal.figure 5-16 This shielded, broadcastquality cable has BNCconnectors. NOTE When using an S-video cable,you still need to use audiocables to get sound. Somepeople mistakenly think theS-video cable replaces the threewire yellow, white, and red audiovideo cable. It only replaces theyellow video cable.The S-video cable separates the chrominance and luminance portionsof the video signal. It is better quality than composite, but not as goodas component.figure 5-17 The S-video cableseparates the luminanceand chrominance portionsof the video signal.

Rys DV2e Ch05.qxd11/22/059:29 AMPage 97 CHAPTER 5 The composite audio video cable typically comes with three interconnected cables usingstandard RCA connectors. The yellow cable is used for video. The red and white cables areused for stereo audio. Sometimes the audio cables are colored red and black. A mono audiovideo cable only has two cables: yellow for video and white for audio. Typically, if a particulardevice only has mono audio and you have a stereo audio cable, only the white cable is used.A four-to-six-pin FireWire cable is usually used to connect a digital video camera or deck toa computer. The four-pin end connects to the camera or deck and the six-pin end connects tothe computer.figure 5-18 This consumer video cable has gold-platedconnectors for improved conductivity.figure 5-19 This four-to-six-pin FireWire cable is used toconnect a digital video camera to a computer.Other cables you may encounter when doing digital video are stereo mini audio cables. Thestereo mini jack

Also Available from Thomson Delmar Learning Exploring Visual Effects/Woody/Order # 1-4018-7987-X Exploring Sound Design for Interactive Media/Cancellaro/Order #1-4018-8102-5 Exploring Digital Software on the Mac/Rysinger/Order # 1-4018-7791-5 Exploring DVD Authoring/Rysinger/Order # 1-4018-8020-7 exploring DIGITAL VIDEO Second Edition Rysinger

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