SMART GRID TECHNOLOGYTRAINING PROGRAMThis material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-OE0000430.
Program Design GuideforSMART GRIDTECHNOLOGYUniversity of Hawaii Community Colleges SystemProject Award Number:DE-OE0000430July 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTSPART I - Project OverviewExecutive SummaryAcknowledgementsPrincipal InvestigatorPoint of ContactProject Development TeamSubject Matter ExpertsIndustry PartnershipsIntellectual PropertySafety NoticePart III - Course Design GuidesSmart Grid Core Content (continuted)Intelligent Energy SystemsConcentration CoursesSCADA, Industrial Control Systems . 185SCADA, Industrial Control Equipment . 261Intelligent Energy Systems - Fundamentals . 323Intelligent Energy Systems - Architecture . 333Intelligent Energy Systems - Interoperability . 375Advanced Metering Infrastructure . 407Program Guide TerminologyGeneral EducationHow to Use this GuideApplied Mathematics . 435Geography and the Natural Environment . 451PART II - Degree and Certificate ProgramsTechnical Writing . 453Program Mission . 16English Composition . 463Program ObjectivesCollege Algebra . 465Program Student Learning OutcomesAssociate of Science Degree . 17ElectivesAssociate of Applied Science Degree . 18History Elective . 467Certificate of AchievementPower Distribution and Control . 19Social Science Elective . 469Certificate of AchievementInformation Technologyand Advance Metering Infrastructure . 20Certificate of Completion . 21Part III - Course Design GuidesSmart Grid Core ContentComputer and Networking TechnologyFundamentals of DatabaseInformation Systems . 25Computer Networking I . 37Computer Networking II . 79Fundamentals of Industrialand Utility Security . 87Intelligent Energy SystemsConcentration PrerequisitesFundamentals of Safety, Health,and Environment . 93Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics . 103Fundamentals of Power GenerationTransmission and Distribution . 141Arts/Humanities/Literature Elective . 471Optional Program MaterialsIntroduction to Smart Grid . 473Smart Grid Cooperative Education . 479Fundamentals of Distribution Automation . 483Part III - Bibliography. 494
PART IPROJECT OVERVIEW
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYModernizing the country’s power infrastructure and preparing for the deployment of an advanced intelligentenergy system commonly referred to as “Smart Grid” are imperative as the nation struggles with an aging andinefficient power grid. Central to the success of this new technology is a skilled and informed workforce.The U.S. Power and Energy Engineering Workforce Collaborative estimated in 2009 that “45% of power systemengineers will be eligible for retirement by 2014 and approximately 21,000 – 24,000 professional engineers maybe needed to meet the new system needs.”*The role of the university system is to continue enhancing education curricula and teaching techniques to insurean adequate supply of well qualified job candidates can be successful in the energy jobs of the future.Additionally, a properly trained workforce will be needed to select, install, and maintain these leading-edgetechnologies. Examples of initiatives include reliability assurance, cybersecurity, transmission, and distributioncapability upgrades, Smart Grid systems, integration of distributed generation, alternative energy systems,and energy efficiency. A balance of engineering professionals coupled with highly trained operators andtechnicians make up the vast majority of the workforce managing day-to-day operations and keeping electricityflowing across the nation.To address these needs, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electric Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)has funded 51 organizations to participate in the Workforce Training in the Electric Power Sector Program.The goal of this initiative is to train professionals at all levels of the utility hierarchy to implement futureinnovations, including demand response, distributed generation, energy utilization/optimization, and costsimulations based on multiple rate structures.The University of Hawaii Community College System, in cooperation with the Pacific Center for AdvancedTechnology Training and Leeward Community College Office of Continuing Education and WorkforceDevelopment, developed curriculum paths designed to train technicians to deploy and maintain electric powersystems that employ intelligent energy system technologies.This project provides a curriculum capable of being adapted to accommodate several educational pathways.These include traditional undergraduate associate degrees, certificate programs that address multiple specializedpathways, and incumbent workforce development training.The curriculum is designed with an open architecture; the arc of training may be easily tailored to meet specificrequirements of colleges, public utilities, and private employers. The technician-level course material blendstheoretical principles with practical problem-solving skills for technicians, system planners, reliability coordinators,control room operators, and control system administrators. Key to the curriculum is a modular approach toorganize the content and enable trainers to repackage courses and content for stackable and specializedcertifications or credentials.The program design guide provides for multiple training pathway possibilities with stackable options includingan Associate of Science Degree, Associate of Applied Science Degree, Certificate of Completion, andCertificate of Achievement. Additionally, workforce development trainers will find it easy to adapt the materialsto develop short-term workforce training in areas such as information technology, advanced metering infrastructure,power transmission and distribution, or intelligent energy management systems.*Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Power and Energy Society, U.S. Power and Energy EngineeringWorkforce Collaborative. Preparing the U.S. Foundation for Future Electric Energy Systems: A Strong Power andEnergy Engineering Workforce 2009.i
PROGRAM FUNDINGThis project is supported in part by a grant from the U.S Department of Energy under the American Recoveryand Reinvestment Act Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector.Department of Energy Grant DE-OE0000430 was awarded to the University of Hawaii System Community Colleges.University of Hawaii’s Pacific Center for Advanced Technical Training (PCATT), Honolulu, Hawaii, was chargedwith overall project execution.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe development of this program has been made possible through the dedication of numerous faculty, staff,and administrators of the University of Hawaii, subject matter experts, and industry partners who tirelesslydevoted their time and expertise to this effort.PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORScott MurakamiDirector of Workforce DevelopmentUniversity of Hawaii, Community College System2327 Dole StreetHonolulu, HI email@example.comCONTACTSRosemary SumajitInterim Director, Pacific Center for AdvancedTechnical TrainingHonolulu Community College874 Dillingham BlvdHonolulu, HI firstname.lastname@example.orgT. Michael MoserDirector of Career and Community EducationWindward Community College96-046 Ala ‘Ike, Room CE-101Pearl City, HI email@example.comPROJECT DEVELOPMENT TEAMRosemary SumajitProject ManagerPacific Center for Advanced Technology TrainingT. Michael MoserProject CoordinatorWindward Community CollegeCareer and Community EducationWilliam J. LabbyProject Team Leader and Curriculum Developer:Intelligent Energy Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure,and Power SystemsLeeward Community CollegeOffice of Continuing Education and Workforce DevelopmentDallas ShiromaProject Team Leader and Curriculum DeveloperInformation TechnologyHonolulu Community CollegePacific Center for Advanced Technology TrainingMonir HodgesCurriculum Developer, Information SystemsHonolulu Community CollegePacific Center for Advanced Technology TrainingEd NugentCurriculum Developer, SCADA Equipment and SystemsLeeward Community CollegeOffice of Continuing Education and Workforce DevelopmentLoren KoanuiProject CoordinatorHonolulu Community CollegePacific Center for Advanced Technology TrainingTad SaikiGraphic DesignerLeeward Community CollegeOffice of Continuing Education and Workforce DevelopmentJeff P. StearnsProject EditorHonolulu Community CollegePacific Center for Advanced Technology TrainingKatherine BaldwinCurriculum DeveloperLeeward Community Collegeii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSSUBJECT MATTER EXPERTSINDUSTRY PARTNERSRobert ContiKauai Community CollegeLihue, HawaiiHawaiian Electric Company, Inc.Engineering StaffHampden EngineeringEast Longmeadow, MassachusettsAdvanced Process TechnologiesKarl KerseySchneider Electric CorporationNashville, TennesseeCovanta Energy, H-PowerRobert WebsterCovanta Energy, H-PowerKapolei, HawaiBo YangSiemens PTI ServicesDavid LoveladySiemens PTI ServicesSiemens Energy, Inc.Nida CorporationHampden Engineering CorporationSchneider ElectricAutomation DirectSimtronics CorporationArc InformatiqueEmerson CorporationPaladin CorporationPower Analytics CorporationMilsoft Utility SolutionsOPTO 22 CorporationSatish NatiSiemens PTI ServicesHugo BashualdoSiemens PTI servicesiii
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYThe Smart Grid Project Development Team gratefully acknowledges the valuable contributions made to thecollective research and technology advances in this emerging field. During the course of development we haveincluded suggested source information on equipment, computer hardware, software, and documentationcompiled from a variety of sources that protect intellectual property under one or more intellectual property laws,including copyrights, trademarks, trade names, patents, and other national and international laws. Listed beloware the entities included in this project material. When using any part of this product or the suggested sources,respect the rights of the sources afforded by intellectual property laws. IEEE is a registered trademark of the institute of electrical and Electronic Engineers National Fire Protection Association, National Electric Code, NFPA, NFPA 70, NFPA 70E,National Electric Code, and NEC are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection Association Powerlogic, Ion 8600, Ion Enterprise are registered trademarks of Schneider Electric H-190-1, H-190-2, H-185, H-186, H-187 are registered trademarks of Hampden Engineering Microsoft Windows, Windows XP, MS Excel, MS Word, MS Visio are registered trademarks ofMicrosoft Corporation PSS-E is a registered tradename of Siemens Corporation Paladin Designbase, Paladin Smart Grid are registered trademarks of Power analytics Corporation Mathmatica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research Corporation Nida 360S is a trademark of Nida Corporation Windmil is a trademark of Milsoft Corporation PCVue is a registered trademark of Arc Informatique Automation Direct is a registered trademark of The Constructor is a registered trademark of CMH Software PLC Trainer is a registerd trademark of Koldwater Industries Allen Bradley Corporation Fluke is a trademark of Fluke Corporation Advanced Technical Publishers Goodheart and Wilcox Publishers MyMathLab is copyrighted by Pearson Publishing Cisco Systems is a trade name of Cisco Wiresharkiv
SAFETY NOTICEThe Smart Grid Technology Program Design Guides contain information on equipment, processes, and procedurescommonly encountered in the power industry. Specific procedures vary depending upon equipment, installation,configuration, and local requirements. Before adopting any procedure, verify electronic and mechanical compatibility.All procedures involving electrical connection to primary power, energizing, and performing tests on energizedequipment must be performed by or under the supervision of a qualified person.In order to ensure compliance with all safety and health regulations before performing a procedure, refer to theproper authority having jurisdiction. Additionally, refer to specific manufacturer recommendations, installationmanuals, and equipment procedures. The material contained in this manual is intended to be an educationalresource for the user.PROGRAM GUIDE TERMINOLOGYThe following terminology will be used throughout this guide as well as individual course design guides andlaboratory exercises. The terms may have common meaning; in the context of this material the terms carryspecific meaning:Assessment Rubric: An assessment rubric is a guideline for rating student performance. The rubricprovides those conducting an assessment with exactly the characteristics for each level of performanceon which they should base their judgment. The rubric also provides those assessed with clearinformation about how well they performed, as well as a clear indication of what they need toaccomplish in the future to better their performance.Bibliography: A list of books and reference materials used to develop the course design guide.Blooms Taxonomy: A method of classification of learning objectives within education that divideseducational objectives into three domains: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor. Within the domains,learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills atlower levels.Co-requisite: Courses, knowledge, or skills that may be gained in conjunction with the subject course.Course Design Guide: This is the document that is designed to be used as a framework to developspecific course material for delivery to students.Course Number: This is a statement that describes the level of learning or complexity of the coursematerial being presented. In post-secondary education courses at the 100-and 200-level are normallyfoundations for an Associate’s or Bachelor’s degree. 100-level courses may not have any prerequisiterequirements, while 200-level courses will have a requirement for some prior achievement.Course Objectives: Objectives describe what learners will be able to do at the end of instruction.The description delineates the intended result of instruction rather than the process ofinstruction itself.Course Title: The suggested title of a course as related to the content.Course Topics: The main organizing principles of a specific course provide a focus which governs thesubject matter.v
Credits: Number of hours for which a student is given credit for completing a course. Typically acollege level course is 45 contact hours and awards 3 credits.Curriculum: Group of courses making up area of specialization.Lab Exercise: Lab or laboratory exercises describe the actual use of equipment, simulation software,or other demonstration methods. Lab exercises are used as both a learning tool and a means ofassessment for performance objectives. Included in the category of lab exercises are tabletop orpaper exercises that involve the development of procedural performance measures.Lecture: This method of teaching is classroom instruction where the instructor and the studentsengage in a dialog, traditionally a one-way transfer of critical information. In the context of thisprogram the term lecture encompasses a variety of classroom instruction methods that includegroup discussion, facilitated learning team exercises, or other adult learning methods and practicesappropriate to the material being presented.Prerequisite: Specific courses, knowledge, or skills that are required to gain entry into a subject course.Student Learning Outcomes: Phrases that describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities that a studentwill have attained as a result of involvement in a particular set of educational experiences.Student Text and Other Reading Materials: A list of suggested text books, articles, white papers,or other scholarly works that would be of value to the student for primary research and studyduring the course.vi
how to use this guideprogram developmentEach of the degree and certificate programs represents an “arc of training” that the student follows, beginningwith foundational abilities and understandings, leading to theoretical and practical knowledge of the varioustechnical disciplines. The programs culminate by synthesizing knowledge, skills, and abilities that will enable thestudent to apply leading edge technology to solve real world problems.The degree and certificate programs, as well as each of the individual courses, have been designed to providethe student with an opportunity to learn, adopt, and gain proficiency in the generally accepted academic skillstandards of Critical Thinking, Technology and Information Literacy, Oral and Written Communication, andQuantitative Reasoning. Additionally, the course materials are intended to reinforce the values of Citizenship,Community, Culture, and Sustainability.COURSE design guide developmentThe course design guides are intended to be the standard resource from which an institution will develop andcustomize course materials to meet individual campus degree requirements. The guides provide a logical, topicaloutline of knowledge and skills that encompass the subject matter. Each Course Design Guide is divided intothree sections: Course Information Learning Outcomes and Rubric Topical OutlineCOURSE informationThe course information section provides a standard template where developers and instructors will find basicinformation on the course: naming conventions, delivery format, suggested instructor background, standards,and references to help guide the creation of instructional materials.Student Learning OutcomesEach course was developed and designed using student learning outcomes based on Bloom’s Taxonomy ofEducational Learning Objectives, which categorizes cognitive learning into one of six distinct levelsKnowledge – Comprehension – Application – Analysis – Synthesis – EvaluationEach level of Bloom’s Taxonomy uses verbs to describe and evaluate students’ mastery of an objective.Each student learning outcome has a scale of mastery, formatted in a rubric, that will act as a guide to assessthe achievement of the stated outcome.vii
Topical OutlineThe topical outline is divided into logical sections that provide an increasing amount of detail of the coursematerial. The sections are “Units,” “Topics,” and “Objectives,” presenting the reader with an increasing orderof detail on subject information. Units provide the broadest area of study for the course; topics are arranged ina logical sequence supporting each unit. Each of the topics has an associated list of objectives assigned. Somecourses provide both learning objectives and performance objectives; the performance objectives will have anaccompanying laboratory exercise design sheet following the topical outline. Each topic lists a suggested timeframe for completion. The time indicated includes the lectures, in class worksheets, and appropriate assessment.Equipment and SuppliesThe laboratory exercises and activities were designed to be adapted to a variety of training equipment, softwaresuites, and laboratory configurations. Each course and lab provides suggestions on equipment and configurationsintended to minimize the initial investment costs where possible. As programs mature, and more robust laboratoryequipment is desired, this guide provides a full spectrum of configurations.Course Development GuidelinesBeyond the course design guides, the next logical step is for an instructor to develop specific course materialsappropriate to the institution, degree or certificate program requirements, and industry input. The checklistbelow is intended to be a guide in the development of specific course materials.development checklist Review course design guide Select student text/workbook Determine pre-requisites and/or co-requisites required for student entry at the college Determine the learning level and appropriate course number Develop a course schedule that incorporates each topic and provides ample time for the introduction of the topic, student activities, and assessment Develop lesson plans for each topic, dividing lessons into time units appropriate to the course schedule Develop assessment rubrics for each unit and topic Develop assessment materials that effectively measure student achievement Develop student worksheets for each topic Develop lab exercises, as appropriate, for each performance objective Develop a syllabus Develop training aids that are appropriate to the topics Submit course approval according to the institution’s rules and guidelinesviii
PART IIDEGREE AND CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS
DEGREE AND CERTIFICATE PROGRAMSPROGRAM MISSIONThe mission of the Smart Grid Technology program is to develop and enhance a career pathway for technicians who willdeploy and maintain electric power transmission and distribution through the application of smart grid technologies.Program ObjectivesThe Objective of the Smart Grid Technology program is to provide a fundamental and theoretical understandingof power transmission and distribution as well as develop practical problem-solving skills. The program willprovide participants with a theoretical foundation in electricity and electronics, coupled with a working knowledgeof power generation, transmission, and distribution of alternating current, and the inter-relationships that bindthem into a coordinated power system. The program covers areas of specialization that include networkingcommunications, advanced metering infrastructure, and control systems.The emerging field of intelligent energy systems, often referred to as Smart Grid, is a blending of the traditionalgrid technology with that of instrumentation, control, and communications. Each of the programs have beendesigned to specifically address the convergence of these diverse technical specialties and provide a solidfoundation so that participants are prepared for employment in a variety of positions in the rapidly changingfield of energy management.Program Student Learning OutcomeSUpon successful completion of the degree and certificate programs in Intelligent Energy Systems the graduatewill be able to: Apply the principles of mathematics, electricity, and control systems to identify, analyze, troubleshoot,and solve routine technical problems related to intelligent energy systems used in the power generation,transmission, distribution of energy Exhibit and practice appropriate safety, health, personal protection, and equipment safety proceduresapplicable to workplaces related to the power industry Accomplish power industry job responsibilities in accordance with relevant law, policies, procedures,standards, regulations, and ethical principles Demonstrate understanding of the structure and operation of intelligent energy systems and theirrelationship to power generation, transmission, and distribution systems and their impact on societyand environment Operate, calibrate, and maintain test equipment, instrumentation, and control systems related to thepower utility industry Analyze grid systems power flow, including distributed generation sources and loads, and apply powerflow analysis results to solve simple planning problems related to the implementation of intelligentenergy systemsDEGREE AND CERTIFICATE PROGRAM 16The programs listed above are a recommendation to institutions considering degree or certificate pathways. Institutionsare expected to modify the program to meet campus specific general education or core course requirements.
ASSOCIATE OF SCIENCE DEGREEINTELLIGENT ENERGY SYSTEMSThe Associate of Science degree program is a vocational engineering technology pathway. The outline includesall introductory and technical course material as well as course material designed to satisfy typical generaleducation requirements.The rationale for the Associate of Science Degree is to provide a pathway for students who are likely to continuetheir education and pursue a bachelor’s degree. The nominal pathway is intended as a guide that may be tailoredto school specific requirements.The general education courses provide a student the ability to apply and integrate technical or specialized traininginto a broader perspective. The general education courses provide students with critical thinking and problemsolving skills, written and oral communication skills, and a broader perspective of citizenship, community, and culture.SemesterCourse NameCreditsFirstEnglish CompositionCollege Algebra/Pre-calculusFundamentals of Electricity and ElectronicsFundamentals of Database Information Systems3443SecondSafety Health and EnvironmentPower Generation, Transmission, and DistributionIntelligent Energy Systems - FundamentalsSCADA - Industrial Control SystemsComputer Networking I34344ThirdSCADA - Industrial Control EquipmentComputer Networking IIIntelligent Energy Systems - ArchitectureGeography and the Natural EnvironmentHistory Elective43433FourthAdvanced Metering InfrastructureFundamentals of Industrial and Utility SecurityIntelligent Energy Systems - InteroperabilitySocial Science ElectiveArts/Humanities/Literature Elective33433Minimum credits required to obtain an Associate of Science Intelligent Energy Systems65DEGREE AND CERTIFICATE PROGRAMThe courses listed above are a recommendation to institutions considering degree or certificate pathways. Institutions areexpected to modify the courses listed to meet campus specific general education or core course requirements.17
ASSOCIATE OF APPLIED SCIENCE DEGREEIntelligent Energy SystemsThe Associate of Applied Science Degree Program is a career technical education pathway. The outline includesall introductory and technical course material as well as course material designed to satisfy typical generaleducation requirements for an applied science degree.The rationale for the Associate of Applied Science Degree is to provide a pathway for students who are likely toobtain this as a terminal degree. The nominal pathway is intended as a guide that may be tailored to schoolspecific requirements.The general education courses provide a student the ability to apply and integrate technical or specialized traininginto a broader perspective. The general education courses provide students with critical thinking and problemsolving skills, written and oral communication skills, and a broader perspective of citizenship, community, and culture.SemesterCourse NameCreditsFirstEnglish Composition or Technical WritingCollege Algebra or Applied MathematicsFundamentals of Electricity and ElectronicsFundamentals of Database Information Systems3443SecondSafety Health and EnvironmentPower Generation, Transmission, and DistributionIntelligent Energy Systems - FundamentalsSCADA – Industrial Control SystemsComputer Networking I34344ThirdSCADA – Industrial Control EquipmentComputer Networking IIIntelligent Energy Systems - ArchitectureGeography and the Natural Environment4343FourthAdvanced Metering InfrastructureFundamentals of Industrial and Utility SecurityIntelligent Energy Systems - InteroperabilityHistory ElectiveSocial Science/Arts/Humanities/Literature Elective33433DEGREE AND CERTIFICATE PROGRAMMinimum credits required to obtain an Associate of Applied Science Intelligent Energy management Systems1862The courses listed above are a recommendation to institutions considering degree or certificate pathways. Institutions areexpected to modify the courses listed to meet campus specific general education or core course requirements.
CERTIFICATE OF ACHIEVEMENTPower TRANSMISSION distribution and control systemsThe Certificate of Achievement in Power Transmission Distribution and Control Systems is a career technicaleducation pathway. The outline includes introductory and technical course material necessary to gain proficiencyin the technical specialty of power and control systems. Students electing to follow this pathway could apply allcoursework if they elect to continue their education and pursue an associate degree.The rationale for the Certificate of Achievement is to provide a pathway for students who are interested in gainingessential skills to enter the workforce. The nominal pathway is intended as a guide that may be tailored to schoolspecific requirements.Course NameCreditsTechnical Writing3Applied Mathematics/College Algebra4Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics4Introduction to Smart Grid1Safety Health and Environment3Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution4Intelligent Energy Systems - Fundamentals3Intelligent Energy Systems - Architecture4SCADA - Industrial Control Systems4SCADA – Industrial Control Equipment4Minimum credits required to obtain a certificate of Achievement Intelligent Energy Systems (Power Distribution and Control Systems)34DEGREE AND CERTIFICATE PROGRAMThe courses listed above are a recommendation to institutions considering degree or certificate pathways. Institutions areexpected to modify the courses listed to meet campus specific general education or core cours
Siemens PTI Services David Lovelady Siemens PTI Services Satish Nati Siemens PTI Services Hugo Bashualdo Siemens PTI services INDUSTRY PARTNERS Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Siemens Energy, Inc. Nida Corporation Advanced Process Technologies Hampden Engineering Corporation Schneid
Smart Grid and Cyber-Physical Systems Office National Institute of Standards and Technology U.S. Department of Commerce Smart Grid And CPS Testbed Update Smart Grid Federal Advisory Committee Meeting June 3, 2014. 2. Smart Grid and Cyber ‐ Physical Systems Testbeds Layout. Smart Microgrid Control Smart andRoom Intelligent Device Smart Storage .
emissions reduction from smart grid deployment 28 14. Smart grid product providers 33 List of Tables 1. Characteristics of smart grids 7 2. Workshop contributions to the Smart Grids Roadmap 8 3. Smart grid technologies 19 4. Maturity levels and development trends of smart grid technologies 20 5. Select national smart grid deployment efforts 21 6.
Therefore, DSM in smart grid is more extensive than the traditional power grid. 1) To achieve a good interaction between the grid and the user The main characteristics and the goal of building the smart grid is to realize the "intelligent interactive",DSM in Smart Grid is no longer a simple power management, the power grid enterprises
Defining the Pathway to the California Smart Grid of 2020 PIER Funded RD&D Activities: Micro-Grid demonstrations of Smart Grid technologies White Paper on defining the Smart Grid standards, codes and protocols White Paper on the Smart Grid technologies that will accelerate the
problematic grid component. The smart grid will bring new features into the power grid such as renewable-based generation, demand-response, wide area protection, smart metering, etc. The core of the smart grid is an intelligent communication system that links all compo-nents together in an efﬁcient and secure manner. Smart grid
1 Review of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in Smart Grid Investments 1 1.1 Context 1 1.1.1 When is a grid smart? 1 1.1.2 Functional categories of smart grids 2 1.1.3 What is a PPP? 5 1.1.4 Opportunities for using PPPs in smart grid development 5 1.2 Recent Trends in Smart Grid Projects 6 1.2.1 Enhancing transmission and distribution grid
South Korea's Experience with Smart Infrastructure Services: Smart Grids 6 2.Introduction 2.1 Smart Grid: Concept and Anticipated Benefits According to the Korean government, the smart grid is defined as a "next-generation power system network that integrates information technology (Smart) into the existing power grid (Grid) to optimize
smart grids for smart cities Strategic Options for Smart Grid Communication Networks To meet the goals of a smart city in supporting a sustainable high-quality lifestyle for citizens, a smart city needs a smart grid. To build smart cities of the future, Information and Communications Techn