Getting Serious About Electric Safety - Project Energy Savers

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Getting Serious AboutElectric SafetyELPMAS

Contentsdid you know?Electricity is Amazing!.2Lightning is a discharge ofelectricity in the atmosphere.The energy from a lightningbolt can heat up thesurrounding air to 60,000degrees Fahrenheit.Electricity enables our lifestyles but canbe dangerous too.The History of Electric Safety.4ELPLearn what electricity is and how itbegan powering our homes.Electricity is very powerful.How Electricity Gets to You.6Learn how electricity travels fromthe power plant to your outlets andswitches.The Dangers of Electricity:Electric Shock.10Electricity can be dangerous. Find outthe shocking truth!Electric Safety Inside.14Learn how to be safe around electricityinside your home.How far away is thelightning? After you see alightning strike, count thenumber of seconds untilyou hear thunder (soundtravels through air muchslower than light!). Dividethe number of secondsby 5 to determine howfar in miles the bolt wasfrom you.MASThe Dangers of Electricity:Electrical Fire .16Find out the causes of electrical firesand learn how to stay safe.Electric Safety Outside.18Learn how to be safe around electricityoutside too.Electric Safety:The Board Game.20Have Fun Learningabout Electric Safety.22Try these extra exciting activities!This book is published by Project Energy Savers.For information about Project Energy Savers, go This book was produced by Project EnergySavers , LLC. Neither Project Energy Savers ,LLC, nor any person acting on behalf of ProjectEnergy Savers , LLC, makes any warranty,expressed or implied, with respect to the useof any information disclosed in this booklet, orassumes any liability with respect to the useof, or for damages resulting from the use of,any information contained in this booklet. Therecommendations, statistics, and informationprovided are strictly for the purposes of informingthe user. 2018 Project Energy Savers , LLC. All RightsReserved.Electricity Powers Our Lives.We use electricity to light our homes, schools, and hospitals,store our food, browse the Internet, charge our smart phones,manufacture goods, and much more! Electricity makes ourmodern-day way of living possible. Even though electricityallows us to do manyamazing things, it alsocan be very dangerous.Can you imagine whatlife would be like withoutelectricity? How wouldyou do your homework atnight? What would you dofor entertainment?Animals useelectricity too!Clearly, electricity is awesome—but itsincredible power also makes it verydangerous. We wrote this book toshow you how to use and enjoyelectricity safely, and what to doin case of an emergency.Animals like the electric eel and theplatypus utilize electricity as a sense tonavigate the world around them — just like weuse our five senses! Electric eels can producestrong electric shocks of around 500 volts forboth self-defense and hunting. The platypus’sbill is covered in electroreceptors, which areelectricity sensors that the platypus uses todetect electrical impulses emitted by its prey!How much more electricity can an electriceel produce compared to a standard USoutlet? Remember, outlets supply 120 voltsand electric eels can generate shocks ofaround 500 volts.500 volts - 120 volts 380 volts! An electric eel produces 380 morevolts of electricity than a standard wall socket.Test your electric safety knowledgewith this fun board game!23

Faraday cageThe History of Electric SafetyElectricity wasn’t always as available as it is today. Before its invention, people usedcandlelight, kerosene, or oil lamps to illuminate their homes at night. Many scientists,engineers, and inventors contributed to the development of the safe use of electricitythat powers our modern day way of living!What is electricity?ELPAtoms are tiny particles that are way too small tosee with your eye—in fact, millions could fit on thetip of a pin! Atoms are made up of even smallerparticles called protons, neutrons, and electrons.These are known as subatomic particles.Electricity is the flow of electrons! Electrons canmove from one atom to another and whenthey move in the same direction, through aconductor, we call this an electric current.THE WAR OF THE CURRENTS Michael Faraday, an Englishchemist and physicist, is knownfor his many contributions toour modern understandingof electricity andmagnetism. Faraday’smonumental discovery that a chargedelectrical conductor exhibits that charge onlyon its exterior surface (not the inside), led tomany amazing applications!MASEDISON TESLADid you know?Lightning rodsBenjamin Franklin lived in the 1700s and was a man of many talents.Through his experiments, Franklin proved that lightning is an electricalphenomenon. Along with his investigation of electricity, Franklin inventedthe lightning rod, which is still widely used today to protect homes andbuildings from dangerous lightning strikes.How do lightningrods protect buildings? Lightning rodsare pointy metal rodsthat are attachedto the highest pointof a building andconnected to theground through awire. When lightningstrikes the rod, thecharge moves intothe ground, protecting the building andthe people inside.LIGHTNING RODWIREGROUND RODPlanes are often struck by lightning—sohow do you and the rest of the passengersstay safe inside? The aluminum hull of theplane (a conductor) creates a Faradaycage—the charge from the lightning strikemoves through the exterior surface only,leaving the people and equipment insideunharmed. Can you think of any otherobjects that act as a Faraday cage?THE FIGHT FOR HOW YOU TURN ON THE LIGHTNikola Tesla, a Serbian-American engineerand inventor, is to thank for much of the energy technology we use today. After moving to the United States in 1884 to work forThomas Edison, Tesla decided to pursue hisown work on the alternating current (AC),which was later used by the WestinghouseElectric Company. The Edison Electric LightCompany, however, utilized direct current(DC). In basic terms, AC current is an electric current where electron flow can reversedirection. DC current is an electric currentwhere electrons flow in only one direction.Tesla’s AC electricity system was cheaper,could travel farther, and required fewerpower plants, but Edison argued (falsely)that it was also more dangerous than his DCcurrent. Today most household appliancesand electronics require a conversion fromAC to DC current to work and Edison’s DCcurrent was largely phased out over time.Tesla wins!Let there be light!In 1880, Thomas Edison began commercializing his incandescent light bulb. Edison’steam tested more than 6,000 materials for thebulb’s filament before settling on somethingthat lasted for over 1,200 hours!Use the visual clues to fill in the blank andfind out what the filament in Edison’s bulbwas made of!BONDIt’s a fact!4answer - carbonized bambooIn the United States alone, about 330 people get struck by lightning everyyear—remember, the safest place to be during a thunderstorm is inside a sturdy building or vehicle.5

How Electricity gets to YouEven though we use it every day, most of us don’t think about where our electricity comes from.However, the construction of the power grid is one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century and something we rely on daily! Electricity may be generated a long way from your homeand may travel a long way before it gets to your home. Here’s how it safely gets to you.1 Electricity is generated at about 7,000 power plants across thenation! Different kinds of power plants use either nonrenewableenergy sources (like coal, oil, or natural gas) or renewableenergy sources (like solar, wind, orhydropower) to produce electricity.2Inside the power plant,a spinning turbine turns theshaft inside a generator,creating an electric current.5The voltage has tobe lowered one more timebefore it is safe to enteryour home. This happens ata pole-mount transformer.These pole-mountedtransformers are smallerversions of the ones usedat the transformer stationand the substations. Eventhough the voltage has beenlowered, the electricity thatcomes out of your homeoutlets can still be verydangerous. An electricshock from wires in yourhome can cause injury oreven death.4Once the electricity gets closer to itsdestination the voltage must be lowered againat a substation. This lower voltage electricityis then brought one step closer to your homethrough smaller wires called distribution lines.You can spot these wires running along highways and sometimes on neighborhood streets.power plant, it must travel and be distributed.This distribution system is called the powergrid. The first stop is a transformer station,where the voltage is increased. This allows theelectricity to travel farther, but it also makesit much more dangerous. The high-voltageelectricity travels long distances throughwires called transmission lines.6Transmission lines can be seen along major highways and carryvery high voltage electricity—up to 500 kilovolts (kV)! Transmission lines are commonly made of aluminum because it has a lowresistance and allows electricity to flow. Electricity moves throughthe wire over long distances via the flow of electrons. Transmission lines are extremely dangerous because unlike householdwires, they are usually not insulated. Never go near or touch atransmission or power line.ELPMAS3 Once electricity is generated in theInside a transmission lineWhat about the birds?If transmission lines are so dangerous, why don’t all the birds sitting onthem get electrocuted? When a bird sits on a single wire, its two feetare at the same electrical potential (voltage), so there is no motivation for the current to travel through the bird’s body and thus the electrons will continue along the path of least resistance (the wire). However, if the bird’s wing or leg touches a second wire (with a differentvoltage), a path will be created for the electrons to flow through thebird and the bird will be electrocuted. But don’t worry—utility companies try to spread out the wires so this doesn’t happen.Continuedon Page 8!What do you think? Which birds in the illustration are safe from electric shock? Which birdsare unsafe? (Circle the safe birds in green and theunsafe birds in red).7

Remember! Stay away from areas marked with 6Electricity enters yourhome through the service box.Here a meter keeps track ofyour home’s electricity usage.CircuitsThe word circuitmeans circle. Electricity can only movein a closed circuit—if a circuit is open, theelectricity cannot flow. When we flip on alight switch, we close a circuit. The electricity flows from a wire, through the lightbulb, and back out another wire. Whenwe flip the switch off, we open the circuitand no electricity flows to the light.signs that say ‘High Voltage’ or ‘Danger.’Stay away from and don’t climb thefences around electrical substations.Never go near or touch transmission orpower lines (learn more about powerlines on pages 18 and 19).ELPCalculate it!How much electricity didthis family use this month?Calculate the bill if theprice per kilowatt hour is11 cents.Which bulbswill light up?Color the light bulbsyellow that will lightup. Remember, inorder for electricity toflow the circuit mustbe closed!911 KWH, 100.21MAS7 Electricity is distributed in yourhome by the service panel. Your home’sservice panel distributes electricity toswitches, outlets, and appliances. It’salso where breakers and fuses protectthe wires inside your home from being over loaded. It’s important to nevertouch or go near the service panel.With your pencil, draw the path thatelectricity takes from the servicepanel through the wires inside the walls of the home tothe: refrigerator, night-light, and television.8 Electricity travels through wiresinside the walls of your home tooutlets and switches located on thewalls in each room. Electrical outletsare where you plug in devices thatneed electricity to akind of electrical force that makeselectricity move through a wire— you can think of voltage likewater pressure.Amperes are the standardunit to describe the current — youcan think of amps like the flowrate.ServicePanelResistance (ohms)Where is the closest power plant?What kind of energy source does it utilize?How far does electricity travel before it gets to you?What is the name of your electric utility company?8Electricity and current are noteasy to understand — sometimesanalogies can help! Try thinking ofelectric current as water passingthrough a pipe to understand theterms below.Voltage (volts)How does your family get electricity?Do some research! (Note: Some of these things may be hard to figure out — If you need help, askan adult. And here’s a hint! Check the front cover of the service panel for your utility’s name).Some terms toknowis a measure of how well a material conducts electricity — you canthink of resistance like the size ofthe pipe.9

The Dangers of Electricity:Electric Shockwhat happens if someonegets an electrical shockWhen a person gets an electrical shock, it may affect the person’s heart rate, damage internalorgans, and/or burn the skin. You can think of it like a power surge. It’s important to know thesigns of electric shock and what to do in case of an emergency.ELPElectricity is very useful but it can be dangerous too. In the United States alone, about 400 peopleget electrocuted each year. Electrical accidents and hazards also cause more than 4,000 injuriesannually. Luckily, by better understanding the dangers of electricity, you can help to prevent electrocution and electric shock.When a person gets an electric shock:muscles may tightenWhat is an electric shock?When a person comes into contact with electricity, the electricity(electrons) will flow through the person’s body causing a shock.Receiving an electric shock can be extremely dangerous and damaging to skin and well as internal organs.Burns may appearmaking it very hard to moveaway from or let go of thesource of electricity.where the electricity entered or left the body.MASWhy is electricity dangerous to us?InsulatorsConductorsOther materialsresist the flow of electricity. These materialsare called insulators. Insulators are importantin that they keep us safe from electricity.Have you noticed that all electrical wires arewrapped in a rubbery material? This is to keepus safe from electric shock. Can you list someother insulators?Some materialsallow electric current to flow more freely thanothers — these materials are called conductors.In a conductor, electrons are loosely boundand can move through the material easily.The metal parts inside of electrical wires areconductors and allow electricity to flow. Canyou list some other conductors?[water, aluminum, copper, iron, tungsten)[Plastic, wood, rubber, glass]Your Body is aconductor!heartbeatBreathing maymay become abnormal.become difficult.How you can help:1 Never touch the victim of an electrical shock. The electricity can flow into you. It’s also important not to touch wires orother electrical equipment nearby.2 Alert an adult. Then ask the adult to turn off the power atthe main service panel.The human body can conduct electricity because60-65 percent of our bodies are made of water andwater is an excellent conductor. That means thatelectricity could easily flow through you. This is whyyou must be very careful around electricity!10Color thebody up tothe 65% line— thisrepresentsthe portionof your bodythat is madeof water.3 Call for help. Call 911 and tell the dispatcher that someone has been shocked.4 Make sure the person gets checked by a medical professional. Anyone who has gotten an electric shock should seea doctor or visit the hospital because some injuries from anelectrical shock may not be seen from the outside.11

ELECTRIC SHOCK PREVENTIONTry This SHOCKING Experiment!Have you ever felt a small shock when touching ametal doorknob after walking across carpeting in socks? Thisis called static electricity! Don’t worry, most household staticelectricity shocks are not dangerous and nothing to worry about.ELPWhat is static electricity?Here are some simple ways to stay safe!Even though electricity can be very dangerous, most electric shock and electricity related injuriescan be prevented by understanding the dangers and following safety precautions.Static electricity is an imbalance between negative and positive charges in an object(remember electrons can move from one atom to another). Charge can build up until there is a pathfor release or discharge—the small shock you feel is a result of the quick movement of electrons.So, when you rub your socks on the carpet you are gaining electrons and building up anegative charge. And, when you touch the doorknob electrons are discharged from you to the knoband you get a small shock. Dangerous electric shocks can work in a similar way but on a much largerscale—electrons move from an electrically charged object through your body.MASIf you see a worn cord do nottouch it and alert an adult rightaway.Never turn on an electricalappliance when you are wetor in the bathtub.Materials Styrofoam plate ThumbtackProcedureMake your own static electricity3. Using the pencil Aluminum pie tin Pencil with eraser Piece of wool fabricas a handle, pick upthe aluminum tin andplace it on the Styrofoam plate.4. Carefully touch1. Gather your materials. PushKeep all electrical devices faraway from water.Remind adults to turn lightfixtures off before changing alight bulb.Important safety tips to remember:Sometimes a person will not have any visible injuries after an electric shock. However, it’simportant to always see a doctor or medical professional because electric shocks cancause damage to the internal organs too.The most common ways that children get electric shocks is by biting or chewing on electrical wires or by sticking objects into electrical sockets. Never do either of these things!If you see someone getting an electric shock, it’s important never to touch the personbecause the electricity can flow right into you. The best thing to do is call for help. Anadult will turn off all the power at the main switch box.Learn more about home electrical safety on pages 14 and 15!the aluminum tin.You should feel a tinyshock! (If you don’tfeel anything, try rubbing the Styrofoamplate again.)the thumbtack through thecenter of the pie pan from thebottom up (be careful not topoke yourself!). Push the eraserend of the pencil into the tack.2. Place the Styrofoam plate5.Now try it in thedark! Repeat steps 2-4 but turn off thelights before you touch the tin. You maysee the tiny spark light up!upside-down on a table. Rubthe bottom of the plate withthe wool rigorously for at least60 seconds.Did you know?Static electricity happensmore often during thecolder seasons becausethe air is drier. Duringthis time it’s easier tobuild up electrons on theskin’s surface. In warmerand wetter weather, themoisture in the air helpselectrons dissipate slowlyinto the atmosphere.It’s Amazing!If two objects have thesame charge they will repel(push away) each other. Iftwo objects have differentcharges they will attract(pull toward) each other.A simple example of this isstaticky hat hair! Your hairsall have the same chargeand will repel each othercausing your hairs to standup and frizz out. Bummer!13On the balloons below, label thecharges based on their positions.

Electric Safety InsideIt’s Important to be safe around electricity in your home. Remember, electricityis safe when used correctly. Follow these tips to prevent electrical fires and electric shocks. Alwaysremember to ask an adult for help if you need help with something that uses electricity.ELPoutlets, switches, and cord safetyCheck cords for cracks orDon’t plug too many thingsother damage. Ask an adult to replaceany frayed or loose cords and plugs.into one outlet. This is a common problem during the winter and holidays.Keep all electric cords aroundoutlets organized and neat so no onetrips and falls.Do not run extension cordsMASunder carpeting, furniture, or acrossdoorways.Never yank electrical cords outfrom wall or power strip outlets.Never stickoutlet.Do not staple or nail cordsan object into anto the wall or floor. Use tape or twistties instead.Cooking and the kitchenThe kitchen is a common place whereaccidents happen due to the closeproximity of electricity to water andappliances that get very hot. Learn theins and outs of electrical safety in thekitchen by studying these tips.14Cooking & kitchensafety tips: Do not leave cooking devicesunattended. Unplug devices or applianceswhen not in use. Keep all electrical appliancesaway from water and donot operate any electricaldevices with wet hands. Makesure that your outlets andswitches are a safe distancefrom the sink. Ask an adult to check thatappliances are in goodcondition with no signs ofdamage. If you see smoke,sparks, or hear poppingnoises, discard the device orhave it repaired. Never stick anything into thetoaster to try and get a stuckpiece of toast out.Electric Safety Inspection Checklist:Now that you know how to be safe around electricity inside, perform an energysafety inspection of your home. Check the boxes that apply. If you see somethingwrong, ask an adult to fix the problem.My home has working smoke and carbon monoxide detectors.All electronic devices are located away from water.Loose cords and wires are organized.Space heaters are located at least 3 feet away fromflammable objects.Outlets are not overloaded.Wires and cords are not frayed.My home has a fire extinguisher handy.Cords and wires do not run under rugs or furniture.Notes:In this section write down anything you see that isunsafe and tell an adult!15

Make Your OwnEmergency PlanThe Dangers of Electricity:ELECTRICAL FIREELPIn case of an electrical fire, it’s a goodSometimes the electricity you use in your home can cause a fire. Some electrical fireshappen because of faulty wiring or old appliances. Other fires can happen because ofan overloaded electrical outlet or a space heater placed too close to bedding or otherflammable objects.If an electrical fire does happen, it’s important to know how to stay safe. It’s a good ideato have a meeting with your family and make a plan so you know exactly what to doin the case of an electrical fire in your home. Use the ‘how to’ guide on page 17 to getstarted on your own emergency plan.idea to have a meeting with your family andmake a plan.My Emergency Plan Checklist:Follow this step-by-step guide to make your own emergency plan. Check off the boxes as you goalong and place the final plan on your refrigerator or somewhere everyone can see it.First, find a time when everyone is home and call a meeting. A good time might be after dinner.If an electrical fire doeshappen, you should:1. Exit the area immediately. Never use water to tryElectrical firesafety tips:MASto put out an electrical fire.2. Cover your mouth and nose with a towel or anarticle of clothing while exiting, to keep smoke outof your lungs. If it is very smoky, crawl under thesmoke to an exit. Since smoke rises it’s a good ideato stay as low to the ground as possible.3. Touch the door (not the doorknob) to see if it ishot before opening. If it is hot, try an alternate exit. Ifit is not hot, exit through that door. Remind an adult to installsmoke alarms in each bedroom, and make sure thereis at least one on every levelof your home. Make sure you and yourfamily have a plan in caseof a fire.4. If you live in an apartment building, exit usingthe stairs, not the elevator.5. Once outside, call 911 and stay outside. If afamily member or pet is still inside alert the fire department. Firefighters have special safety equipmentfor rescues. Never go back in unless emergencypersonnel say it’s okay.Electrical FirepreventionNever use an appliance with a worn or frayedcord—this can cause a fire.Keep space heaters at least three feet fromanything flammable like curtains, clothes, bedding, or newspapers.Do not run cords under carpets or doorways.Remind your parents to use bulbs that matchthe lamp or fixture’s recommended wattage.16Our family meeting time is am/pm on .Identify escape routes. During a fire emergency, you must exit your home as quickly as possible.Walk through your home together and identify all possible exits and escape routes.Use the graph paper provided to sketch a floor plan of your home. Mark two ways out of each room,including windows and doors. Fire escape ladders can provide a safe exit from second story windows in an emergency.Check the exits. Make sure all the identified escape routes are free of clutter and that doors and windows can be opened.Check fire alarms. Multiple smoke detectors should be installed throughout your home. Ask an adultto make sure they are working correctly and have extra batteries handy.My family has working smoke alarms in our home.Pick a meeting place. Choose a place outside your home where everyone can meet after theyhave exited. The meeting place should be a safe distance away from your home (like a neighbor’shouse or stop sign). Make sure that everyone knows where the meeting place is.My family’s emergency meetingplace is .Review. Make sure everyone in yourfamily understands and remembersthe plan.My emergencyplan sketch:Sketch a floor plan of your home.Mark two ways out of each room,including windows and doors. Youcan also include the location ofsmoke alarms and your meetingplace outside.17

Electric Safety OutsideIt’s important to be safe around electricity outside your home. Stay away from areas marked with signs that say ‘High Voltage’ or ‘Danger.’ Stay away from and don’t climb the fence around electrical substations. Stay inside during thunderstorms.Power LinesLightning is an elec-One of the biggest electrical dangers outsideare power lines. Electricity travels to your homethrough power lines. You may see these wiresmounted on utility poles along neighborhoodstreets and highways. Power lines can carryhigh voltage electricity and are extremelydangerous. Remember to be aware of your surroundings when outside — it’s not uncommonfor trees and power lines to fall and becomedamaged after a storm.trical discharge! Lightningbolts are so hot that they canheat the immediately surrounding air to temperaturesup to 60,000 degrees Fahrenheit! Outside is the mostdangerous place you can beduring a storm. If you hearthunder or see lightning, getinside as soon as you can. Utility workers help to repair damaged power lines — it’s a very important and dangerous job! Tostay safe, utility workers go through extensive safety training, wear special gear, and use appropriateequipment around energized power lines.ELPTake a lookat this utility worker in action! To work around electricity safely, utility workers need a lot of gear and equipment. After putting on boots, strapping on tools, and throwingthe hand line over one shoulder, utility workers are carrying a lot of extra weight — in fact, all thisequipment can add an extra 50 pounds!Hard Hat Hard hats are required when workingon poles, buildings, and in trees. They are usuallySafety goggles/glassesmade from hard plastic and have an extended rimUtility workers wear nonmetallic andto protect the worker’s head from electrical haznonconductive eye protection thatards and falling debris.blocks hazardous sun glare and protects the eyes too.Hearing Protection Workers wear earprotection to reduce noise while working.MASDowned Power Lines: Be Aware! Utility Worker SafetyStay far away from downed power lines. If you see one, ask an adultimmediately to call the power company.Never touch fallen electrical poles or transformers. These can fall duringheavy storms or strong winds.If your car does come into contact with a downed wire, stay insideand do not exit. Call emergency services immediately for help.Intact power lines: Look! Fly your kite away from power lines in a wide-open area. If your kitetouches an electrical wire, you are at risk of electrocution.Avoid climbing trees near electrical wires or power lines.If a person or objectcomes into contact with a power line: Stay clear of the area and do nottouch the person, animal, or powerline. You should always assume thatthe whole area is electrified. Call 911 and tell the operator thatthere is an electrical emergency.Wait for a qualified electrical worker. Do not post posters or flyers on electric poles. Try posting in neighborhood shops instead. Do not plant tall trees near powerlines. Make sure to plant all tall growing plants a safe distance away.18Outdoor outlets,switches, & cordsSome homes have outdoor electricaloutlets. Follow these safety tips: Only use electrical devices outdoors if they are specifically foroutdoor use.Keep outdoor outlets covered.Keep outdoor outlets dry.Never use outdoor electrical appliances or devices while you are wetor near water.Rubber Sleeves RubberHand line The hand line is a ropesleeves are worn over the arms toprotect from unintentional contactwith an energized power source.that is used to hoist equipment and foremergency missions.Gloves Utility workers wearSafety Harness Utility work-special rubber insulated glovesfor work on high-voltage lines toprotect against electric shock andburn. Gloves also prevent cutsand skin irritation. Leather rubberglove protectors are often wornto further reduce the chance ofpunctures and injury.ers must often work high upoff the ground. To reduce thechance of falling, workers weara safety harness when workingin elevated buckets. The harnessattaches to the truck via the lanyard (a nylon strap with lockingsnap hooks).Equipment Belt The equipment beltTool Pouch This baghelps utility workers to carry the toolsthey need. The ditty bag is a canvasbag that hangs from the belt and holdsnuts, bolts, connectors, and wires.hangs from the equipmentbelt and carries tools like plie

Savers , LLC. Neither Project Energy Savers , LLC, nor any person acting on behalf of Project Energy Savers , LLC, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the use of any information disclosed in this booklet, or assumes any liability with respect to the use of, or f

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