Sybase ASE And Sybase IQ To Oracle - MLogica Inc

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Migrating to the CloudOracle Client/ServerModernizationTom LaszewskiPrakash NauduriTechnical EditorWard SpangenbergAMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDONNEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGOSAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYOSyngress is an imprint of Elsevier

Acquiring Editor: Chris KatsaropoulosDevelopment Editor: Matt CaterProject Manager: Jessica VaughanDesigner: Alisa AndreolaSyngress is an imprint of Elsevier225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USAÓ 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic ormechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, withoutpermission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about thePublisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright ClearanceCenter and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher(other than as may be noted herein).NoticesKnowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden ourunderstanding, changes in research methods or professional practices may become necessary.Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and usingany information or methods described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful oftheir own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liabilityfor any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise,or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataLaszewski, Tom.Migrating to the cloud : Oracle client/server modernization / Tom Laszewski, Prakash Nauduri.p. cm.ISBN 978-1-59749-647-61. Cloud computing. 2. Systems migration. 3. Oracle (Computer file) 4. Client/server computing.I. Nauduri, Prakash. II. Title.QA76.585.L38 2012004.6782edc232011029908British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN: 978-1-59749-647-6Printed in the United States of America12 13 14 15 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1For information on all Syngress publications visit ourwebsite at

CHAPTERSybase Migrations froma Systems IntegratorPerspective, andCase Study11INFORMATION IN THIS CHAPTER: Why Consider Database Migration from Sybase to Oracle? Technical Challenges Key Architectural Differences between Sybase ASE and Oracle Keeping the Current Sybase Environment Running during the Migration Migration Tools Cost of Migration Sizing the Target Oracle Database Environment Infrastructure Migration Challenges Server Consolidation Oracle mLogica Case StudymLogica is a specialized systems integrator with primary expertise in databaseperformance management. mLogica consults on Sybase database performancechallenges and database migration issues, and provides database products andsolutions for customers globally, from premium New York City financial servicesfirms, to leading California media and entertainment companies, to stock exchangesand banks from Bangladesh and the Maldive Islands.Amit Okhandiar, the author of this chapter, is the CEO and founder of mLogica.This chapter deals primarily with mLogica’s experience in working with clientswho, over the years, have asked mLogica to help them evaluate and/or support themwith their database migration initiatives from Sybase Adaptive Service Enterprise(ASE) to Oracle. mLogica provides assessments on the strategic pros and cons ofSybase-to-Oracle migrations from business and technology perspectives. mLogicaanalyzes existing trends in the database marketplace, what business users aretelling us, what database trainers are reporting in regard to database cross-training(i.e., where the jobs are), what analysts are saying, and the investments that bothSybase and Oracle have made in terms of database innovation. Based on thisinformation, mLogica prepares a business case and justification for migration fromSybase to Oracle for its customers.261

262CHAPTER 11 Sybase Migrations from a Systems Integrator PerspectiveThe opinions in this chapter are those of mLogica and are based on the company’s 10-plus years of experience and expertise in the database market. Thischapter offers what mLogica considers to be best practices and lessons learned whenmigrating a Sybase database to Oracle, from the perspective of an Oracle systemsintegrator as well as a systems integrator that has been managing and improving theperformance of Sybase installations worldwide. The chapter concludes with a casestudy that provides details regarding the experiences of a global telecommunicationscompany that migrated from a Sybase and PowerBuilder environment to an Oracleand .NET environment.WHY CONSIDER DATABASE MIGRATION FROM SYBASETO ORACLE?Sybase database migration projects are not always limited to database migrations. Infact, many projects entail operating system (OS) migrations (from Windows toUNIX or Linux, from an HP to a Sun platform), application migrations, interfacerewrites, application redesign, server consolidations and virtualization, and platformstandardization, to name a few. In many instances, these additional migrations makesense, since they add business value by providing an excellent return on investment(ROI) for executive management.Every client with whom mLogica has spoken over the years has had their ownreasons for considering a migration from Sybase to Oracle. Although their reasonswere different, each customer had the same goal in mind: Achieve a strong ROI andan upgrade in performance, while mitigating business risk.One of the major reasons that clients voiced to mLogica concerned what thefuture holds for the Sybase ASE data manager. Based on conversations with clients,it is mLogica’s opinion that, whereas Oracle has a road map for continuing to releasea database that is secure, performant, and innovative and that provides support formission-critical systems, the current state of Sybase ASE poses business risk anduncertainty in terms of long-term viability. Furthermore, mLogica’s clients havevoiced concern about Sybase’s database R&D investments, and they feel that Sybasemay not be able to keep up with Oracle in terms of features, functionalities, andtechnological advances.Another major reason that mLogica clients have considered a Sybase migrationto Oracle is that they feel that, over the years, Sybase has sent mixed messages to themarket regarding its commitment to the ASE product. For instance, the merger ofSAP and Sybase in 2010 focused more on accelerating the reach of SAP solutionsacross mobile platforms than it did on highlighting SAP’s commitment to SybaseASE. In fact, the market’s perception is that SAP acquired Sybase primarily forSybase’s expertise in mobile and in-memory technologies, since SAP is alreadyinvesting heavily in these two areas, as noted in the following analyst quotes:“They are investing in two areas they think will be important for them, namelymobile technology and in-memory databases, both areas where Sybase is

Why Consider Database Migration from Sybase to Oracle?strong.”dRay Wang, partner with Altimer Group, as reported in InfoWorld, May12, 2010 [1]“While SAP management stated that it will continue to support other leadingdatabase vendors, our sense is that SAP will try to have customers use Sybaseinstead of the Oracle database. We do not expect them to be successful in thiseffort.”dLaura Lederman, analyst with William Blair & Company, as reportedon in an article by Larry Dignan, May 13, 2010 [2]Additional market analyses further reinforce what appears to be a confusing, andtenuous, future for Sybase ASE. For example, although the road map for the futureof Sybase ASE is not clear, profits from Sybase database maintenance revenue arevery high [3], indicating that Sybase continues to increase maintenance fees forexisting customers. In addition, technology research firm Gartner Inc. recentlypublished vendor share numbers for 2010 for relational database managementsystems (RDBMSes) [4], and Figure 11.1 shows the database market share numbersfor each vendor in this space. As the figure shows, Oracle expanded its lead andowned 48.1 percent of the RDBMS market for 2010. Gartner also reported thatSybase’s database market share declined by 49.7 percent and that now the companyhas a market share of less than 2 percent. mLogica feels this may represent a trend inthe database market to move away from Sybase, even after the SAP acquisition ofSybase, as shown in Figure 11.2. Sybase’s dramatic decline in revenue may alsomean that SAP has not been able to reassure the market that Sybase’s product linehas a future in this space.FIGURE 11.1Database Market Share by Vendor263

264CHAPTER 11 Sybase Migrations from a Systems Integrator PerspectiveFIGURE 11.2Database Market Share Increase or Decrease for 2010 by VendorBesides the aforementioned reasons, additional concerns that mLogica clientshave voiced regarding their decisions to migrate from Sybase to Oracle include thefollowing: Dissatisfaction with Sybase Sybase customers are dissatisfied with Sybase’scompliance and audit-led sales models over the past several years. Every databasevendor (and every application vendor) wants to ensure (rightfully so) that theircustomers are paying their due as per their licensing agreements. However,numerous Sybase customers have reported to mLogica that they feel Sybase haspushed the boundaries in terms of its tactics and approach toward its customersregarding compliance. Loyal customers hope and expect that, post the SAPmerger, Sybase will start to provide value-based solutions and not primarilydepend on compliance (support revenue) for its gross profits. Sybase’s eroding market share As shown in Figure 11.1, market analysts havebeen quite vocal in expressing their concern regarding Sybase ASE’s long-termviability. A decline in Sybase’s new license revenue was a major concern forSybase’s customers. Some customers believe that SAP will turn this around andmake Sybase ASE a leading database, increasing the company’s market share. Maintenance and upgrade costs for Sybase ASE on Sun/Oracle and HPenvironments The maintenance costs of Sybase and Sun/Oracle and HPare high. Server consolidation and virtualization are major initiatives for manycustomers. Customers are looking at their servers in a holistic way, fromapplications to databases to hardware. Software license upgrades are expensive aswell. Many customers have found an attractive ROI in migrating their

Why Consider Database Migration from Sybase to Oracle? applications to a virtualized and consolidated environment, while migratingSybase to Oracle.Lack of Sybase database administrators Sybase database administrators aredifficult to find, since most of them have retrained themselves in Oracle or otherdatabases. In addition, the general pool of Sybase database administrators isdiminishing every year. Forrester Research estimates that “globally, only about5% of database administrators (DBAs) are trained on Sybase, and this number hasnot increased over the past three years.” [5] This is a challenge for Sybase, as wellas for Sybase customers. Most technologists considering a career in databaseadministration are not looking at Sybase as their preferred database. Colleges anduniversities are not using Sybase in their student labs. PowerBuilder customers,partners, users, and programmers have experienced this firsthand when attemptingto build PowerBuilder applications with a Sybase database as the backend.Lack of standardization on Sybase ASE among the IT community Manycompanies, especially large enterprise organizations, are keeping Sybase incontainment mode, which means that no new applications will be implemented inthe Sybase environment. Even though Sybase has maintained a high retention ratewithin its existing accounts, new accounts and new applications being deployed atexisting accounts are hard to come by.Difficulty in upgrading from Sybase 12.x to Sybase ASE 15 Many Sybasecustomers who have not yet upgraded to Sybase ASE 15 are consideringmigrating away from Sybase and toward Oracle. This is because the expenseassociated with a Sybase ASE 15 upgrade, in many cases, would cover the costassociated with migrating to an Oracle database.Inability to run ASE on SAP SAP is working aggressively to remediate thisissue. SAP’s recent announcement that Sybase ASE is certified on SAP [6] willhelp; however, there is still a major perception issue in the market. Analysts andmajor customers are waiting to see how many mainstream customers will actuallyconsider migrating their SAP applications to an unproven Sybase databaserunning under SAP. Many customers will also have to wait and see if SAP canaddress performance issues related to SAP application architecture and Sybasedatabase architecture that did not allow SAP applications to run successfully onSybase ASE in the past. Sybase needs to establish some mainstream referencecustomers to make the case in this regard. Being certified will not mean much ifSAP can’t bring in reference customers right away. On the contrary, mLogica isseeing Sybase customers migrating to Oracle without having much effort andmarketing push from Oracle in this matter and this clearly shows in the databasemarket share numbers mentioned earlier in this section.The desire for additional options The lack of database market share has drivenindependent software vendors (ISVs), original equipment manufacturers (OEMs),and Software as a Service (SaaS) cloud providers to migrate away from Sybase.In fact, the lack of independent software and application vendors that supportSybase ASE has had the ripple effect of driving more customers off of Sybase,which then causes more ISVs to stop supporting Sybase. This has been a major265

266CHAPTER 11 Sybase Migrations from a Systems Integrator Perspectivechallenge for Sybase and the Sybase community. The market is hopeful thatSAP’s strong channel community will be attracted to an SAP-based databaseoffering; however, mLogica has not seen any proposition that would stimulateSAP channel partners to look at Sybase ASE.In summary, a decision to migrate from Sybase to Oracle should not be an emotionalone. You should plan properly, evaluate automated tools, engage the Oracle PlatformMigration Group (PMG) for their free advice to calculate the ROI that you shouldexpect to gain three to five years after migrating, and, above all, set the rightexpectations with your executive management and end users.TECHNICAL CHALLENGESFor most customers, database schema migrations and database migrations arecomparatively easy to perform. The challenges crop up when migrating storedprocedures, triggers, and views, as they will take longer than migrating the DataDefinition Language (DDL) and data. mLogica actually had a customer that estimatedtheir migration effort would take 80 hours, since the migration tool they were usingindicated that; they were in for a big surprise when their stored procedures refused towork in the Oracle environment. Indeed, one of the key challenges in this type ofmigration concerns stored procedures. If the customer uses Sybase T-SQL extensionsextensively, this will create additional work. If the customer is a heavy user of SybaseDB-Library, CT-Library, Open Client, and Open Server, migration of these code lines,applications, and interfaces could require a rewrite. However, Oracle is set to releasea feature to its SQL Developer Migration Workbench that will automate the migrationof Sybase DB-Library and CT-Library code. We have also seen Sybase users becomeconfused with the migration options between Sybase ASE to Oracle and Sybase IQ toOracle. Sybase IQ is a completely different database. The assumption that Sybase IQis so different has killed migration projects for some of our customers as there are notools to automatically migrate Sybase IQ databases. However, Sybase IQ-basedsystems’ DDL and data can easily be migrated manually. Oftentimes Sybase IQ-basedsystems are easier to migrate to Oracle than Sybase ASE environments.The most important challenge of all is to increase the performance of transactions and queries for end users. The Oracle RDBMS needs to be properly tuned toensure success from a performance perspective. The user experience in the end willdefine the success or failure of the migration. These may be trivial points for experts,but mLogica can’t count the number of times when these points have been missedcompletely on migration projects. Another point that is not unique to Sybase is thefact that Oracle migrations are executed the same as any IT project. They involve testand quality assurance (QA) environments, separate development and test environments, and above all, a plan that is executed for parallel runs, production migration,and support programs for performance and tuning in the post-migrated productionenvironment. If you don’t know where you are going, you might wind up someplaceyou don’t want to be. Planning and execution per the plan is the key to success.

Key Architectural Differences between Sybase ASE and OracleKeeping risk mitigation in mind, mLogica recommends the following migrationplanning process: Examine the existing platform (hardware and infrastructure) architecture anddetermine the equivalent capabilities in the target Oracle platform. Examine the Sybase database capabilities that have been utilized in your application and determine the equivalent capabilities in the Oracle product set. Examine third-party functional and business applications and determine theequivalent capabilities in the Oracle commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) or OracleISV solutions. Measure organizational readiness and overall migration risk. Develop a strategic database migration plan, including a detailed road map andcost estimate, and employ implementation support strategies.KEY ARCHITECTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SYBASE ASEAND ORACLEOracle and Sybase are both relational databases that grew up during the era of client/server computing. Therefore, they have a lot in common: A multithreaded, multiuser relational database engine Support for American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard SQL forperforming Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations against thedatabase engine A database programming language that is used to create stored procedures andtriggers in the database to enable encapsulation of business logic and processingin the database engine Common database objects such as views, groups, users, and user-defined datatypes Support for database replication, online backup and recovery, and mechanisms toidentify and tune SQLThere are also many differences that, in mLogica’s experience, create challenges forcompanies migrating to Oracle in terms of which migration approach is best andwhich Oracle features and options are appropriate to use. These differences arecovered in detail in the following sections.Database ServerSybase database servers consist of a data server and a backup server. There are twoprocesses of the Sybase database server, whereas an Oracle instance has fivemandatory processes: SMON (System Monitor), PMON (Process Monitor), LGWR (LogWriter), DBWR (Database Writer), and CKPT (Checkpoint). The optional ARCH archiveprocess writes filled redo logs to the archive log location(s). In an Oracle Real267

268CHAPTER 11 Sybase Migrations from a Systems Integrator PerspectiveApplication Cluster (RAC), the various ARCH processes can be utilized to ensure thatcopies of the archived redo logs for each instance are available to the other instancesin the RAC setup should they be needed for recovery. Additional Oracle backgroundprocesses include the CJQ job queue processor, CQJ0 job queue controller, FMONmapping libraries, LMON locking manager, and MMON collector for AWR(Automatic Workload Repository). It is good to understand the server architecturedifferences between these two databases; however, these differences will not have anadverse effect on your migration project and estimates.A key difference is that the Sybase data engine can have multiple databaseswithin one engine. Oracle, on the other hand, has one database for the entire dataengine. This can cause customers to believe they need to create an Oracle databaseserver for each Sybase database. This is not the case, as Oracle has the concept ofschemas (i.e., a database user). Therefore, a Sybase database is mapped to an Oracleschema.Memory ModelThe operating system sees the Sybase database as one process to which multipleusers connect. The operating system is allocated the total amount of memory allocated to the database; this doesn’t increase or decrease as the number of userschanges. The Sybase memory model has three main areas:1. The program area where the data server executable resides2. The area for the stored procedure cache for optimized SQL calls3. The data cache area for recently fetched pagesSybase manages memory internally that was allocated at the time the server wasstarted. However, Oracle runs as multiple processes within the operating system.The operating system views each processor as one user of the database. This meansthe Oracle database will require more memory than the source Sybase engine. TheOracle database engine, however, can handle more concurrent users with less processing than the Sybase database engine. This is because the Sybase engine is busyhandling user threading and task switching, while in Oracle, these operations arehandled by the operating system. The Oracle shared global area (SGA) is the mainstorage area for the Oracle database engine. Five memory structures make up theSGA: the shared pool, buffer cache, redo buffer, large pool, and Java pool. Theshared pool contains the Library cache and the Dictionary cache. The buffer cacheholds copies of read data blocks in Least Recently Used (LRU) order. The redo logbuffer contains changes made by INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, ALTER, and DROPcommands. The large pool is an optional memory area providing large areas ofmemory for session memory, I/O server processes, and backup and restoreprocesses. The Java pool is used by any Java objects running inside the Oracledatabase. Most applications will not have Java applications running inside theOracle database unless Sybase T-SQL stored procedures are migrated to Oracle Javastored procedures instead of Oracle PL/SQL stored procedures.

Key Architectural Differences between Sybase ASE and OracleSimilar to the server architecture, it is important to understand the architecturedifferences in the memory model of these two databases; however, these differenceswill not have an adverse effect on migration projects and estimates.NOTESybase decided to not use the multithreading capabilities of the host OS. Therefore, in theSybase database engine, there is a thread for each user that is managed by the databaseengine. Oracle, on the other hand, chose to utilize the multithreading capabilities of the hostOS. The Oracle approach means you will have more OS processes, as user database processesare OS processes. The Sybase approach means there are not as many OS processes, but rathermany threads within the Sybase engine which contain all user connection information. Thesedifferent approaches can cause companies migrating from Sybase to Oracle to increase theamount of memory on their database engine hardware server.Transaction ProcessingBoth Sybase and Oracle databases were initially designed for online transactionprocessing (OLTP) and they both do a great job in that regard. Sybase writestransactions to the data cache first; from there, they are written to transaction logsand the database device. If a Sybase Replication Server is set up, the transaction isthen replicated from the log files to the warm standby or high availability (HA)server. Transaction log files are very important in the Sybase architecture. TheSybase Replication Server relies on log files for HA or data sharing. In the event ofa hardware failure or database corruption, the data is restored from the log files.Except for Image fields (BLOB), logging of the transaction is a required feature for allSybase database servers.On the other hand, Oracle writes transactions to the redo log buffer first, then tothe data file buffer, and then to the data files. This means Oracle transactions don’thave to interface directly with OS data files or with the data file cache, which speedsup the processing of transactions. Once the transaction is committed, it moves toarchived logs. These archived logs are used to restore the database in the event ofa hardware failure or database corruption. Unlike Sybase, Oracle doesn’t require youto perform transaction logging. Oracle transaction logging can be performed at thedatabase level or even on a table-by-table basis. Typically, Sybase databaseadministrators go through a learning curve when it comes to transaction logs whenmigrating from Sybase to Oracle.AnalyticsOracle offers several built-in analytics functions for running averages (AVG),covariances (COVAR COUNT, COVAR SAMP), linear regressions (REGR AVGX, REGR COUNT,etc.), and variances (VARIANCE, VAR SAMP), to name a few. A client can successfullyutilize the Oracle database to build a data warehouse, operational database, or269

270CHAPTER 11 Sybase Migrations from a Systems Integrator Perspectivemixed-use data store using these functions. Oracle also offers Oracle Data Mining(ODM) and Oracle online analytical processing (OLAP) services (cubes) built intothe Oracle database engine. Both ODM and Oracle OLAP are options (they havea cost associated with them) of the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition.Sybase ASE does not have equivalent functions for most functions offered byOracle, except for a few, such as ranking within a group (DENSE RANK; supported byboth Oracle and Sybase ASE) and popular variance-related functions (STDDEV POP,VAR POP, also supported by both Oracle and Sybase ASE).Sybase offers another product called Sybase IQ that is specifically designed fordata warehousing and that competes with Oracle Exadata in price and performance.Sybase IQ cannot be compared to Oracle Exadata because of architectural differences. Sybase IQ is a column-based database that is designed specifically foranalytics and ad hoc queries. Also, because all columns are indexed by default andby design, ad hoc query performance, as required by analytics, is one of IQ’s strongadvantages over many “normal” databases. Single row inserts are also not great invector-based (column-based) databasesdbulk loading of data is the best way to gofor these solutions. Sybase IQ, unlike Oracle Exadata, is also not for mixed use/mixed workload (both data warehousing and OLTP) environments.Both Oracle and Sybase support leading business intelligence (BI) tools such asIBM Cognos, MicroStrategy Business Intelligence Platform, SAP Business Object,Actuate ActuateOne, and others. Oracle also offers Oracle Business IntelligenceEnterprise Edition 11 g (OBIEE) for ad hoc BI Web-based dashboards.Oracle supports materialized views, or database objects that contain the result setof a query. Oracle uses materialized views (previously known as snapshots) toreplicate data to nonmaster sites in a replication environment and to cache expensivequeries in a data warehouse environment. Sybase doesn’t have an equivalent solutionbut can create a trigger, for example, to serve the same purpose. Sybase ASE doessupport both materialized and virtual computed columns.Procedural LanguagesT-SQL from Sybase and PL/SQL from Oracle are both easy-to-use and robust procedural languages for writing database stored procedures. Sybase database administratorslove to write stored procedures and make the database do most of the work. You can seehundreds to thousands of stored procedures in a typical Sybase database.Using tools such as SQL Developer to convert T-SQL stored procedures to PL/SQL has become much more prevalent in migrations over the past few years. Thestandard practice is to break down store procedures into simple, medium, complex,very complex, and custom complexity “buckets.” SQL Developer will initiallycapture, convert, and generate most of the simple and medium stored procedureswith a minimal (if any) amount of manual work. Complex and very complex storedprocedures might need more manual work; however, there might be fewer of these ina migration. The percentage of automated conversions will therefore depend on theratio of simple to very complex stored procedures.

Key Architectural Differences between Sybase ASE and OracleSecurityA simple way to look at security is that Sybase is considered open and vulnerableuntil it is secured. Oracle, on the other hand, is considered locked and secured until itis opened. Top Sybase database administrators should have all the tools in hand tohave a secure and reliable database; however, sometimes this does not happen.Oracle keeps the security holes closed until the business requires that the databaseadministrator makes the database more flexible. Both approaches have pros andcons. Some database administrators welcome preimplemented security measures;others prefer a more open system with security under their control.Use of Sybase ASE starts with sa (for system administrator) as the initial login,and sa role, which indicates a superuser. The database admini

Difficulty in upgrading from Sybase 12.x to Sybase ASE 15 Many Sybase customers who have not yet upgraded to Sybase ASE 15 are considering migrating away from Sybase and toward Oracle. This is because the expense associated with a Sybase ASE 15 upgrade, in many cases, would cover

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