EPOXY COATINGS GUIDE
Epoxy coatings are generally packaged in two parts that are mixed prior to application. The two parts consist of 1) anepoxy resin which is cross-linked with 2) a co-reactant or hardener. Epoxy coatings are formulated based upon theperformance requirements for the end product. When properly catalyzed and applied, epoxies produce a hard, chemicaland solvent resistant finish. They are typically used on concrete and steel to give resistance to water, alkali and acids.It is the specific selection and combination of the epoxy component and the hardener component that determines thefinal characteristics and suitability of the epoxy coating for a given environment.Epoxy ResinsFEATURESCommon TypesViscosityFlexibilityChemical ResistanceBisphenol AModerate – HighModerateModerateBisphenol FModerateLow – ModerateModeratePhenolic NovolacModerate – HighLowHighCo-Reactant or HardenersTypes: Polyamide, Aromatic Amine, Amidoamine, Aliphatic Amine, Cycloaliphatic Amine, Aliphatic Amine AdductFEATURES [co-reactants and hardeners rated top to bottom from best suited to least suited]Chemical ResistanceFilm estBestPolyamidePolyamideAromatic AmineAliphatic AminePolyamideAmidoaminePhenalkamineCycloaliphatic AmineAliphatic Amine AdductsPhenalkaminePhenalkamineAmidoamineAliphatic AmineCycloaliphatic AmineAmidoamineCycloaliphatic AmineCycloaliphatic AmineAliphatic Amine AdductsAromatic AmineCycloaliphatic AmineAromatic AmineAliphatic AmineAmidoaminePolyamideAromatic AmineAliphatic Amine AdductsAliphatic Amine AdductsPhenalkaminePhenalkamineAliphatic AmineAliphatic AmineAromatic AminePolyamideAmidoamineAliphatic Amine AdductsBlush ResistanceColor StabilityLow Temp. ApplicationCorrosion lyamidePhenalkaminePolyamideCycloaliphatic AminePhenalkamineAmidoamineAliphatic AmineAmidoamineAliphatic AmineAmidoamineCycloaliphatic AmineAliphatic Amine AdductsPhenalkamineAmidoamineCycloaliphatic AmineAliphatic Amine AdductsCycloaliphatic AmineCycloaliphatic AmineAromatic AmineAromatic AmineAliphatic AminePolyamideAliphatic Amine AdductsAliphatic Amine AdductsAliphatic Amine AdductsPhenalkamineAmidoamineAromatic AminePhenalkamineAliphatic AmineAromatic AmineAromatic AmineAliphatic AminePolyamide
Common Causes for Irregularities and Finish DefectsPolyamide/Amine Blushor Surface EnrichmentImproperly inducted epoxies will exhibit:Occurs when the proper cure cycle of catalyzed epoxies is interruptedor slowed. The “lighter” polyamide or amine hardener separates fromthe epoxy and floats to the surface where it oxidizes and turns yellowor brownish in color. Yellowing becoming progressively worse over timeCheck By: Softer filmThe polyamide/amine blush can be confirmed by rubbing the surfacelightly with a clean rag saturated with MEK or Reducer R7K54. Theyellow appearance will be removed, but may later return.Caused By: A lower gloss than expected Polyamide/amine blushing Reduced chemical resistance Color float and/or color variationIt is possible that the coating material applied initially may develop lowgloss and discolor, while the rest of the surface, painted with the samematerial, will appear normal as induction time has increased.Improper MixingLow Temperature Areas rich in polyamide or amine content may exhibitMost epoxies are formulated for application at temperatures above50–55 F. Temperatures below 50 F will stop the rate of the chemicalreaction between the epoxy and the hardener. The evaporation of thesolvents in the coating are also inhibited.yellowing/blushing and/or an oily exudate Areas rich in epoxy content will appear normal in color for a periodof time, but may eventually discolor May result in color variations along the same coated surface Drying and curing times may be affectedImproper HardenerEpoxy coatings are formulated with optimum levels of a hardener fora given level of epoxy resin. This ratio differs from product to product.The use of an improper hardener may result in an undercatalyzed orovercatalyzed product.Undercatalyzed Films: May appear dry but will not fully cure May appear soft and gummyOvercatalyzed Films: May be hard and brittle Both will result in discoloration, yellowing, and reducedperformance propertiesInsufficient Induction (Sweat-In Time)Many epoxy coatings require a specified induction time in order to fully“compatibilize” the epoxy resin and the hardener. When required, thispre-reaction will reduce the likelihood of poor film appearance and poorcoating performance. Lower temperatures and/or high humidity willgenerally require longer induction periods. Both of these conditions will increase the likelihood of blushing,discoloration and down-glossing. Be aware that surface temperatures may be much lower than theair temperature. Epoxy coatings should never be applied below therecommended temperature range, or when temperatures areexpected to fall below the minimum recommended temperatureduring the first 72 hours of cure.High Humidity, Moisture Condensation, Stagnant Air Most epoxies are designed for application up to a maximum85% RH. High humidity and/or the presence of moisture may causediscoloration or a “greasy” feel and poor uniformity of appearance. The polyamide/amine may separate and cause discoloration.Maximum effort should be made to increase fresh air circulation tominimize this effect.Insufficient Curing ofWater-Based Primers or FillersIf water-based primers are not sufficiently cured prior to topcoating,moisture migrating through the fresh epoxy film will inhibit the dryingand curing of the epoxy. This will cause discoloration, low gloss andpossibly delamination.
Common Causes for Irregularities and Finish DefectsDiscoloration from Exposure UV Light (Sunlight)Discoloration from Chemical Exposure This is a surface phenomenon attributed to the natural darkening Certain chemical compounds, such as carbon monoxide andof epoxy resin upon exposure to UV or sunlight. This problemoccurs most often in areas with intermittent sunlight, creatinga “checkerboard” effect.carbon dioxide, are known to react with freshly applied epoxy filmsand cause discoloration. This discoloration will be more pronouncedin areas of high film build and in areas with little or no air circulation. The discoloration may be confirmed by scraping away the surface Check area for cleaning agents that may contain theselayer with a knife to expose the underlying film which will appearlighter in color.compounds. Animal kennels or shelters are also suspect becauseof waste byproducts.Epoxy Finishes: Resistance to YellowingPRODUCT [epoxies rated top to bottom from best resistance to least resistance]Best ResistancePolysiloxane XLE-80Pro Industrial Hi-Bild Waterbased EpoxyWater-Based Catalyzed EpoxyTile-Clad HS EpoxyWater-Based Tile-CladPro Industrial High Performance EpoxyEpolon II Multi-Mil EpoxyMacropoxy HS EpoxyMacropoxy 646 Fast Cure EpoxyHigh Solids Catalyzed EpoxyMacropoxy 846 Winter Grade EpoxySher-Glass FFTank Clad HS EpoxyDuraplate 301Dura-Plate 235Least Resistance
Key Issues to Consider During Selection and Use of EpoxiesSubstrate Types. Steel, concrete, etc. Is it suitable for the coatingand the environmental exposure?Cost/Value Considerations. Cost per mil per square foot per yearof life expectancy.Surface Prep. Are the requirements adequate?Film Build. Is the coating able to comply with the specifications?Temperature/Variations. Normally above 55 F for the first 72 hoursof drying, and at least 5 F above the dew point.Air Movement. It is very important to have fresh air circulating overthe surface during drying.Humidity. Normally below 85% required.Induction Time. Critical, especially during cold weather andhigh humidity.Environmental Exposure. Is the coating suitable for the conditions itwill be exposed to?Pot Life. Do not exceed. Coating may appear usable but will exhibitpoor performance.Performance Requirements. What performance characteristicswill the coating be exposed to? (i.e. abrasion, flexibility,heat resistance, etc.)Aesthetics. Be aware that some epoxies yellow more than others.More noticeable in whites and off-whites.Odor. Will odor be a concern in or around the application area?Solvent-based, water-based, high solids epoxies.Recoatability. Will it be required and within what time frame?Application Methods. Is the coating designed for the specificmethod? (i.e. spray, brush, roll, squeegee/trowel)Epoxies: Common Problems and Most Probable CausesDiscoloration/YellowingColor VariationBlushingUneven GlossExotherm (Hot Paint)Poor Intercoat AdhesionSoft FilmTacky Film/Slow DryLifting/WrinklingBleedingPinholingCrateringLow Film ThicknessSaggingCracking/CrazingAlligatoring Surface PreparationPrimerBatch VariationAir MovementFilm ThicknessInitial Temperature 72 Hrs.Surface TemperatureApplication TemperatureProduct SelectionMoisture/CondensationPercent ReductionWrong Reducer SolventExposure to ChemicalsAbsence of LightUV Light ExposureImproper Mix RatioTint LevelRecoat TimeSweat-In TimeImproper HardenerHigh HumidityExceeded Pot LifeApplication MethodCommon ProblemsSurface ContaminationMost Probable Causes
Epoxy Coating Comparison EPOXYPHENOLICS/NOVOLACSDescriptionForm very hard, adherent filmswith excellent chemical andcorrosion resistance. Aminecured epoxies are often usedas protective coatings andlinings in highly corrosiveenvironments. Amine epoxiesrequire care in handling sincethe amines can be moderatelyirritating to the skin, and maycause allergic reactions.Polyamide epoxies generallyoffer the widest latitude incoating formulation. They areconsidered more resilientand flexible, and have betterweathering resistance and alonger pot life than amine curedepoxies. Polyamide epoxiesgenerally have less solvent andacid resistance than aminecured epoxies.Amidoamines are reactionproducts of a polyamine anda fatty acid. Their propertiesgenerally fall between those ofamines and polyamides. Theyhave good water and corrosionresistance like amines, andgood toughness like polyamides.They have relatively smallmolecular size giving them lowviscosities and making themvery good surface wetters.These coatings allow widerange formulating latitude.Novolac epoxy resin increaseschemical resistance and solventresistance. Increasing thelevel of phenolic increases thechemical and solvent resistance,but the coating loses flexibility.Some phenolics require heatcuring.Advantages Excellent alkali andwater resistanceVery good acid resistanceExcellent solvent resistanceHard, abrasion resistant filmExcellent corrosion resistanceExcellent wetting of substrateChemical/moisture barrier Disadvantages/Limitations Primary Uses Refer to productdata sheets for specificuse information Sherwin-Williams ProductsVery good alkali andwater resistanceGood acid resistanceLonger pot life than aminesEasy to applyCures more quicklythan aminesGood weatheringcharacteristicsGood film flexibilityExcellent adhesion Faster dry than aminesChalksHigh viscosityTemperature dependentSlow cure Excellent surface wettingExcellent adhesionExcellent water resistanceLow viscosityLonger pot life than aminesGood gloss retention Slow cureFair color retentionTemperature dependent Amines can be irritating/toxicRelatively short recoat timeRelatively short pot lifeSlower dry than normalpolyamidesChalks/may discolor Severe chemical resistantcoatingBarrier coatingOffshore structuresStorage tanks, structural steelBridges, power plantsTank liningsSecondary containment Water immersionGeneral industrial Offshore structures Storage tanks, structural steel Water/wastewater plants Tank linings Bridges, power plants Secondary containment Kem Cati-Coat HSFiller/SealerTile-Clad High SolidsRecoatable Epoxy PrimerCopoxy Shop PrimerZinc Clad IVZinc Clad III HSHi-Solids Catalyzed EpoxyMacropoxy 646 Fast CureMacropoxy 846 Winter GradeEpolon II PrimerEpolon II Multi-MilMacropoxy HS EpoxyPro Industrial HighPerformance EpoxyEpoxy Mastic Aluminum IIMacropoxy 5500AminesShelcote II EpoxyShelcote II Flake FilledDura-Plate UHSDuraplate 301Tank Clad HS EpoxySher-Glass FFKetiminesMacropoxy 920 PrePrimePhenalkaminesDura-Plate 235Water-BasedWater-Based Tile-Clad Barrier coatingSurface tolerant coatingWhere chemical andmoisture resistanceis requiredGeneral industrialRefineriesBridges, power plants High heat resistanceExcellent chemical resistanceExcellent solvent resistanceExcellent corrosion resistanceHard, abrasion resistant filmSome may require heat cureRelatively slow air cureChalks/may discolorRelatively brittleSevere chemical resistanceTank liningsSecondary containmentGeneral industrialRefineriesBridges, power plantsPhenicon HS EpoxyPhenicon Flake FilledEpo-PhenNova-Plate UHSNova-Plate 325Fast Clad 105ER
Epoxy Coating Comparison ChartSILOXANEEPOXIESCOAL Siloxane epoxies are relativelyfast curing coatings withexcellent stain and marresistance. They have excellentcolor and gloss stability.Siloxane epoxies are typicallyused in high performanceindustrial applications. Alsoacceptable for architecturalapplications.Coal tar epoxies are acombination of a basic epoxyresin and coal tar. The coal taris in the form of a semi-liquidpitch and blended with theepoxy resin. The curing agentsfor coal tar epoxies are usuallyeither amines or polyamides.Coal tar epoxies offer excellentresistance to fresh and saltwater and are highly resistantto cathodic disbondment.Generally consist of anon-yellowing acrylic resindisbursed in water mixedwith an emulsified epoxyresin. They are relatively hard,durable coatings with moderatechemical resistance. They offergood stain resistance, abrasionresistance and resistance tomost commercial cleaningagents and sanitizers. Theycan be used over previouslyapplied conventional paints toupgrade the surface for betterperformance without wrinkling,lifting or bleeding.A combination of epoxy resinand alkyd resin resulting in anair-drying coating. Epoxy estersprovide a hard, durable filmideal as a machinery finish.Recommended for generalatmospheric use in areas notconsidered severely corrosive.Advantages Very good weatheringresistanceHard, abrasion resistant filmVery good acid resistanceExcellent color andgloss retentionRelatively fast dry High film build with one coatExcellent salt water resistanceExcellent water resistanceExcellent resistance tocathodic disbondmentEconomical Disadvantages/Limitations Solvent resistantHeat resistant Primary Uses Refer to productdata sheets for specificuse information BridgesMarineHigh performancefinish coatingKennels, schools, jails, hospitalsHigh moisture areasStain resistant coating Not for potable waterBlack colorCritical recoat time/difficult to recoatFair solvent resistanceChalks/browns Liner for sewagetreatment tanksNot-potable water tanksPipe coatingPenstocks, dam gatesOffshore rigsPaper millsChemical plantsSecondary containment Polysiloxane XLE-80Hi-Mil Sher-Tar EpoxyTarGuard Coal Tar Epoxy Flash rusting on ferrousmetal unless primed Sherwin-Williams ProductsGood chemical andsolvent resistanceHard, abrasion resistant filmUpgrades conventionalsystems to high performanceWater clean-up, low-odorNo strong solventsGood adhesionVery long pot-lifeGood weatheringLight/moderateindustrial areasTile-like wall coatingSchoolsHospitalsFood plantsOffice areasKitchensHallwaysNursing homesWater-Based Epoxy PrimerWater-Based EpoxyPro Industrial Hi-BildWaterbased Epoxy Hard, durable filmEasy to applyOne componentGood moisture resistanceMinimal surface preparationModerate costLow temperature applicationIncreased alkali resistanceover alkydsFair solvent resistancePoor weatheringcharacteristicsPoor exterior gloss retentionMoisture resistanceWhere odor or lowtemperature limitationsprevent solvent-basedepoxy useAbrasion resistance
A COMPLETE LINE OF PRODUCTS.MARKET EXPERTISE.ON-TIME DISTRIBUTION.What else would you expect from a world leaderin protective coatings and linings?It starts with a complete line of time-tested, high-performance products and some of the most innovative technologies in thecoatings industry. But we know that it takes more than product alone to be a world leader in protective coatings and linings.And so do the customers that rely on us every day as we help them protect their business.That’s where nearly 150 years of coatings industry experience comes in. Add to that a NACE-trained workforce with a combined3,700 years of experience in corrosion control. And the market-specific knowledge that our experts provide to evaluate,recommend and deliver the highest-performance coatings and linings that protect our customers’ assets.It also means that we deliver on time, every time from 4,000 company-owned distribution points worldwide. Leave nothing tochance. Your single source of supply. Sherwin-Williams.To learn more, contact us:North America: 1.800.524.5979Europe & Middle East: 44 (0)1204 521771Asia: 8621 11120004096
Tile-Clad HS Epoxy : Water-Based Tile-Clad Pro Industrial High Performance Epoxy : Epolon II Multi-Mil Epoxy Macropoxy HS Epoxy : Macropoxy 646 Fast Cure Epoxy High Solids Catalyzed Epoxy : Macropoxy 846 Winter Grade Epoxy Sher
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Contents 3 Epoxy resins, water-reducible 4 Epoxy hardeners, water-reducible 5 Epoxy resins solid and solutions 6 Epoxy resins liquid and reactive diluted 7 Reactive diluents for epoxy resins 7 Epoxy hardeners, polyamines 8 Epoxy hardeners, adducts 9 Epoxy hardeners, mannich bases 10 Epoxy hardeners, polyamidoamines 11 Survey of the qu
mechanical properties of epoxy resins, physical and chemical properties of epoxy resins, epoxy resin adhesives, epoxy resin coatings, epoxy coating give into water, electrical and electronic applications, analysis of epoxides and epoxy resins and the toxicology of epoxy resins. It will be a standard reference book for professionals and .
The most common epoxy coatings are synthesized from bisphenol A (BPA, 1) and epichlorohydrin (2), forming bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether epoxy resins (3). Many different blends of epoxy coatings have been developed with epoxy-phenolic coatings being the most important subgroup. Other blended resins are e.g. epoxy amines, acrylates, and anhydrides.
“A. Glazed Block- Eggshell Finish, 3 Coats, Pre-Catalyzed Water based epoxy over adhesion primer. 1. One coat Primer a. Sherwin Williams; Extreme Bond Primer, B51W00150, (3 mils wet, 1 mil dry). 2. Epoxy: Two coats a. Sherwin Williams; Pro Industrial Pre-Catalyzed Water Based Epoxy
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