Chapter 6: Enlightenment And Revolution

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1/23/2013Chapter 6: Enlightenment andRevolution1550-1789Section 1: The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolutionbegins as scientistsreplace old ideas withnew theories.New approaches toscience include usingobservation andexperiments to developtheories.In astronomy, scientistschallenge the earthcentered model of theuniverse.Section 3: The Spread ofEnlightenment Ideas Enlightenment ideascirculate in pamphletsand formal discussions.The new ideals oforder and reason arereflected in the artsand music.European monarchsmake limited reformsbased onEnlightenment ideas.Previewing the ChapterIn Europe, scientists question old ideasand use reason to make discoveries aboutthe natural world. Philosophers support the use of reasonto reform government, religion andsociety. Enlightenment ideas are used to create afederal government in the newly createdUnited States. Section 2: The Enlightenment inEurope Enlightenmentphilosophers admirescientists’ use of reasonto understand thenatural world.These philosopherspromote the use ofreason to understandgovernment, religion,education, andeconomics.They advocategovernment reform andsocial improvement.Section 4: American Revolution—The Birth of a Republic Colonists resist thelaws and taxesimposed by the British.Colonial leaders useEnlightenment ideas tojustify independencefrom Britain, and, afterwinning theRevolution, create afederal government.1

1/23/2013What Do You Know About ? Understanding Time LinesThe events that lead up to the AmericanRevolution? Major achievements in science andpolitical thought during the Enlightenment Name three milestones in math and astronomy Identify the writers of two major political works1543Copernicus publishesheliocentric theory15501628William Harveydescribes heart function1609Galileo observes heavensthrough telescopeConnect History and Geography 16901762John Locke defines Catherine the Greatnatural rightsRules Russia1687Newton publisheslaw of gravity17481789Montesquieu describesseparation of powersConnect History and GeographyLook at the map on page 187 of yourtextbook What city in Brandenberg-Prussia was anEnlightenment center? Where had Enlightenment ideas spreadoutside of Europe? What effect do think those ideas had on theplace you identified in question 2?Previewing Themes Previewing ThemesRevolution: Between the 16th and 18th centuries, a seriesof revolutions helped usher in the modern eraof Western history First was a revolution in understanding, calledthe Scientific Revolution Second was a revolution of ideas, called theEnlightenment Third was a revolution in action—theAmerican Revolution Science and Technology The Scientific Revolution began when someastronomers questioned the oldunderstanding of how the universeoperates—one that was deeply tied topeople’s religious beliefs. By shattering this view, the astronomersopened a new universe of scientific discovery.2

1/23/2013Previewing Themes Power and Authority: Like their counterparts in science, politicalthinkers of the Enlightenment challengedestablished ideas about power and authority. A ruler does not own authority by divineright, the thinkers said. Rather, a ruler receives authority by theconsent of the people. Such ideas led to the political upheaval of theAmerican Revolution.The Scientific RevolutionThe Renaissance inspired a spirit of curiosityin many fields. Scholars began to question ideas that hadbeen accepted for hundreds of years. During the Reformation, religious leaderschallenged accepted ways of thinking aboutGod and salvation. While the Reformation was taking place,another revolution in European thought wasalso occurring. It challenged how peopleviewed their place in the universe. The Scientific RevolutionChapter 6: Enlightenment andRevolutionSection 1: The Scientific RevolutionThe Scientific Revolution In the mid-1500s, scientists began to questionaccepted beliefs and make new theories basedon experimentation Study the “Changing Idea” chart on page192. What were the old methods used tounderstand the physical world? What new methods replaced the oldmethods?Why It Matters Now: Scientists’ questioning led to the developmentof the scientific method still in use todayThe Scientific Revolution Main Idea:Terms and Names: Scientific RevolutionNicolaus CopernicusHeliocentric theoryJohannes KeplerGalileo GalileiScientific methodFrancis BaconRené DescartesIsaac Newton3

1/23/2013The Roots of Modern Science The Medieval View: Most knowledge in the Middle Ages comes from the Bible,Greek and Roman sources Supports the geocentric theory The moon, sun and the planets revolve around the earth A New Way of Thinking:A Revolutionary Model of theUniverse The Heliocentric Theory: The widely acceptedgeocentric theory ischallenged as inaccurate Nicolaus Copernicus developsthe heliocentric theory The Renaissance (1300-1600) prompts new ways ofthinking The Scientific Revolution is a new way of viewing the naturalworld He concludes that the sun is atthe center of the universe, andthat the earth and planetsrevolve around the sun incircles Later, scientists Tycho Braheand Johannes Keplermathematically proveCopernicus to be correct It is based on observation and inquiry New discoveries and overseas exploration open upthinking Scholars make new developments in astronomy andmathematicsTycho BraheMathematical ModelA Revolutionary Model of theUniverse Johannes KeplerMathematical ModelA Revolutionary Model of theUniverseGalileo’s Discoveries: Italian scientist Galileo Galilei makes keyadvances in astronomy By inventing the telescope, he makes discoveriesabout planet surfaces He supports the heliocentric theory Conflict with the Church: The Catholic and Protestant churches attackGalileo’s work They feel it will weaken people’s faith4

1/23/2013Create a Flow Chart The Scientific MethodWrite the contribution of each scientistto the heliocentric theory (include dates)Copernicus A Logical Approach: A revolution in thinking leads to thedevelopment of the scientific methodTycho Brahe This is a series of steps for forming and testingscientific theoriesJohannes KeplerGalileoThe Scientific Method Thinkers Francis Bacon and René Descarteshelp to create the scientific methodThe Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method Isaac Newton Explains the Law ofGravity Descartes advocatesthe use of logic andmathematics toreason out basictruthsBacon urgesscientists toexperiment beforedrawing conclusionsEnglish scientist Isaac Newtondevelops the theory ofmotion This theory states that the sameforces rule the motion ofplanets, matter in space andeven objects on earth Motion in space and earth arelinked by the universal law ofgravitation The law holds that every objectin the universe attracts everyother object Newton views the universe asa vast, perfect mechanicalclock He also believes that God builtthe clock and set it into motion5

1/23/2013The Scientific Revolution Spreads Scientific Instruments:The Scientific Revolution Spreads The Scientific Revolution Spreads Uses cow virus to develop the vaccineReview Discoveries in Chemistry Robert Boyle argues that matter is made upof many different particles ‘Boyle’s Law’ reveals the interaction ofvolume, temperature and gas pressureReviewAccording to Ptolemy, what was theEarth’s position in the universe? Howdid Copernicus’ view differ? Which didKepler’s observations support?2. What are the four steps in the scientificmethod?3. List four new instruments that cameinto use during the Scientific Revolution.Identify the purpose of each one.1.Medicine and the Human Body Andreas Vesalius improves knowledge ofanatomy Edward Jenner produces the world’s firstvaccination for smallpox To satisfy growing curiosity about theuniverse, scientists develop the microscope,barometer and thermometer These new instruments lead to betterobservationsTerms and Names: Scientific RevolutionNicolaus CopernicusHeliocentric theoryJohannes KeplerGalileo GalileiScientific methodFrancis BaconRené DescartesIsaac NewtonChapter 6: Enlightenment andRevolutionSection 2: The Enlightenment in Europe6

1/23/2013The Enlightenment in EuropeThe influence of the Scientific Revolution soon spreadbeyond the world of science. Philosophers admired Newton because he had usedreason to explain the laws governing nature. People began to look for laws governing humanbehavior as well. They hoped to apply reason and the scientific methodto all aspects of society:The Enlightenment in Europe According to the Old Idea—where does amonarch’s power come from? Government, religion, economics and education. According to the New Idea—where should agovernment’s power come from?In this way, the ideas of the Scientific Revolutionpaved the way for a new movement called theEnlightenment, or the Age of Reason. This movement reached its height in the mid-1700s. The Enlightenment in Europe Main Idea:The Enlightenment in Europe Why It Matters Now: Freedoms and some forms of government inmany countries today are a result ofEnlightenment thinking.Two Views on GovernmentNew Ways of Thinking The Scientific Revolution spurs areassessment of many of the prevailing ideas Europeans begin to seek insights into society duringthe 1600s and 1700s This search leads to the Enlightenment A movement stressing reason and thoughtEnlightenmentSocial contractJohn LockeNatural rightsPhilosopheVoltaireMontesquieuSeparation of PowersJean Jacques RousseauMary WollstonecraftTwo Views on Government Terms and Names: A revolution in intellectual activity changedEuropeans’ view of government and society. Study the “Changing Idea” chart on page195.Thomas Hobbes’Social Contract: Hobbes distrusts humannature, and feels thatstrong government isneeded to keep order In his book, Leviathan(1651), Hobbespromotes the idea of thesocial contract He advocates giving overpower to the rulingmonarch7

1/23/2013Two Views on Government The Philosophes Advocate Reason John Locke’s NaturalRights: The philosophes are French social critics fromthe mid-1700s They valued five important philosophicalconcepts: Philosopher John Locke hada more positive outlook He says governmentshould get its power fromthe people Locke promotes the ideaof three natural rights Life, liberty and property Stresses that people havethe right to overthrow anunjust governmentThe Philosophes Advocate Reason Voltaire CombatsIntolerance:Beliefs of the e Philosophes Advocate Reason Montesquieu and theSeparation of Powers: Montesquieu was a Frenchwriter who admiredBritain’s system ofgovernment. Favors the idea of theseparation of powers to keepone body from running thegovernment. He writes: “Power shouldbe a check to power” These ideas became thebasis for the U.S.Constitution Voltaire was an influentialphilosophe. His real name was FrançoisMarie Arouet. He publishes manyworks in which headvocates for toleranceand reason. Makes powerful enemiesand is imprisoned twicefor his views.The Philosophes Advocate Reason Jean-Jacques Rousseau:Champion of Freedom: Rosseau is a philosophe whofavors the idea of individualfreedom. This is the basis of a directdemocracy He views the social contractas an agreement by freepeople to form agovernment. He believes that peoplebecome corrupted by societyand only an individual is trulyfreeThe Philosophes Advocate Reason Cesare BeccariaPromotes CriminalJustice: An Italian philospher whoworked to reform thejustice system. In his book, On Crimes andPunishments (1764), hecalled for greater rightsfor criminal defendants. This included the right to aspeedy trial.8

1/23/2013Women and the Enlightenment Major Ideas of the EnlightenmentIdeaThinkerImpactViews on Educating WomenChangeNatural rights—life, liberty,propertyLockeFundamental to U.S. Declaration ofIndependence Many Enlightenment thinkers stillview women in traditional roles Prominent writer MaryWollstonecraft urges greater rightsfor womenSeparation of powersMontesquieuFrance, United States, Latin American nationsuse the separation of powers in theirconstitutionsFreedom of thought andexpressionVoltaireGuaranteed in the U.S. Bill of Rights and FrenchDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen;European monarchs reduce or eliminatecensorshipAbolishment of tortureBeccariaGuaranteed in U.S. Bill of Rights; tortureoutlawed or reduced in nations of Europe andthe AmericasReligious freedomVoltaireGuaranteed in the U.S. Bill of Rights and FrenchDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen;European monarchs reduce persecutionWomen’s equalityWollstonecraftWomen’s rights groups form in Europe and theAmericas She argues that women need aquality education to be virtuous anduseful Urges women to go into traditionallymale professions like politics Other wealthy women use theirstatus to spread EnlightenmentideasLegacy of the Enlightenment Role of the Philosophes The philosophes are not activists, but inspire major revolutions Belief in Progress A More Secular Outlook1. What important documents reflect the influence of Enlightenment ideas?2. In your opinion, which are the two most important Enlightenment ideas?Support your answer with reasonsReview Scientific breakthroughs show human capacity to improvesociety New knowledge of the world leads people to question religiousideas Voltaire and others criticize beliefs and practices of Christianity This leads to more Church reforms Importance of the Individual People place more emphasis on individual rights and abilities Reason becomes a central concept for philosophers and evenEnlightenment rulersReviewTerms and Names:EnlightenmentSocial contractJohn LockeNatural rightsPhilosopheVoltaireMontesquieuSeparation of PowersJean Jacques RousseauMary WollstonecraftSynthesizing Who wrote the following, what does itmean? “Power should be a check to power” Choose one Enlightenment thinker andwrite a paragraph on how his or her ideasare influential today Montesquieu “Man is born free, and everywhere he is inchains” Rosseau “Let women share the rights and she willemulate the virtues of men” Wollstonecraft9

1/23/2013Chapter 6: Enlightenment andRevolutionSection 3: The Spread of Enlightenment IdeasThe Spread of Enlightenment IdeasThe philosophes views often got them introuble In France, it was illegal to criticize eitherthe Catholic Church or the government. Many philosophes either landed in jail orwere exiled. Voltaire experienced both punishments. The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Look at the “Changing Idea” chart in page204 of your textbook: Which ruler expected citizens to serve themonarch?The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Terms and Names: SalonBaroqueNeoclassicalEnlightened despotCatherine the GreatMain Idea: Enlightenment ideas spread through theWestern world and profoundly influenced thearts and government. Why It Matters Now: An “enlightened” problem-solving approach togovernment and society prevails in moderncivilization today. What were the new ideas about monarchs?The Spread of Enlightenment IdeasNevertheless, Enlightenment ideas spreadthroughout Europe.A World of Ideas Intellectual life in Paris Paris becomes the center of theEnlightenment during the 1700s The city is the home of salons—gatheringswhere thinkers discuss ideas10

1/23/2013A World of Ideas Diderot’s Encyclopedia: Philosophe Denis Diderotbegins publishing theEncyclopedia in 1751New Artistic StylesEmerge It starts off as a set of booksto which Enlightenmentthinkers contribute essays Encyclopedia articles angerthe French government andthe Catholic Church But the Encyclopedia helpsspread Enlightenment ideasacross EuropeThe pre-Enlightenment art style was baroque Grand, heavy, ornate designNEW ARTISTIC STYLESEMERGEWilliam Hogarth—Canvassing For VotesUses art as political commentary with satireNew Artistic StylesEmergeEnlightenment style is neoclassical Based on Greek and Roman themesNew Artistic Styles EmergeNew Artistic Styles Emerge Mozart and Beethoven!Changes in Music and Literature Classical music emerges with a lighter, moreelegant style Led by composers such as Haydn, Beethoven andMozart Like many of the philosophes, these composers,especially Mozart, were thought of astroublemakers11

1/23/2013New Artistic Styles Emerge Changes in Music andLiteratureEnlightenment and Monarchy Samuel Richardson’sPamela considered thefirst true English novelThe spirit of the Enlightenment promptsthe rise of enlightened despots These are monarchs who embraceEnlightenment values to strengthen their ruleEnlightenment and MonarchyEnlightenment and Monarchy Ruler of Austria Allows freedoms ofworship and the press Abolishes serfdom, butthe practice isreinstated after hisdeathFrederick II King of Prussia He reforms educationand the justice systemEnlightenment and Monarchy Joseph IIEnlightenment and MonarchyCatherine the Great Catherine the Great—enlightened ruler ofRussia, 1762-1796 Seeks to abolishtorture and capitalpunishment Effort fails Responds to peasantrevolt by giving noblesmore power overserfs Catherine Expands Russia Because of her skill in foreign affairs,Catherine greatly expands the Russian empire She gains port access for Russia by seizing thenorthern coast of the Black Sea Seizes large parts of Poland, increasing theempire’s size12

1/23/2013Enlightenment and MonarchyReview Terms and Names: Review What advantages do you think Salons hadover earlier forms of communication inspreading new ideas? Make sure you usereferences from the textbook Think about: Who hosted the salons and where they were held Who was invited to the salons Church and state influence on publishing andeducationChapter 6: Enlightenment andRevolutionSalonBaroqueNeoclassicalEnlightened despotCatherine the GreatHW Activity Power and Authority: Imagine you are a public relations consultant forFrederick the Great, Joseph II or Catherine theGreat. The despot you represent wants to beknown as “Most Enlightened Despot of the1700s!” Create a poster that represents reasonswhy your client should be given this honor An effective poster should Show an understanding of the monarch’s reform and theireffects Include details and specific information Use persuasive languageNorth America in the 1700sSection 4: American Revolution—The Birth of aRepublic13

1/23/2013The American RevolutionPhilosophes like Voltaire consideredEngland’s government the most progressivein Europe. England’s ruler was not a despot—not evenan enlightened one. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 gaveEngland a constitutional monarchy, limitingthe powers of the king. However, while the monarch’s powers werelimited at home, the power of the Englishnation was spreading overseas The American Revolution Name two Enlightenment ideas that Jeffersonsupported.The American Revolution The revolution created a new republic, theUnited States of America, that becam a modelfor many nations of the world. The American Colonies Grow American colonies were growing large andpopulous during the 1600s and 1700s The colonies were thriving economicallythrough trade with Europe In 1651, Britain restricts trade by creating theNavigation Acts Other trade laws add more restrictions and imposetaxes on the colonists The colonists begin to identify less and less asBritish subjectsTerms and Names: Why It Matters Now:Britain and its American ColoniesLook at the “History Makers” feature onpage 207 of your textbook. What is one way Thomas Jeffersoncontributed to American independence?Main Idea: Enlightenment ideas helped spur the Americancolonies to create a new nation. The American RevolutionDeclaration of IndependenceThomas JeffersonChecks and balancesFederal systemBill of RightsAmericans Win Independence British-Colonial Tensions Arise Britain and the American colonies win theFrench and Indian Wars in 1763 Britain taxes the colonists to help pay off wardebts One tax that

Revolution: Between the 16th and 18th centuries, a series of revolutions helped usher in the modern era of Western history First was a revolution in understanding, called the Scientific Revolution Second was a revolution of ideas, called the Enlightenment Third was a revolution in action—the American Revolution Previewing Themes

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