CNS Simulation Tool Development For Increasingly Complex .

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National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationICNS 2019CNS Simulation Tool Development for IncreasinglyComplex Airspace Operation EvaluationRafael Apaza, Michael MarsdenNASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OhioApril 11, 2019Rafael.Apaza@NASA.govMichael.Marsden@

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationPresentation Outline1. NAS Testbed BackgroundSMART NAS Testbed ArchitectureCNS Model Development & DesignEvaluation ResultsConclusion

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationIntroduction NASA Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for theNational Airspace System (SMART NAS) initiated Test Bed Development Under the Air Traffic Management eXploration (ATM-X) Project, NASA iscontinuing testbed modernization and expanded development of newsimulation tools and capabilities to include operations for new airspace users– Evaluation of new Air Traffic concepts, technologies and vehicles with new missionsseeking entry into the airspace requires the use of simulation capabilities not currentlyavailable Purpose is to conduct high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop andautomation-in-the-loop simulations This presentation describes CNS simulation architecture and software designdevelopmental efforts

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCNS Simulation Background NAS depends on CNS systems to deliver ATM services and these technologieshave performance and reliability limitations Modern and vintage CNS technologies used today e.g. VOR-DME, GPS CNS simulation is required for optimal system architecture design, risk mitigation,operational efficiency, service degradation evaluation, and more. CNS modeling provides scalability analysis, efficiency performance, realisticassessment and assist in proof of ATM Concepts NASA Glenn Research Center is developing CNS tools to evaluate existing andfuture ATM concepts that considers existing and new vehicle operations.

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationTestbed Architectural ElementsUASLive Virtual ConstructiveDistributed Environment(LVC-DE)UAS Traffic Management(UTM)Concluding Remarks Developed concept veExplored design-spacsystemUrban AirMobility (UAM)Live Flights» Single-pquadrotTestbed VisualizationServicesExternalSimulators» Six-passhybrid sData BusTestbedSupport onalServices» nentCComponentBComponentDCNSComponent Research areas identiemerging aviation ma These concept vehiclJanuary 2018

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCNS Model Development Navigation Moduledesigned as asubmodule of TargetGenerator Navigation Module addsuncertainty to the track Provides adjustableparameters for aircraftposition variability Provides positiongeneration usingstatisticalapproximationsGenerated Positionfeed to NavigationModuleGenerated Position byNavigation Module

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCNS Model Development Development code written in theprogramming language of Java, usingOpenJDK 11. Coding standards based on SMARTNAS Testbed’s (SNTB) Java codingstandards. Atlassian collaboration productsemployed such as Jira , Con)luence ,Bitbucket , and FishEye . Agile style approach for softwaredevelopment and project management.

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationSoftware Engineering DevelopmentAgile Approach for Testbed Development User stories development &priority assignment User story implementationdesign External Review User story task decompositioninto tasks – Epic assignment Sprint Iteration – coding/testing Demonstration to Stakeholders Release solution into productionUser StoriesStakeholdersDesignExternal ReviewEpicDevelopmentSprintIterationSolution

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCNS Module ArchitectureHigh level notional CNS moduleCNS moduleModule Control &ConfigurationPerformance cesub-moduleAPICommoutputNavoutputBusSurvoutput

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNavigation Module ArchitectureNavigationperformance Management Unit – Controlsrequest and response betweenthe TG and Nav Object, as wellas data exchange betweeninternal units. GPS Calculation Unit – Holds thecurrent state of the aircraft andcalculates the GPS position withapplied error based on the input(x, y, z) and GPS errors from theGPS Statistical Unit. GPS Statistical Unit – Holds thevalues for inherent GPS errorsand a ReceiverType.NavigationmoduleAircraft-State GPScalculation unitReceiver-Model Typeand GPS statistical unitCNS-Model Navigation-model management unitNavigation I/O

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationModel Design Error Considerations Ephemeris - Errors in the transmitted location of thesatellite. Clock - Residual errors from clock drift and noise inthe transmitted clock. Ionospheric - Errors caused by the signaltransmission through the Ionosphere. Tropospheric - Errors caused by the signaltransmission through the Troposphere. Thermal noise – Errors caused by the receiver’sthermal noise. Multipath - Errors caused by reflected signals enteringthe receiver antenna.

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationModule Design – Position DeterminationTruth Position(x,y,z)Sensed PositionEphemeriserrorδ ModeSelector Regular GBAS SBASClock errorIonosphericerrorδ *# %#& #'() δ *,-.,/ δ *(.0.) %#'# δ *1'. .) %#'# δ *'#,#(2#' δ *& 3-1( 41%GPS receivercorrection factor(CF)GBAS σ / SBAS 5(x Δx,y Δy,z Δz)GPS Receiver Type C/A standard correlator C/A narrow correlatorTroposphericerrorThermalnoise errorTerrain type Mountains Plains Water UrbanMultipatherror56 57 89 ; ?5@ 89 ; A ? B ? J 12E56 *12E57? K FG6H*I HFG7H*I H*12E5@ *@HGF *I H(Δx, Δy, Δz)Smoothingt,t-N

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNavigation Module EvaluationGPS error applied to the true positionWorst Case:LatitudeSample size 500,000Latitudesamples usedΔx [m]Δx [m]Max Latitude Error:Max Longitude Error:Max Altitude Error:87.055867.2873133.6660metersmetersmetersMin Latitude Error:Min Longitude Error:Min Altitude ean Latitude Error:Mean Longitude Error:Mean Altitude Error:-0.01720.00280.0066metersmetersmetersStdDev Latitude Error: 12.8611StdDev Longitude Error: 10.2665StdDev Altitude Error: 13.6646metersmetersmetersMax Latitude Error:Max Longitude Error:Max Altitude Error:11.76129.252318.1641metersmetersmetersMin Latitude Error:Min Longitude Error:Min Altitude n Latitude Error:Mean Longitude Error:Mean Altitude Error:-0.0019-0.00030.0037metersmetersmetersStdDev Latitude Error:StdDev Longitude Error:StdDev Altitude Error:2.22161.77192.3669metersmetersmetersΔy [m]Best Case:LatitudeSample size 500,000Latitudesamples usedWorst Case:LongitudeSample size 500,000Longitudesamples usedBest Case:LongitudeSample size 500,000Longitudesamples usedΔy [m]

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNavigation Module EvaluationKML overview with Blue Truth Position, Red Sensed Position

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNext PhasesGBASGPSSBAS GPS-sensed positionTrackSmoothing – Transmits GPS position calculated by basic airborne sensed positionmodule– Non-ideal availability, latency and message drop– Statistical distance between aircraft and ground station– Independent to the realistic characterization of GPS accuracy in basicmoduleADS-B in/outtransponder ATCATCATCATCDevelopment of air-ground surveillance modules– Cooperative radar (SSR – PSR Mode-S)– Airport Surface Detection (ASDE)SurveillancemessageATCATCATCANSPImplement satellite based augmentation and ground basedaugmentationDevelop and implement Track Smoothing capabilityImplement air-ground ADS-B Out/InATCATCATCAircraft

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationConclusions A new suit of tools are required to evaluate future concepts of operationsand meet the fast evolving demand for new vehicle entries and theiroperations in the NAS Under the SMART NAS project, NASA started the effort to develop stateof the art capabilities to meet new challenges and demands for expeditingcomplex concept evaluation. A simulation environment that evaluates complex operations in a realisticenvironment needs to be user friendly, interoperable with existing and newtools, modular, have adequate fidelity, security, scalability and costeffective. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing new and improved CNSsimulation tools for a realistic evaluation of ATM concepts for existing andnew vehicle operations.

Min Longitude Error: -67.0877 meters Min Altitude Error: -108.8807 meters Mean Latitude Error: -0.0172 meters Mean Longitude Error: 0.0028 meters Mean Altitude Error: 0.0066 meters StdDevLatitude Error: 12.8611 meters StdDevLongitude Error: 10.2665 meters StdDevAltitude Error: 13.6646 meters Max Latitude Error: 11.7612 metersAuthor: Rafael Apaza, Michael Marsden

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