Management Oracle Automatic Storage Administrator's Guide

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Oracle Automatic StorageManagementAdministrator's Guide19cF34287-02October 2020

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide, 19cF34287-02Copyright 2007, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates.Primary Author: Eric BeldenContributing Authors: Jerry Abraham, Prasad Bagal, Mark Bauer, Don Bolinger, Bill Bridge, Chan Chan,Xiaobin Chen, Jonathan Creighton, Yanfei Fan, Dave Friedman, Barb Glover, Fred Glover, Ricardo Gonzalez,Allan Graves, Cesar Gray, Shie-rei Huang, Rekha Iyer, Sameer Joshi, Ankur Kemkar, Diane Lebel,Rich Long, Colin McGregor, Gregory Mengel, Harendra Mishra, Valarie Moore, Nitin Munjal, DarshanNagarajappa, Harish Nandyala, Bob Nelson, Balaji Pagadala, Satish Panchumarthy, Hemanth Pikkili, SomaPrasad, Hanlin Qian, Mounica Reddy, Kathy Rich, Charles Rusman, Francisco Sanchez, Santhosh Selvaraj,Duane Smith, Joshua Smith, Laura Solis, Malai Stalin, Emily Su, Amar Subba, Yaser Suleiman, ElisabethThibault, Michael Timpanaro-Perrotta, Samarjeet Tomar, Brian Tsao, P Venkatraman, Anton Verhulst, RicWerme, Rajiv Wickremesinghe, Jim A. Williams, Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Song YeThis software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions onuse and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in yourlicense agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license,transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverseengineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, isprohibited.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. Ifyou find any errors, please report them to us in writing.If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it onbehalf of the U.S. Government, then the following notice is applicable:U.S. GOVERNMENT END USERS: Oracle programs (including any operating system, integrated software,any programs embedded, installed or activated on delivered hardware, and modifications of such programs)and Oracle computer documentation or other Oracle data delivered to or accessed by U.S. Governmentend users are "commercial computer software" or "commercial computer software documentation" pursuantto the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such,the use, reproduction, duplication, release, display, disclosure, modification, preparation of derivative works,and/or adaptation of i) Oracle programs (including any operating system, integrated software, any programsembedded, installed or activated on delivered hardware, and modifications of such programs), ii) Oraclecomputer documentation and/or iii) other Oracle data, is subject to the rights and limitations specified in thelicense contained in the applicable contract. The terms governing the U.S. Government’s use of Oracle cloudservices are defined by the applicable contract for such services. No other rights are granted to the U.S.Government.This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications.It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications thatmay create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerous applications, then youshall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure itssafe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of thissoftware or hardware in dangerous applications.Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks oftheir respective owners.Intel and Intel Inside are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarks areused under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD, Epyc,and the AMD logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices. UNIX is a registeredtrademark of The Open Group.This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information about content, products,and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expresslydisclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services unless otherwiseset forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will notbe responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content,products, or services, except as set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle.

ContentsPrefaceAudiencexlviDocumentation AccessibilityxlviRelated DocumentsxlviConventionsxlviiChanges in This Release for Oracle Automatic StorageManagement Administrator's GuideChanges in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 19cChanges in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM in Oracle ASM 19clChanges in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 18cliiiChanges in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM in Oracle ASM 18clviPart I1xlviiiIntroductionIntroducing Oracle Automatic Storage ManagementOverview of Oracle Automatic Storage Management1-1About Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System1-3Understanding Oracle ASM Concepts1-3About Oracle ASM Instances1-4About Oracle ASM Disk Groups1-7About Mirroring and Failure Groups1-8About Oracle ASM Disks1-8About Oracle ASM Allocation Units1-9About Oracle ASM Files1-9Understanding Oracle ASM Extents1-10Understanding Oracle ASM Striping1-11About Oracle ASM File Templates1-13Understanding Oracle ASM Disk Group AdministrationAbout Discovering Disks1-131-13iii

21-14About Adding and Dropping Disks1-14About Online Storage Reconfigurations and Dynamic Rebalancing1-15Exploring Considerations for Oracle ASM StorageStorage Resources for Disk Groups2-1Oracle ASM and Multipathing2-3Recommendations for Storage Preparation2-4Storage Device Path and Permission Persistence2-6Part II3About Mounting and Dismounting Disk GroupsOracle ASM Instances and Disk GroupsAdministering Oracle ASM InstancesOperating with Different Releases of Oracle ASM and Database InstancesSimultaneously3-1Initialization Parameters for Oracle ASM Instances3-2About Initialization Parameter Files for an Oracle ASM Instance3-3About Backing Up, Copying, and Moving an Oracle ASM Initialization ParameterFile3-4Creating, Copying, and Moving an SPFILE Into a Disk Group3-5Making a Back Up Copy of an Oracle ASM SPFILE in a Disk Group3-6About Oracle ASM Initialization Parameter Settings3-7About Automatic Memory Management for Oracle ASM3-7Recommended Settings for Oracle ASM Initialization Parameters3-8ASM DISKGROUPS3-9ASM DISKSTRING3-10ASM IO PROCESSES3-11ASM POWER LIMIT3-11ASM PREFERRED READ FAILURE GROUPS3-12DB CACHE SIZE3-14DIAGNOSTIC DEST3-14INSTANCE TYPE3-14LARGE POOL SIZE3-15PROCESSES3-15REMOTE LOGIN PASSWORDFILE3-16SHARED POOL SIZE3-16About Setting Database Initialization Parameters for Use with Oracle ASMAdministration of Oracle ASM InstancesUsing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server3-173-173-18iv

About Starting Up an Oracle ASM InstanceConnecting To and Starting Up an Oracle ASM Instance3-19Starting Up an Oracle ASM instance with an Incorrect SPFILE Path3-21About Mounting Disk Groups at Startup3-22About Restricted Mode3-22About Shutting Down an Oracle ASM Instance3-22About Administering Oracle ASM Instances with Server Control Utility3-24About Out of Place Upgrades3-25About Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure with the Configuration Wizard3-25About Active Session History Sampling for Oracle ASM3-25About Oracle Home User on Windows3-26Upgrading and Patching Oracle ASM3-26About Oracle ASM Rolling Upgrade3-26About Oracle ASM Rolling Patches3-27Authentication for Accessing Oracle ASM InstancesAbout Privileges for Oracle ASM3-283-29Using One Operating System Group for Oracle ASM Users3-30Using Separate Operating System Groups for Oracle ASM Users3-30The SYSASM Privilege for Administering Oracle ASM3-31The SYSDBA Privilege for Managing Oracle ASM Components3-32Creating Users with the SYSASM Privilege3-32Operating System Authentication for Oracle ASM3-33Password File Authentication for Oracle ASM3-34Managing a Shared Password File in a Disk Group3-35About a Shared Password File in a Disk Group3-35Creating a Password File in a Disk Group3-36Backing Up and Restoring an Oracle ASM Password File in a Disk Group3-37Migration of a Database to Use Oracle ASM3-38About Using Oracle Recovery Manager to Migrate Databases to Oracle ASM3-39Best Practices Technical Briefs on Migrating to Oracle ASM3-39Administering Oracle ASM audit trail3-39Oracle ASM audit records with Syslog3-39Managing Oracle ASM audit records in Operating system audit trail3-40Operating system audit trail43-193-40Managing Oracle ASM audit records in Unified audit trail3-40Audit Trail Properties in Operating System and Unified Audit Trail3-41Administering Oracle ASM Disk GroupsManaging Disk Group AttributesAbout Viewing and Setting Disk Group Attributes4-24-2v

Summary of Disk Group Attributes4-2ACCESS CONTROL.ENABLED4-3ACCESS CONTROL.UMASK4-3AU SIZE4-3CELL.SMART SCAN CAPABLE4-3CELL.SPARSE E.ADVM4-4CONTENT.CHECK4-4CONTENT.TYPE4-5CONTENT HARDCHECK.ENABLED4-6DISK REPAIR TIME4-6FAILGROUP REPAIR TIME4-6IDP.BOUNDARY and IDP.TYPE4-7LOGICAL SECTOR SIZE4-7PHYS META REPLICATED4-7PREFERRED READ.ENABLED4-8SCRUB ASYNC LIMIT4-8SECTOR SIZE4-9STORAGE.TYPE4-9THIN PROVISIONED4-10VAM MIGRATION DONE4-10Creating Disk Groups4-11About Creating a Disk Group4-11Creating Disk Groups Using the CREATE DISKGROUP SQL Statement4-13Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation4-15Specifying the Logical and Physical Sector Size4-16Storing Oracle Cluster Registry and Voting Files in Oracle ASM Disk Groups4-19Altering Disk Groups4-20Managing Oracle ADVM Volumes in a Disk Group4-22Adding Disks to a Disk Group4-23Using the ALTER DISKGROUP SQL Statement to Add Disks to a DiskGroup4-24Replacing Disks in Disk Groups4-25Renaming Disks in Disk Groups4-26Dropping Disks from Disk Groups4-27Resizing Disks in Disk Groups4-28Undropping Disks in Disk Groups4-28Manually Rebalancing Disk Groups4-29Tuning Rebalance Operations4-31vi

Scrubbing Disk Groups4-33Oracle ASM Disk Discovery4-34How A Disk is Discovered4-34Disk Discovery Rules4-35Improving Disk Discovery Time4-36Managing Capacity in Disk Groups4-36Negative Values of USABLE FILE MBOracle ASM Mirroring and Disk Group RedundancyMirroring, Redundancy, and Failure Group Options4-394-394-39Oracle ASM Failure Groups4-41How Oracle ASM Manages Disk Failures4-42Guidelines for Using Failure Groups4-42Failure Group Frequently Asked Questions4-42Oracle ASM Recovery from Read and Write I/O Errors4-43Oracle ASM Fast Mirror Resync4-44Preferred Read Failure Groups4-47Performance and Scalability Considerations for Disk Groups4-49Determining the Number of Disk Groups4-49Performance Characteristics When Grouping Disks4-50Oracle ASM Storage Limits4-50Disk Group Compatibility4-51Overview of Disk Group Compatibility4-52Disk Group Compatibility Attributes4-52Setting Disk Group Compatibility Attributes4-54Valid Combinations of Compatibility Attribute Settings4-54Using CREATE DISKGROUP with Compatibility Attributes4-55Using ALTER DISKGROUP with Compatibility Attributes4-56Viewing Compatibility Attribute Settings4-56Reverting Disk Group Compatibility4-57Features Enabled By Disk Group Compatibility Attribute Settings4-58Considerations When Setting Disk Group Compatibility4-60Recommended Settings for Compatible.asm and Compatible.rdbms4-61Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control for Disk Groups4-61About Oracle ASM File Access Control4-62Setting Disk Group Attributes for Oracle ASM File Access Control4-63Using SQL Statements to Manage Oracle ASM File Access Control4-64Maintaining Disk Groups4-67Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups4-67Mounting Disk Groups Using the FORCE Option4-68Checking the Internal Consistency of Disk Group Metadata4-69Dropping Disk Groups4-69vii

Renaming Disks Groups54-71Managing Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups4-73About Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups4-73About Oracle ASM File Groups4-75About Oracle ASM File Group Properties4-78About Quota Groups for Oracle ASM File Groups4-82About Oracle ASM Extended Disk Groups4-83About Point-In-Time Database Cloning With Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups4-84Administering Oracle ASM Files, Directories, and TemplatesWhat Types of Files Does Oracle ASM Support?5-1About Oracle ASM File Names5-3Single File Creation Form5-4Multiple File Creation Form5-4Fully Qualified File Name Form5-5Alias Oracle ASM File Name Forms5-6Creating a Tablespace in Oracle ASM: Using a Data File with an Alias Name5-7Alias Oracle ASM File Name with Template Form5-8Incomplete Oracle ASM File Name Form5-8Incomplete Oracle ASM File Name with Template Form5-9Creating and Referencing Oracle ASM Files in the DatabaseCreating Oracle ASM Files Using a Default File Location for Disk GroupSpecification5-95-9Using Oracle ASM File Names in SQL Statements5-10Moving Data Files Between Disk Groups With ALTER DATABASE5-11Oracle Database File Mapping for Oracle ASM Files5-12Enabling File Mapping With Oracle ASM Files5-12Using File Mapping Views With Oracle ASM Files5-13Using the DBMS STORAGE MAP Package With Oracle ASM Files5-14Managing Alias Names for Oracle ASM File Names5-14Adding an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM File Name5-15Renaming an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM File Name5-15Dropping an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM File Name5-15Dropping Files and Associated Aliases from a Disk Group5-16Managing Disk Group Directories5-16Creating a Directory5-17Renaming a Directory5-17Dropping a Directory5-17Accessing Oracle ASM Files with the XML DB Virtual FolderInside /sys/asmUsing DBMS FILE Transfer Utility for Oracle ASM5-185-185-20viii

Managing Disk Group Templates675-20Template Attributes5-21Adding Templates to a Disk Group5-22Modifying a Disk Group Template5-23Dropping Templates from a Disk Group5-23Creating Tablespaces in Oracle ASM: Specifying Attributes with Templates5-24Using Views to Display Oracle ASM InformationViews Containing Oracle ASM Information6-1Viewing Oracle ASM File Access Control Information6-6Administering Oracle ASM with Oracle Enterprise ManagerAccessing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home Page7-1Configuring Oracle ASM Initialization Parameters with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-2Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-3Managing Disk Groups with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-4Creating Disk Groups7-5Adding Disks to Disk Groups7-6Bringing Disks Online and Offline7-8Dropping Disks from Disk Groups7-9Dropping Disk Groups7-11Monitoring Disk Group Usage7-12Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups7-12Administering Advanced Disk Group Properties7-13Configuring Disk Group Compatibility Attributes7-13Configuring Disk Repair Time7-14Configuring Smart Scan Compatibility7-14Configuring File Access Control7-14Specifying a Power Limit For Disk Online7-14Replacing An Existing Disk With a New Disk7-15Setting and Modifying Content Type for the Disk Group7-15Setting and Modifying the Failure Group Repair Time7-16Running Rebalance on Multiple Disk Groups7-16Viewing Rebalance Process Related Data7-17Setting and Modifying the Thin Provisioned Disk Group Attribute7-17Running the On Demand Scrubbing Process7-17Determining Whether Scrubbing Process Is Running7-18Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-18Managing Directories, Files, and Aliases with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-19ix

Managing Disk Group Templates with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-19Managing Oracle ASM Filter Driver With Oracle Enterprise Manager7-20Discovering ASM Filter Driver Disks7-20Provisioning ASM Filter Driver Disks7-20Releasing ASM Filter Driver Disks7-21Monitoring Oracle ASM Performance With Oracle Enterprise Manager8Monitoring General Oracle ASM Performance7-22Checking Disk Group Integrity7-22Backing Up Oracle ASM Files with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-22Performing Bad Block Recovery with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-23Migrating to Oracle ASM with Oracle Enterprise Manager7-24Monitoring Alerts and Incidents With Oracle ASM Support Workbench7-25Monitoring Oracle Flex ASM7-26Performing Oracle ASM Data Migration with RMANOverview of Oracle ASM Data Migration8-1Purpose of Oracle ASM Data Migration8-2Basic Concepts of Oracle ASM Data Migration8-2Basic Steps of Data Migration to Oracle ASM Using RMAN8-3Preparing to Migrate the Database to Oracle ASM Using RMAN8-3Migrating the Database to Oracle ASM Using RMAN8-6Migrating a Database from Oracle ASM to Alternative Storage8-9Moving Data Files Between Oracle ASM Disk Groups Using RMAN97-218-10Managing Oracle ASM With ASMCAGetting Started With the ASMCA GUI Tool9-1Managing Instances and Disk Groups With ASMCA9-2Creating Oracle ASM Instances with ASMCA9-2Managing Disk Groups with ASMCA9-3ASMCA Command-Line Interface9-4Running ASMCA Command-Line9-4ASMCA Commands for Instances and Disk Groups9-5Configure an Oracle ASM Instance9-6Configure Parameters for a Specified Instance9-7Delete Oracle ASM Instances9-8Create a Disk Group9-9Add a Disk to a Disk Group9-10Edit Oracle ASM Disk Group Attributes9-11Create Oracle ASM Filter Driver Labels9-11x

10Drop Oracle ASM Filter Driver Labels9-12Create Oracle ASM File Groups9-12Drop Oracle ASM File Groups9-13Create Oracle ASM Quota Groups9-13Drop Oracle ASM Quota Groups9-13Managing Oracle ASM with ASMCMDASMCMD Audit Files Management arams10-11About ASMCMD10-12Types of ASMCMD Commands10-12About Oracle ASM Files, File Names, Directories, and Aliases10-13System-Generated File Name or Fully Qualified File Name10-13Directory10-13Alias10-14Absolute Path and Relative Path10-15Wildcard Characters10-16Preparing to Run ASMCMD10-17Running ASMCMD in Interactive Mode10-18Syntax for Starting ASMCMD10-18Running ASMCMD without Any Options10-19Specifying the Type of Connection10-20Specifying the Verbose Mode10-20Including the Current Directory in the ASMCMD Prompt10-20Displaying the ASMCMD Version Number10-20Running ASMCMD in Noninteractive Mode10-20Getting Help10-22ASMCMD Instance Management Commands10-22xi

9spmove10-39spset10-40startup10-41ASMCMD Member Cluster Management SMCMD Oracle ASM Filter Driver Management Commands10-46afd configure10-47afd deconfigure10-48afd di10-49afd dsget10-49afd dsset10-50afd filter10-50afd label10-51afd lsdsk10-52afd lslbl10-52afd refresh10-53afd scan10-53afd state10-54xii

afd unlabelASMCMD File Management Commands10-5510-55amdu as10-67ASMCMD Disk Group Management 0-71lsattr10-74lsdg10-75lsdsk10-77lsod10-79md backup10-80md r10-91stamp10-92stamplist10-93umount10-93ASMCMD File Group Management iii

2rmqg10-102ASMCMD Template Management 10-105ASMCMD File Access Control CommandsPart III1110-10310-10

About Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System1-3. Understanding Oracle ASM Concepts1-3. About Oracle ASM Instances1-4. About Oracle ASM Disk Groups1-7. About Mirroring and Failure Groups1-8. About Oracle ASM Disks1-8. About Oracle ASM Allocation Units 1-9.