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BHT-ALL-SPMCHAPTER 6 — NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTIONTABLE OF ageNumberNONDESTRUCTIVE -386-396-406-416-426-436-44General .Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Method (ASTM E1417) .Introduction .Safety Precautions.Personnel Qualification/Certification.Equipment Requirements .Developer Application Equipment.Standard Equipment .Inspection Material Requirements .Preinspection Cleaning.Penetrant Inspection.Evaluation .Acceptance Criteria .Postinspection Cleaning .Process Control Requirements.Records .Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Inspection Method (ASTM E1444)Introduction .Safety Precautions.Personnel Qualification/Certification.Equipment Requirements .Inspection Material Requirements .Preinspection Cleaning.Magnetizing Current Application.Magnetic Field Strength.Magnetic Field Direction .Circular Magnetization .Longitudinal Magnetization Using Coils.Longitudinal Magnetization Using an Electromagnetic Probe .Particle Application .Evaluation .Acceptance Criteria .Demagnetization.Post Inspection Cleaning .Process Control Requirements.Records .Nondestructive Inspection Eddy Current Method .Scope.Introduction .Safety Precautions.Personnel Qualification/Certification.Equipment Requirements .Reference Standards.Inspection 006-00-0016 FEB 2007 Rev. 1515161717171818181819196-00-00Page 1

BHT-ALL-SPMTABLE OF CONTENTS -526-536-546-556-566-57TitleEvaluation .Acceptance Criteria .Inspection Procedures .Process Control Requirements.Ultrasonic Inspection Method.Introduction .Safety Precaution .Personnel Qualifications/Certifications .Equipment Requirements .Reference Standards.Inspection .Evaluation .Acceptance Criteria ABLESTableNumber6-16-26-36-46-56-00-00Page 2TitleFluorescent Penetrant Process Control Tests — Frequency and RequirementsFluorescent Magnetic Particle Process Control Tests — Frequency andRequirements.Probe Frequency Selection.Reference Standard Materials Non-Critical Components .Reference Standard Materials for Components Listed in Chapter 4 andChapter 5 (Airworthiness Limitations/Inspections and Component OverhaulSchedule).Rev. 216 FEB 2007PageNumber917202121

BHT-ALL-SPMNONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION6-1.GENERALNondestructive inspections included in this chapter arefluorescent penetrant, magnetic particle and EddyCurrent.6-2.FLUORESCENT PENETRANTINSPECTION METHOD (ASTM E1417)6-3.INTRODUCTIONPenetrant inspection is a nondestructive test fordiscontinuities open to the surface in parts made ofnonporous materials. This is done by applyingpenetrant to the surface of the part which thenpenetrates the surface discontinuity. Excess penetrantis removed from the part surface with penetrantremaining in the discontinuities. Developer is thenapplied to the part surface to provide a blotting actionwhich allows the penetrant to emerge from thediscontinuities. Indications become visible by thefluorescence of the penetrant under ultraviolet light.6-4.SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1. Make sure safety requirements for usingelectrical equipment near aircraft fuel cells, oxygensystems, and stores have been met.2. Use only low sulfur and low halogen contentpenetrant materials. Penetrant containing excessivesulfur or halogens may cause stress corrosioncracking in titanium parts.3. Black lights generate considerable heat duringuse. Be sure to grasp the black light only by thehandle.penetrant inspection materials by wearing gloves.Wash exposed areas of body with soap and water.7. Temperatures in excess of 120 F (48.8 C) maycause bursting of pressurized spray cans and injury topersonnel. Store all pressurized spray cans in a cool,dry area protected from direct sunlight. Avoidexposure of pressurized spray cans to open flame.8. Exercise extreme caution when handlingpenetrants which have been heated to a point wheresome lighter constituents are driven off. Volatile fumesmay occur, creating both a fire and health hazard.6-5.PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION/CERTIFICATIONAll personnel performing NDI shall be certified to meetor exceed Level II requirements as established in thelatest revision of NAS 410 or alternate approveddocument. Personnel that have successfullycompleted the level I Special NDI training course atBell Helicopter are qualified to perform fluorescentpenetrant inspections in accordance with theapplicable maintenance and overhaul manuals, or asspecifically authorized in an ASB or other BellHelicopter approved written directive. The ASB orother Bell Helicopter approved written directive mustindicate in the document that a Bell Helicopter trainedLevel 1 Special individual is qualified to perform suchtask and may be responsible for product acceptance.The employer of NDI Level I Special personnel musthave an established written practice which meets therequirements of ATA 105 for qualification and trainingof NDT personnel as described in the Bell HelicopterCustomer Training Academy (CTA) NDI trainingcourse.5. Prolonged or repeated inhalation of vapors orpowders may result in irritation of mucous membraneareas of the body. Provide adequate ventilation pers.Individuals who have successfully completed andpassed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter trainingcourse may perform routine inspections foracceptance on components as listed in the Chapter 4Airworthiness Limitations Schedule for retirement lifeparts and as listed in Chapter 5 Component OverhaulSchedule for components requiring an overhaulinterval providing the applicable MM and or the CR&Oprovides the detailed instructions to perform theinspection.6. Continual exposure to penetrant inspectionmaterials may cause skin irritation. Avoid contact withIndividuals who have successfully completed andpassed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training4. To prevent injury to the eyes, do not look directlyinto the black light as unfiltered black lights or adamaged filter on a black light may damage eyes.16 FEB 2007 Rev. 26-00-00Page 3

BHT-ALL-SPMcourse may only perform evaluations on componentsif the MM or CR&O do not provide the requireddetailed instructions. An evaluation is performed forinformation purposes only, and is not intended as afinal means of acceptance or rejection. Examplesinclude assessment of a damaged bare metallic skinfor evidence of cracking, and to characterizeindications found visually (crack, vs. scratch). Actualinspection of such parts needs to be supported by acertified Level II in the method employed. If during thecourse of the evaluation an indication is found, aperson certified to meet or exceed a Level IIrequirement will be responsible for the acceptance orrejection of that indicated part.6-6.EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS1. General. Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI)equipment shall be designed specifically for thepurpose intended and constructed from materialscompatible with the chemicals used. The equipmentshall be arranged to facilitate part flow through theprocess and be capable of providing a repeatableoperation. All tanks shall be provided with covers toavoid contamination of the materials when not in use.Penetrant, emulsifier, and aqueous developer tanksshall have drain racks. Adequate ventilation andpersonal protective devices shall be provided asinstructed by the penetrant materials manufacturer.Portable kits (Method C) may be employed forinspection of localized areas of components and partsinstalled on aircraft.a. Penetrant/Emulsifier Application Equipment.Penetrant application equipment shall provide ameans of application by immersion, brushing, flowing,conventional or electrostatic spraying so that the entirepart is covered with penetrant. Prior to electrostaticspray application refer to the manufacturer's productdata to determine if the penetrant is compatible withthis method of application.b. Equipment for applying lipophilic emulsifiersshall provide complete part coverage by immersion orflowing. Brush application is prohibited.c. Equipment for applying hydrophilic emulsifiersshall provide complete part coverage by immersion orspraying. If application is by immersion, the bath orparts shall be agitated during immersion. If applicationis by spraying, the spray unit shall be capable ofdispensing the concentration recommended by themanufacturer. Hydro-air nozzles may be used with amaximum of 20 PSI added air pressure.6-00-00Page 4Rev. 216 FEB 2007d. Rinsing/Wash Apparatus. Excess penetrantand penetrant/emulsifier mixtures shall be removed bymanual spraying. Water temperature shall be between50 – 100 F (10 – 37.7 C). The rinsing apparatus shalldeliver a coarse spray of water having a maximumpressure of 40 PSI (276 kPa). Hydro-air nozzles maybe used with a maximum of 20 PSI (138 kPa) addedair pressure. The rinsing area shall be provided with ablack light to monitor the progress of penetrantremoval and to prevent over-washing/under-washing.Temperature/pressure indicators and controls shall becalibrated at six month maximum intervals inaccordance with ISO 10012-1, NCSL Z540-1, or acalibration system approved by Bell Helicopter.6-7.DEVELOPER APPLICATION EQUIPMENT1. Aqueous Type Developers. The equipment shallprovide a means of application by immersion, flowing,or spraying so that the entire part is completelycovered. Equipment used to apply suspension typedevelopers shall be capable of agitating the mixture tomaintain a uniform suspension.2.Non-Aqueous Type Developers. The preferredapplication of non-aqueous developers is bycommercially available aerosol containers. Airpressure type spray units equipped with a means tocontinuously agitate the developer mixture during usemay be used so that a thin, uniform coating can beapplied.3. Dry Type Developers. Developer shall be appliedin an enclosed cabinet, which disperses the powder ina manner resulting in a uniform coating being appliedto the entire surface of the part. The cabinet shall beequipped with a viewing window to allow for visualverification of cloud formation.6-8.STANDARD EQUIPMENT1. Drying Ovens. Drying equipment shall berecirculating hot air ovens, electrically heated andthermostatically controlled. Drying oven temperaturesshall be at least 120 F (48.8 C) and shall not exceed160 F (71.1 C). The temperature controller shall becapable of maintaining the oven temperature at 15 F( 8.3 C) from set point and the temperature indicatorshall be accurate to 10 F ( 5.5 C) of the oventemperature. The drying oven shall be equipped with asafety shut off, visible alarm, or audible alarm whichoperates should the oven temperature exceed 160 F

BHT-ALL-SPM(71.1 C). The oven shelves (if so equipped) shall allowfree air circulation.6-9.INSPECTION MATERIAL REQUIREMENTSNOTE2. Inspection Viewing Area. The area where partsare inspected shall be kept clean at all times and freefrom excessive fluorescent contamination. Stationaryinspection areas shall be shielded adequately toassure the white light background does not exceed 2foot-candles at the examination surface.3. When portable inspection is required, theinspection area shall be darkened adequately withdark canvas, photographer's black cloth, or othermethods to provide satisfactory viewing of indications.All penetrant materials shall conform toMIL-I-25135.Penetrant Systems. FPI systems covered by thisdocument shall be of the following types, methods andsensitivity levels.1.Penetrants:NOTEMethod B (Lipophilic Emulsifier) may besubstituted in place of Method D(Hydrophilic Emulsifier) provided SensitivityLevel 4 penetrant is used.4. Black Light Source. Black light sources shall befiltered to pass a wave band of 3200 to 4000 Angstromunits.Type I — Fluorescent DyeMethod B — Post Emulsified, Lipophilica. Portable Black Light Units. Portable black lightunits shall be of the spot bulb type. They shall providea black light intensity level of not less than 1000microwatts per square centimeter (μW/cm2) whentested at a distance of 15 inches (38.1 cm).Method C — Solvent RemovableMethod D — Post Emulsified, HydrophilicSensitivity Level 3 — Highb. Fixed Black Light Sources. Fixed black lightsshall provide a black light intensity level of not lessthan 1000 μW/cm2 at the surface of the inspectionwork table.Sensitivity Level 4 — Ultrahigh2.NOTE5. Black Light Meter. The black light meter shall becapable of measuring black light intensity in μW/cm2within the spectral range of 3200 – 4000 Angstroms.The DSE-100X Light Meter (Spectronics Co.,Westbury, NY) or equivalent is acceptable.6. Visible Light Meter. The visible light meter formeasuring white light background in the inspectionarea shall be capable of measuring a light level of atleast one foot-candle. The DSE-100X Light Meter(Spectronics Co., Westbury, NY) or equivalent isacceptable.Developers:Developers shall be of the following forms.Form a — Dry PowderForm b — Water SolubleForm c — Water SuspendableForm d — Non-aqueous3.Solvent Removers:NOTE7. System Performance Test Panels. Panels usedfor testing system performance shall be Chrome, NiCr,or those conforming to Pratt & Whitney Aircraftdrawing number TAM 146040.Solvent removers shall be of the followingclasses.Class 1 — Halogenated16 FEB 2007 Rev. 26-00-00Page 5

BHT-ALL-SPMClass 2 — Non-halogenatedCAUTIONWHEN PORTABLE INSPECTION KITSARE USED ON TITANIUM OR NICKELBASE ALLOYS, THE USE OF AHALOGENATED SOLVENT REMOVER( C L A S S 1 ) O R A H A L O G E N AT E DNON-AQUEOUS DEVELOPER ISPROHIBITED.6-10.PREINSPECTION CLEANINGThe inspection surface shall be clean, dry, and free ofcontaminants such as grease, oil, etc. Organiccoatings such as paint may be removed by handsanding, plastic media blast and/or liquid strippers toreveal the bare metal for inspection. Aftercontaminants are removed, the inspection area shallbe precleaned using solvent and a clean, dry cloth(refer to Chapter 5). Allow the inspection area to drycompletely before applying penetrant.6-11.PENETRANT INSPECTIONCAUTIONDO NOT PERFORM PENETRANTI N S P E C T I O N AT T E M P E R AT U R E SBELOW 40 F (4.4 C).Limitations/Inspections and Component OverhaulSchedule), minimum penetrant sensitivity levels forinspection shall be level 3 or greater, except as statedin the above caution.2. Penetrant may be applied to the inspectionsurface by dipping, flow-on, brushing, or spraying. Forlocalized inspections on assemblies, the preferredmethod of application is brushing. After the penetrantis applied, check the inspection area for adequatecoverage and to assure that the penetrant is notcontaminating non-inspection areas.3. The penetrant dwell time shall be a minimum of30 minutes, unless otherwise specified. Dwell timeshall be doubled when the part temperature isbetween 40 and 60 F (4.4 and 15.5 C). For specificcomponents which have been identified in BellHelicopter manuals as having potential for stresscorrosion cracking, dwell times shall be a minimum of120 minutes.4. Lipophilic post emulsified penetrant systems(Method B) shall be removed by water immersion orwith a water spray rinse after application of anemulsifier and an appropriate emulsifier dwell time.Lipophilic emulsifiers shall be applied by immersion orflowing. Lipophilic emulsifiers shall not be applied byspray or brush and shall not be agitated while on thesurface of the part. Maximum dwell times, unlessotherwise specified, shall be 3 minutes. Actual dwelltimes shall be the minimum necessary to produce anacceptable background. After the emulsifier dwelltime, emulsification shall be stopped by agitatedimmersion rinse or water spray. Parts that haveexcessive background or appear to be over-emulsifiedmust be cleaned and reprocessed.CAUTIONCAUTIONDUE TO EXCESSIVE BACKGROUNDRELATED TO HIGH SENSITIVITYPENETRANT MATERIALS WHEN USEDFOR INSPECTION OF COMPONENTSMANUFACTURED FROM SANDCASTINGS, SENSITIVITY LEVELS INEXCESS OF LEVEL 2 SHOULD NOT BEUSED, (EXAMPLE: MAGNESIUMTRANSMISSION CASES).1. Minimum penetrant sensitivity levels forinspection shall be level 2 or greater. For componentsidentified in Chapters 4 and 5 (Airworthiness6-00-00Page 6Rev. 216 FEB 2007THE INSPECTION AREA SHALL NOT BEFLUSHED WITH SOLVENT OR WIPEDWITH SOLVENT-SATURATED CLOTHWHEN PERFORMING PENETRANTREMOVAL.5. Solvent removable penetrant systems (MethodC) shall be removed by using a clean, dry clothfollowed by a cloth moistened with solvent. Rewipewith a dry cloth to remove any solvent residue. Checkthe inspection area with a black light for adequate

BHT-ALL-SPMpenetrant removal. If over-removal is suspected, thearea shall be cleaned and reprocessed.6. Hydrophilic post emulsified penetrant systems(Method D) shall be removed with a water prerinse,application of the hydrophilic emulsifier and then apostrinse. The prerinse shall be applied for theminimum amount of time to achieve removal of thebulk surface penetrant. The hydrophilic emulsifier shallbe applied by immersion or spray. For immersionapplications, the concentration shall not exceed 35%by volume. For immersion applications, the emulsifieror part shall be mildly agitated. Dwell time shall be theminimum required for adequate penetrant removal, butunless otherwise specified, shall not exceed 2minutes. For spray applications, the concentrationshall not exceed 5%. After the application and dwell ofthe emulsifier, the part shall be rinsed with water.Evidence of over-removal shall require the part to becleaned and reprocessed. Excessive background maybe removed by additional (touch up) application of theemulsifier provided the maximum dwell time is notexceeded, followed by a rinse. If touch up applicationof the emulsifier does not produce an acceptablebackground, the part shall be cleaned andreprocessed.7. The parts shall be dried prior to the application ofdry or nonaqueous developer. Parts shall be air driedor dried in an oven. The oven temperature shall notexceed 160 F (70 C) and drying time shall not exceedthat necessary to adequately dry the part.8. Dry developer shall be applied by lightly dustingthe areas to be inspected. Developer dwell time shallbe a minimum of 10 minutes and a maximum of 4hours. Parts that are not inspected before themaximum dwell time shall be cleaned andreprocessed.Parts that are not inspected before the maximum dwelltime shall be cleaned and reprocessed.CAUTIONDO NOT WEAR PHOTOSENSITIVE, ORP E R M A N E N T LY S H A D E D L E N S E SWHEN PERFORMING INSPECTION.10. Perform inspection under black light. Observeany obvious bleed-out as the developer dwells.Complete inspection after developer dwell time iscomplete.6-12.Penetrant indications may be evaluated by wipingonce with a solvent moistened cotton swab followedby re-development. Mark relevant indications ofconcern for further evaluation and/or disposition.6-13.A HEAVY COATING OF DEVELOPERWILL MASK INDICAT IO NS. DO NOTOVER APPLY DEVELOPER.9. Nonaqueous developer shall be applied by lightlyspraying. If excessive application of developer hasoccurred, then the part shall be cleaned andreprocessed. Developer dwell time shall be aminimum of 10 minutes and a maximum of 1 hour.ACCEPTANCE CRITERIAUnless allowed by a specific procedure, indications ofcracks shall be cause for rejection.6-14.POSTINSPECTION CLEANINGRemove developer residues as soon as practical aftercompletion of inspection. Nonaqueous or drydeveloper residues may be removed by wiping with aclean cloth, or brush (with soft, nonmetallic bristles),and water as necessary. If determined to bedetrimental to the service of a component, otherpenetrant residues shall be removed from theinspection area using solvent or other approvedmethods.6-15.CAUTIONEVALUATIONPROCESS CONTROL REQUIREMENTS1. Specific Process Controls. The following specificprocess control tests shall be accomplished accordingto the minimum frequency indicated in Table 6-1. FPImaterials dispensed from closed containers anddiscarded after one use are exempt from the testingrequirements of step 4 through step 10. FPI materialsused in open containers (tanks) and/or materials thatare reused shall be tested as required.Inspectors shall be continually alert to any changes inperformance, color, odor, consistency, or appearance16 FEB 2007 Rev. 26-00-00Page 7

BHT-ALL-SPMof all penetrant materials being used. Appropriatetests shall be conducted if their quality is believed tohave deteriorated.Immediately after each use, the test panels shall becleaned according to the following Instructions as theminimum requirement:2. Black Light Intensity. Black lights used forinspection shall be checked using a black light meterconforming to paragraph 6-8, step 5. The test shall beconducted in the inspection booth/area in which theblack light is normally used. All black lights shall bechecked after bulb replacement. Black light reflectorsand filters shall be checked for cleanliness andintegrity. Damaged or dirty reflectors or filters shall bereplaced or cleaned as appropriate.a. Soak in alkaline cleaner for 1/2 to 1 hour.a. Portable Light Sources. Portable light sourcesshall be tested with the meter fifteen inches from theface of the filter.b. Fixed Light Sources. For fixed light sources,the black light intensity shall be measured at thesurface of the work table.3. Visible Light Intensity. The intensity of thespurious visible light in the inspection area shall bemeasured at the surface of the work table with avisible light meter conforming to paragraph 6-8, step 6.4. System Performance Test. The systemperformance shall be checked by processing a testpanel conforming to paragraph 6-8, step 7 througheach inspection line in use. A comparison test is madeby processing a similar test panel through exactly thesame processing steps and times using unusedmaterials of the same designation. After developing, acomparison is made between the panels. Alternately,comparison may be made between a panel processedthrough the in-use material and a photograph of thesame panel previously processed through unusedmaterial. The comparison test may also be made bydividing a panel (if using NiCr or chrome panels) intotwo equal sections by means of a wax line or narrowvinyl tape.The comparison shall reveal no appreciable differencein background fluorescence, brilliance of indications,or extent to which the defects are shown. If adifference exists, inspection shall be stopped and all ofthe solutions and procedures shall be checked todetermine which of the used solutions or theprocedures are discrepant, and the discrepancy shallbe corrected before resuming inspection.6-00-00Page 8Rev. 216 FEB 2007b. Rinse.c. Vapor degrease, ultrasonicminutes, or solvent soak for 1 hour.clean for5d. Store panel(s) immersed in solvent or dry at120 – 160 F (48.8 – 71.1 C) for 10 minutes.5. Water Content of Lipophilic Emulsifier. The watercontent of in-use emulsifier shall be determined inaccordance with the test procedures in ASTM-D-95 orASTM-D-1744.6. Hydrophilic Emulsifier Concentration. Theconcentration of hydrophilic emulsifiers (applied byimmersion or spraying) shall be checked using acalibrated refractometer. Spray concentrations shall bewithin the manufacturer's recommended limits andemulsifier concentration shall not exceed 5%. Forimmersion applications, the emulsifier concentrationshall be no higher than specified by the penetrantsystem supplier and shall not exceed 35% by volume.Variation of immersion solution concentrations shallnot be greater than 3 percentage points from the initial,unused concentration.7. Penetrant Fluorescence Tests. The brightness ofthe in-use penetrant shall be determined according toASTM E1135 with a sample of the unused penetrantserving as the reference.8. Developer Contamination. Aqueous developersshall be checked for fluorescence by immersing aclean aluminum panel approximately 3 x 10 inches(7.6 x 25.4 cm) into the bath, drying, and observing thepanel under black light. Additionally, failure of aqueousdevelopers to uniformly wet part surfaces shall because for FPI to cease until the problem is corrected.Dry developers shall be checked for fluorescence byspreading a thin layer on a flat, 4 inch (10.2 cm)diameter circular area and observing under a blacklight. Dry developers shall not contain more than 10fluorescent specks. Dry developers shall be fluffy andnot caked. Caked dry developer shall be discarded.

BHT-ALL-SPM9. Penetrant Contamination. The penetrant shall beexamined visually and shall be discarded if there isany evidence of precipitates, separation ofconstituents, surface scum, waxy deposits, whitecoloration or any other evidence of contamination orbreakdown.(71.1 C). The oven temperature indicator (refer toparagraph 6-8, step 1) may be used for this check.The oven temperature indicator shall be calibratedagainst an ASTM calibrated thermometer or athermocouple traceable to the N.I.S.T.10. Drying Oven Temperature. The temperature ofthe drying oven shall be verified daily and shall bewithin the range of 120 F (48.8 C) and 160 F11. Light Meter Certification. Black and visible lightmeters shall be certified every six months usingstandards traceable to the N.I.S.T.Table 6-1. Fluorescent Penetrant Process Control Tests — Frequency and RequirementsTESTFREQUENCYREQUIREMENTSEach ShiftPer paragraph 6-6, step dBlack Light IntensityDaily1000 μW/cm2@15 inchesBlack Light Reflectors and FiltersDailyPer paragraph 6-15, step 2Visible Light Intensity(Background)Daily 2 foot-candlesSystem PerformanceDailyPer paragraph 6-15, step 4Developer ContaminationDailyPer paragraph 6-15, step 8Penetrant ContaminationDailyPer paragraph 6-15, step 9Drying Oven TemperatureVerificationDailyPer paragraph 6-15, step 10Inspection Viewing AreaCleanlinessDailyPer paragraph 6-8, step 2Hydrophilic EmulsifierConcentrationWeeklyPer paragraph 6-15, step 6Aqueous Develo

INSPECTION METHOD (ASTM E1417) 6-3. INTRODUCTION Penetrant inspection is a nondestructive test for discontinuities open to the surface in parts made of nonporous materials. This is done by applying penetrant to the surface of the part which then penetrates the surface discontinuity. Excess penetrant is removed from the part surface with penetrant

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