Essentials Of Sociology - Pearson Education

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Essentials ofSociologyA Down-to-Earth ApproachThirteenth EditionJames M. HenslinSouthern Illinois University, Edwardsville330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 112/12/17 12:58 AM

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To my fellow sociologists,who do such creative research on social life andwho communicate the sociological imaginationto generations of students. With my sincere admiration and appreciation.A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 312/12/17 12:58 AM

Brief Contents1The Sociological Perspective 18Social Class in the United States 2282Culture 389Race and Ethnicity 2633Socialization 6810Gender and Age 3034Social Structure and SocialInteraction 10111Politics and the Economy 3455Social Groups and FormalOrganizations 13312Marriage and Family 38113Education and Religion 4156Deviance and Social Control 16214Population and Urbanization 4517Global Stratification 19515Social Change and the Environment 488ivA01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 412/12/17 12:58 AM

ContentsTo the Student . from the Author xviiiTo the Instructor . from the Author xixAbout the Author 1xxxviThe Sociological Perspective 1The Sociological Perspective Seeing the Broader Social Context The Global Context—and the Local 334Origins of Sociology Tradition versus Science Auguste Comte and Positivism Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism Karl Marx and Class Conflict Emile Durkheim and Social Integration 455667APPLYING DURKHEIM7Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic RELIGION AND THE ORIGIN OF CAPITALISM88Sociology in North America Sexism at the Time: Women in Early Sociology Racism at the Time: W. E. B. Du Bois Jane Addams: Sociologist and Social Reformer Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills: Theoryversus Reform The Continuing Tension: Basic, Applied,and Public Sociology BASIC SOCIOLOGY 12 APPLIED SOCIOLOGYPUBLIC SOCIOLOGY 12991011121212 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Symbolic Interactionism SYMBOLS IN EVERYDAY LIFE 14 IN SUM 15 APPLYING SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM 15 IN SUM141416Functional Analysis ROBERT MERTON AND FUNCTIONALISM 16 IN SUMAPPLYING FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS 17 IN SUM 17Conflict Theory 16222323Research Methods (Designs) 24Surveys 25SELECTING A SAMPLE 25 ASKING NEUTRALQUESTIONS 26 TYPES OF QUESTIONS 27 ESTABLISHING RAPPORT 27Participant Observation (Fieldwork) 28Case Studies 29Secondary Analysis 30Analysis of Documents 30Experiments 30Unobtrusive Measures 32Gender in Sociological Research 32Ethics in Sociological Research Protecting the Subjects: The Brajuha Research Misleading the Subjects: The Humphreys Research 333334Trends Shaping the Future of Sociology Tension in Sociology: Research versusSocial Reform 34THREE STAGES IN SOCIOLOGYORIENTATIONS 353535 DIVERSITY OFGlobalization 35HOW GLOBALIZATION APPLIES TO THIS TEXTSummary and Review 36Thinking Critically about Chapter 123537Culture 38What Is Culture? Culture and Taken-for-Granted Orientationsto Life IN SUM17 404042Practicing Cultural Relativism 18KARL MARX AND CONFLICT THEORY 18 CONFLICTTHEORY TODAY 19 FEMINISTS AND CONFLICTTHEORY 19 APPLYING CONFLICT THEORY 19 IN SUM 19Putting the Theoretical Perspectives Together Levels of Analysis: Macro and Micro How Theory and Research Work Together Collecting the Data Analyzing the Results Sharing the Results ATTACK ON CULTURAL RELATIVISM4344Components of Symbolic Culture 46Gestures 46191920Doing Sociological Research 21A Research Model Selecting a Topic Defining the Problem Reviewing the Literature Formulating a Hypothesis Choosing a Research Method 212122222222MISUNDERSTANDING AND OFFENSEUNIVERSAL GESTURES? 4746 Language 47LANGUAGE ALLOWS HUMAN EXPERIENCE TO BE CUMULATIVE 48 LANGUAGE PROVIDES A SOCIALOR SHARED PAST 48 LANGUAGE PROVIDES A SOCIALOR SHARED FUTURE 48 LANGUAGE ALLOWS SHARED PERSPECTIVES 48 LANGUAGE ALLOWS SHARED,GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR 49 IN SUM 50Language and Perception: The Sapir-WhorfHypothesis 50Values, Norms, and Sanctions 51Folkways, Mores, and Taboos 52vA01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 512/12/17 12:58 AM

vi ContentsMany Cultural Worlds 53Subcultures 53Countercultures 56Values in U.S. Society An Overview of U.S. Values Value Clusters Value Contradictions An Emerging Value Cluster IN SUM565657585859When Values Clash Values as Distorting Lenses “Ideal” Culture Versus “Real” Culture Cultural Universals IN SUM6061Sociobiology and Human Behavior IN SUM606060IN SUMTechnology in the Global Village New Technology Cultural Lag and Cultural Change Technology and Cultural Leveling 62626464CULTURAL DIFFUSION 64 COMMUNICATION AND TRAVEL 65 CULTURAL LEVELING 658181Socialization into Gender Learning the Gender Map Gender Messages in the Family PARENTSPARENTS82 TOYS AND PLAY8481818282 SAME-SEXGender Messages from Peers Gender Messages in the Mass Media 8485TELEVISION, MOVIES, AND CARTOONS 85 VIDEOGAMES 85 ADVERTISING 85 IN SUM 86Agents of Socialization The Family 8687SOCIAL CLASS AND TYPE OF WORKCLASS AND PLAY 876162Summary and Review 66Thinking Critically about Chapter 2Society within Us: The Self and Emotionsas a Social Mirror 87 SOCIALThe Neighborhood 87Religion 88Day Care 88The School 89Peer Groups 90The Workplace 92Resocialization 92Total Institutions 9267Socialization through the Life Course 94Childhood (from birth to about age 12) 3Socialization 68Society Makes Us Human Feral Children Isolated Children Institutionalized Children 70717172THE ORPHANAGE EXPERIMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 72 THE ORPHANAGE EXPERIMENT IN ROMANIA 73 TIMINGAND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF GENIE 73 IN SUM 73Deprived Animals IN SUM“BRING YOUR PARENTS TO WORK DAY”959696The Middle Years (ages 30–65) THE EARLY MIDDLE YEARS (AGES 30–49)MIDDLE YEARS (AGES 50–65) 979696 THE LATER74749797 Are We Prisoners of Socialization? Summary and Review 99Thinking Critically about Chapter 39810075Mead and Role Taking IN SUMAdolescence (ages 13–17) Transitional Adulthood (ages 18–29) THE TRANSITIONAL OLDER YEARS (AGES 65–74)THE LATER OLDER YEARS (AGE 75 OR SO) 9774Socialization into the Self and Mind Cooley and the Looking-Glass Self 9495The Older Years (about age 65 on) 73IN SUM: SOCIETY MAKES US HUMANIN SUM7576Piaget and the Development of Reasoning Global Aspects of the Self and Reasoning 7677Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions Freud and the Development of Personality 7777SOCIOLOGICAL EVALUATION78Kohlberg and the Development of Morality 78KOHLBERG’S THEORY 78 CRITICISMS OFKOHLBERG 79 RESEARCH WITH BABIES 79 THE CULTURAL RELATIVITY OF MORALITY 79Socialization into Emotions GLOBAL EMOTIONS 79 EXPRESSING EMOTIONS:“GENDER RULES” 79 THE EXTENT OF “FEELINGRULES” 80 WHAT WE FEEL 80 RESEARCHNEEDED 80A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 6794Social Structure and SocialInteraction 101Levels of Sociological Analysis Macrosociology and Microsociology 103103The Macrosociological Perspective: Social Structure 104The Sociological Significance of Social Structure 104IN SUM105Components of Social Structure 105Culture 106Social Class 106Social Status 106STATUS SETS 106 ASCRIBED AND ACHIEVEDSTATUSES 106 STATUS SYMBOLS 107 MASTER STATUSES 107 STATUS INCONSISTENCY 10712/12/17 12:58 AM

ContentsRoles 108Groups 108Social Institutions Comparing Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives 109109THE FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE 109 THE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE 111 IN SUM 111Changes in Social Structure What Holds Society Together? 111111MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY 111 GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT 112 HOWRELEVANT ARE THESE CONCEPTS TODAY? 112 IN SUM 113114APPLYING IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT123Ethnomethodology: Uncovering BackgroundAssumptions 124125The Social Construction of Reality Gynecological Examinations IN SUM125126127The Need for Both Macrosociology and Microsociology Summary and Review 131Thinking Critically about Chapter 45Working for the Corporation Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes in the “Hidden”Corporate Culture 127132Social Groups and FormalOrganizations 133Groups within Society Primary Groups 135135137Secondary Groups 137VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS 137 THE INNERCIRCLE 137 THE IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY 138In-Groups and Out-Groups SHAPING PERCEPTION AND MORALITY138138Reference Groups 139EVALUATING OURSELVES 139 EXPOSURE TO CONTRADICTORYSTANDARDS IN A SOCIALLY DIVERSE SOCIETY 140Social Networks THE SMALL WORLD PHENOMENON 142 IS THESMALL WORLD PHENOMENON AN ACADEMICMYTH? 142 BUILDING UNINTENTIONAL BARRIERSA01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 7148148140142149150Group Dynamics Effects of Group Size on Stability and Intimacy Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior 151151152LABORATORY FINDINGS AND THE REALWORLD 153Leadership 155WHO BECOMES A LEADER? 155 TYPES OF LEADERS 155 LEADERSHIP STYLES 155 LEADERSHIP STYLES IN CHANGING SITUATIONS156The Power of Peer Pressure: The Asch Experiment 157The Power of Authority: The Milgram Experiment 158Global Consequences of Group Dynamics:Groupthink 159PREVENTING GROUPTHINK160Summary and Review 160Thinking Critically about Chapter 56161Deviance and Social Control What is Deviance? A Neutral Term STIGMA162164164164Deviance Is Relative 164How Norms Make Social Life Possible 166Sanctions 166IN SUMPRODUCING A MIRROR WITHIN148Technology and the Maximum-Security Society 119Dramaturgy: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 119Stages 120Role Performance, Conflict, and Strain 120Sign-Vehicles 121Teamwork 123Becoming the Roles We Play 123IN SUMRED TAPE: A RULE IS A RULE 147 ALIENATION OF WORKERS 147 RESISTING ALIENATION 148Diversity in the Workplace Symbolic Interaction 114Stereotypes in Everyday Life 114Personal Space 118Eye Contact 119Smiling 119Body Language 119APPLIED BODY LANGUAGEBureaucracies 143The Characteristics of Bureaucracies 144Goal Displacement and the Perpetuationof Bureaucracies 146Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies 147SELF-FULFILLING STEREOTYPES AND PROMOTIONSThe Microsociological Perspective: Social Interactionin Everyday Life vii166Competing Explanations of Deviance: Sociobiology,Psychology, and Sociology Biosocial Explanations Psychological Explanations Sociological Explanations 167167167168The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Differential Association Theory 168168THE THEORY 168 FAMILIES 168 FRIENDS, NEIGHBORHOODS, AND SUBCULTURES 168 DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION IN THE CYBER AGE 169 PRISON OR FREEDOM? 169Control Theory THE THEORY170170Labeling Theory 172REJECTING LABELS: HOW PEOPLE NEUTRALIZE DEVIANCE 172 EMBRACING LABELS: THE EXAMPLE OFOUTLAW BIKERS 173 LABELS CAN BE POWERFUL 173 HOW DO LABELS WORK? 174 IN SUM 17412/12/17 12:58 AM

viii ContentsThe Functionalist Perspective 175Can Deviance Really Be Functional for Society? 175Strain Theory: How Mainstream Values ProduceDeviance 175FOUR DEVIANT PATHS176 IN SUMSTREET CRIME 176 WHITE-COLLAR CRIMEGENDER AND CRIME 179 IN SUM 180180180180181Reactions to Deviance 181Street Crime and Prisons 182The Decline of Violent Crime 185Recidivism 185The Death Penalty and Bias 186188 GENDER188 The Trouble with Official Statistics The Medicalization of Deviance: Mental Illness NEITHER MENTAL NOR ILLNESS? MENTALLY ILL 1921901917210210CONTROLLING PEOPLE’S IDEAS 210 CONTROLLING INFORMATION 211 STIFLING CRITICISM 211 BIGBROTHER TECHNOLOGY 211 IN SUM 211Comparative Social Stratification Social Stratification in Great Britain Social Stratification in the Former Soviet Union 212212212Global Stratification: Three Worlds The Most Industrialized Nations The Industrializing Nations The Least Industrialized Nations Modifying the Model 213214217218218How Did the World’s Nations Become Stratified? 221Colonialism 221World System Theory 222Culture of Poverty 223Evaluating the Theories 223Maintaining Global Stratification 224Neocolonialism 224RELEVANCE TODAY191 THE HOMELESS224Multinational Corporations The Need for a More Humane Approach Summary and Review 193Thinking Critically about Chapter 6209209How Do Elites Maintain Stratification? Soft Control versus Force 176178 The Conflict Perspective Class, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System The Criminal Justice System as an Instrumentof Oppression GEOGRAPHY 187 SOCIAL CLASSRACE–ETHNICITY 188IN SUM176Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: SocialClass and Crime IN SUMLenski’s Synthesis 193BUYING POLITICAL STABILITY CONSEQUENCES 225224225 UNANTICIPATEDTechnology and Global Domination 194225Strains in the Global System: Uneasy Realignments Global Stratification 195Systems of Social Stratification 197Slavery 198CAUSES OF SLAVERY 198 CONDITIONS OFSLAVERY 199 BONDED LABOR IN THE NEWWORLD 199 SLAVERY IN THE NEW WORLD 199 SLAVERY TODAY 200201 Estate 203WOMEN IN THE ESTATE SYSTEM203Class 204Global Stratification and the Status of Females 204The Global Superclass 204What Determines Social Class? Karl Marx: The Means of Production Max Weber: Property, Power, and Prestige IN SUM205205206206Why Is Social Stratification Universal? 206The Functionalist View: Motivating QualifiedPeople 207DAVIS AND MOORE’S EXPLANATION 207 TUMIN’SCRITIQUE OF DAVIS AND MOORE 207 IN SUM 208The Conflict Perspective: Class Conflictand Scarce Resources MOSCA’S ARGUMENT 208 MARX’S ARGUMENT 209 CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF CONFLICT THEORY 209A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 88226227Social Class in the United States 228What Is Social Class? 230Property 230Caste 200INDIA’S RELIGIOUS CASTES 200 SOUTH AFRICAA U.S. RACIAL CASTE SYSTEM 202Summary and Review 226Thinking Critically about Chapter 7208DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN WEALTH AND INCOME 230 DISTRIBUTION OF PROPERTY 231 DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME 231Power 234THE DEMOCRATIC FACADE234 THE POWER ELITE 234Prestige 235OCCUPATIONS AND PRESTIGEPRESTIGE 235235 DISPLAYINGStatus Inconsistency 236Sociological Models of Social Class Updating Marx Updating Weber 238238239THE CAPITALIST CLASS 240 THE UPPER-MIDDLECLASS 240 THE LOWER-MIDDLE CLASS 241 THE WORKING CLASS 241 THE WORKING POOR 241 THE UNDERCLASS 242Consequences of Social Class Physical Health Mental Health Family Life CHOICE OF HUSBAND OR WIFECHILD REARING 244242243243244244 DIVORCE244 12/12/17 12:58 AM

ContentsEducation 244Religion 245Politics 245Crime and Criminal Justice 246Social Mobility Three Types of Social Mobility Women in Studies of Social Mobility The Pain of Social Mobility: Two Distinct Worlds 246246248249Poverty 251Drawing the Poverty Line 251Who Are the Poor? 253BREAKING A MYTH 253 THE GEOGRAPHY OFPOVERTY 253 EDUCATION 254 FAMILY STRUCTURE:THE FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY 254 RACE– ETHNICITY 254 AGE AND POVERTY 255Children of Poverty 255The Dynamics of Poverty versus the Culture of Poverty Why Are People Poor? Deferred Gratification Where Is Horatio Alger? The Social Functionsof a Myth Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations 281Genocide 281IN SUM9Racial–Ethnic Relations in the United States European Americans IN SUM286UMBRELLA TERM 286 COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN 286 UNAUTHORIZED IMMIGRANTS 287 RESIDENCE 288   SPANISH 288 ECONOMIC WELL-BEING 289 POLITICS 290African Americans 259Asian Americans 263265265THE REALITY OF HUMAN VARIETY 265 THE MYTH OFPURE RACES 265 THE MYTH OF A FIXED NUMBER OF RACES 266 THE MYTH OF RACIAL SUPERIORITY 267 THE MYTH CONTINUES 268Ethnic Groups Minority Groups and Dominant Groups NOT SIZE, BUT DOMINANCE AND DISCRIMINATIONEMERGENCE OF MINORITY GROUPS 269290RISING EXPECTATIONS AND CIVIL STRIFE 291 CONTINUED GAINS 291 CURRENT LOSSES 292 RACE OR SOCIAL CLASS? A SOCIOLOGICAL DEBATE 292 RACISM AS AN E VERYDAY BURDEN 293293A BACKGROUND OF DISCRIMINATION 293 DIVERSITY 294 REASONS FOR FINANCIAL SUCCESS 294 POLITICS 294269269269 Prejudice and Discrimination 270Learning Prejudice 270DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION 272 LEARNING PREJUDICE FROM ASSOCIATING WITH OTHERS 272 THE FAR-REACHINGNATURE OF PREJUDICE 273 INTERNALIZING DOMINANTNORMS 275Individual and Institutional Discrimination 275276Theories of Prejudice Psychological Perspectives 276277FRUSTRATION AND SCAPEGOATS 277 THEAUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY 277Sociological Perspectives FUNCTIONALISM 278 CONFLICT THEORY 278 SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM 279 HOW LABELSCREATE PREJUDICE 279 LABELS AND SELF-FULFILLING STEREOTYPES 279295DIVERSITY OF GROUPS 295 FROM TREATIES TOGENOCIDE AND POPULATION TRANSFER 295 THEINVISIBLE MINORITY AND SELF-DETERMINATION 296 THE CASINOS 296 DETERMINING IDENTITY AND GOALS 297Looking toward the Future The Immigration Controversy The Affirmative Action Controversy 297297299A BRIEF HISTORY 299 SUPREME COURTRULINGS 299 THE BAMBOO CURTAIN 299 THE POTENTIAL SOLUTION 299Ethnic Work: Constructing Our Racial–Ethnic Identity 270A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 9285Native Americans Laying the Sociological Foundation Race: Reality and Myth 275 HEALTH CARE283284Latinos (Hispanics) 257257257262Race and Ethnicity HOME MORTGAGES282Population Transfer 282Internal Colonialism 282Segregation 282Assimilation 283Mult

Essentials of Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach Thirteenth Edition James M. Henslin Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville 330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013 A01_HENS6587_13_SE_FM.indd 1 12/12/17 12:58 AM

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