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DOCUMENT RESUMEED 424 419AUTHORTITLEINSTITUTIONPUB DATENOTEPUB TYPEEDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORSIDENTIFIERSCE 077 396Wood, George S., Ed.; Webber, Mary Margaret, Ed.Proceedings of the Annual Midwest Research-to-PracticeConference in Adult, Continuing and Community Education(17th, Muncie, Indiana, October 8-10, 1998).Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN.1998-10-00197p.; For the 1997 conference, see ED 412 370.Collected WorksProceedings (021)MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.Adult Basic Education; *Adult Education; *Adult Literacy;*Continuing Education; *Educational Research; HigherEducation; Participatory Research; *Research Methodology;Teaching Methods; Theory Practice RelationshipWelfare ReformABSTRACTThis proceedings contains 30 papers: "What Matters inPlanning a Conference" (Ahmed et al.); "Faculty Motivations for Learning ToTeach at a Distance with Instructional Technology" (Armstrong); "The Use ofLiterature in Qualitative Research" (Austin, Babchuk); "Reading Women'sLives" (Baker-Clark); "Faculty Perceptions of Adult Students and TheirLearning Needs" (Beverly, Clark); "Assessing Teaching Style Preference andFactors that Influence Teaching Style Preference of Registered Dieticians"(Carr) ; "Implementing Learning Contracts" (Chiang); "Constructionism Theoryto Web-based Course Design" (Conceicao-Runlee, Daley) ; "Literacy, LifeSkills, Training and Transition in a Correctional Facility" (Cooper); "TheLong-Term Impact of American Adult Educators on International GraduateStudents" (Cutz, Atchade); "The Urban Context" (Daley et al.); "Low-LiterateBlue-Collar Male Workers" (Davis-Harrison, Martin) ; "Boundaries and Beliefsamong Teachers of Adults" (Dirkx et al.); "Fostering Adult Learner Success inthe Community College Experience" (Dirkx et al.); "Cognitive Development ofAdult Undergraduate Students" (Fishback, Polson); "Integrating the Functionsof Teaching, Research, Service and Income Generation through ParticipatoryAction Research" (Folkman, Rai) ; "Amanda's Story" (Geerling); "Learning ToWrite for the GED [General Educational Development] Exam" (Hansman, Wilson);"Pooling It All Together" (Holtorf); "Jumping to Warp Speed with Our VisionBlurred" (Jenkins); "Sustaining Activism" (Kovan); "What I Learned aboutChange I Learned in Practice, Not from the Literature" (Kreitzer); "TheImpact of Welfare Reform on the Delivery of Adult Literacy Instruction"(Martin, Fisher); "Co-Creating Knowledge" (Mealman, Lawrence); "CriticalReflection in Practice" (Rocco) ; "The Assessment of Student Learning Outcomesin Management and Business-Related Adult Accelerated Degree CompletionPrograms in the Coalition for Christian Colleges and Universities"(Sherlock); "Praxis Not Consensus" (Smith, Hansman); "Adding Value"(Springer); "Affirmative Action Accountability" (Zawacki, Abraham); and"Learning Organizations" (Bashore) . **********************************Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be madefrom the original ***************************************

Proceedingsof theSeventeenth AnnualMidwest Research-to-PracticeConferencein Adult, Continuing and Community EducationOctober 8-10, 1998U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONOffice of Educational Research and ImprovementEDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIONCENTER (ERIC)fril,".:locument has been reproduced asEdited byGeorge S. Wood, Jr., Ed. D.Professor Emeritus of Educational LeadershipBall State UniversityMuncie, Indianareceived from the person or organizationoriginating it.Minor changes have been made toimprove reproduction quality.Points of view or opinions stated in thisdocument do not necessarily representofficial OERI position or policy.Mary Margaret Webber, M.A.Doctoral AssistantDept. of Educational LeadershipBall State UniversityMuncie, IndianaPERMISSION TO REPRODUCE ANDEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HASDIBYiBEEN111ffiligiErcTO TIEDUCATIONAL RESO F CESRMATION CENTER (ERIC)

Proceedings of the1998 Midwest Research-to-Practice Conferencein Adult, Continuing and Communi0 Educationhas been entered into the ERIC system at the:ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational EducationCenter on Education and Training for EmploymentCollege of EducationThe Ohio State University1900 Kenny RoadColumbus, OH 43210-1090phone:fax:e-mail:800/848-4815, ext. 2-7069 or (614) 292-7069614/292-1260ericacve@postbox. acs. ohio-state. eduwebsite: http://ericacve.orgAcknowledgementsConference Book Bags:1998 Registration Brochureand Proceedings cover design:1998 Proceedings publication:Lincoln Life InternationalMark RansfordBall State University RelafionsBall State Printing &Duplicating Servicesii

Ball State UniversityTeachers CollegeDepartment of Educational LeadershipOctober 8, 1998Dear Research-to-Practice Conference Participants:Welcome to the 1998 Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult,Continuing, and Community Education and the campus of Ball State University!!We are pleased to host the Conference for the second time in its distinguished 17-yearhistory. We are also pleased to present the Conference in Ball State University's newAlumni Center, which we think is particularly well suited to our group of practitionersand researchers in adult education, continuing education, and community education.Ours is one of the first events of this type to be held in the Alumni Center since itopened this past spring.Our local conference committee has worked hard for the past year to put together aConference which you will find challenging and rewarding. University faculty, graduatestudents, and practitioners from across the state of Indiana have collaborated in theeffort. We appreciate the contributions of all of them.This year the Conference has been expanded to include a Pre-Conference Program forGraduate Students and a Practitioner Research Showcase. These features are inaddition to the traditional high quality sessions devoted to the presentation anddiscussion of research studies, research issues, practitioner concerns, and evaluationstudies. The Conference has become a three-day event for the first time.We hope that you will be able to use your time well in exploring new research, newissues, and new concerns in new ways with your professional colleagues. We hopethat you will be challenged to look beyond the simplistic and the mundane. We hopethat you find yourself constantly engaged in reflecting upon the ideas being shared atthis Conference. And we hope that you leave here excited about something which willimprove your professional practice.Enjoy the Conference, the Ball State University campus, and the opportunity to learn!el,x./1/1Murknference Co-ChairMcElhinneyConference Co-Chair4765-285-8488Muncie, Indian:147306-0590FAX: 765-285-2166

Midwest Research-to-PracticeConferencein Adult, Continuing and CommuniV EducationMission StatementThe conference provides a forum for practitionersand researchers to discuss practices, concepts,evaluation, and research studies in order to improvepractice in Adult Education. Through suchdiscussion and collaboration particip'ants contributetoward the realization of a more humane and justsociety through lifelong learning.Prepared on behalf of the Midwest Research-to-Practice ConferenceSteering Committee by Boyd RossingMay 28, 1991

Seventeenth Annual1998 Midwest Research-to-Practice Conferencein Adult, Continuing and Communi& EducationOctober 8-10, 1998at Ball State UniversityConference Hosts/SponsorsThe Educational Leadership Department, Teachers College,Ball State UniversityThe Office of University Advancement, Ball State UniversityCo-SponsorsThe School of Continuing Education and Public Service,Ball State UniversityIndiana University, School of Continuing StudiesIndiana University-Purdue University at Fort WayneThe Indiana Association for Adult and Continuing EducationConference Planning CommitteeMany people have helped to make the 1998 Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing and Community Education asuccess. A special thanks to all of the following who served on theconference planning committee:Ahmed K. AhmedPierre AtthadeSteve EdwardsJean E. A. FlemingDenise HenardJuan Carlos JudikisMardell KuhnsDon KreitzerBobby MaloneKimberly S. McDonaldJames H. McElhinneyHenry MerrillPeter J. MurkDon ParkMolly K. RobertsonJudith RoepkeNancy SaundersMatt StevensonMary Margaret WebberDanny WoodGeorge S. Wood

1998 Midwest Research-to-Practice Conferencein Adult, Continuing and Community EducationSteering Committee MembersAnn AustinSSM Rehabilitation InstituteSt Louis, MOJeannette HaroldKansas State UniversityManhattan, KSRichard OremNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalb, ILWayne BabchukUniversity of NebraskaLincoln, NETom HeaneyNational-Louis UniversityChicago, ILSuzanne PrengerUniversity of NebraskaLincoln, NEIan BaptisteNational-Louis UniversityWh eaton, I LJohn HenschkeUniversity of MissouriSt Louis, MOLawrence Berlin The University of MichiganAnn Arbor, MIBeth PikeUniversity of Missouri-StLouisSt Louis, MOWiliam HineEastern Illinois UniversityCharleston, ILCindy Blodgett-McDeavittUniversity of NebraskaLincoln, NEPaul IlsleyNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalb, ILDavid BoggsThe Ohio State UniversityColumbus, OHRandee LawrenceNational-Louis UniversityWheaton, ILMary Katherine CooperUniversity of MinnesotaSt Paul, MNS. Joseph LevineMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MIBarbara DaleyUniversity of WisconsinMilwaukeeMilwaukee, WILarry MartinUniversity of WsconsinMilwaukeeMilwaukee, WIJohn DirkxMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MIJames H. McElhinneyBall State UniversityMuncie, INTrenton FerroIndiana University ofPennsylvaniaIndiana, PACraig MealmanNational-Louis UniversityWheaton, ILJean E. A FlemingBall State UniversityMuncie, INJames FisherUniversity of WsconsinMilwaukeeMilwaukee, WIPeter J. MurkBall State UniversityMuncie, INCharles OakliefKansas State UniversityManhattan, KSAmy RoseNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalb, ILBoyd RossingUniversity of littisconsinMadisonMadison, WILodi ee SandmannMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MIJames SnoddyMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MIBarbara SparksUniversity of NebraskaLincolnLincoln, NEMichael SpurginMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MIDavid SteinThe Ohio State UniversityColumbus, OHDanny WoodMetropolitan School District ofVVashington TownshipIndianapolis, INGeorge S. Wood, Jr.Ball State UniversityMuncie, IN7

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1998 Midwest Research-to-Practice Conferencein Adult, Continuing and Community EducationProgram ScheduleTHURSDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1998Ball State University Alumni Center1:00-5:00 p.m.Graduate Student Pre-ConferenceAssembly Hall1:00-1:15 p.m.WelcomeRoy Weaver, Dean of Teachers CollegeBall State University1:15-2:15 p. m.Session One: "Scholarly Wilting"James C. FisherUniversity of lMsconsin-MilwaukeeAmy RoseNorthern Illinois University2:15-2:30 p.m.2:30-3:30 p.m.BreakSession Two: "How to Publish"John M. DirkxMichigan State University3:30-4:00 p.m.Coffee, Tea, & Soda Break4:00-5:00 p.m.Session Three: "The Dissertation Process"John A HenschkeUniversity of MissouriKimberly S. McDonaldIndiana University-Purdue University, Fort WayneRichard OremNorthern Illinois UniversityNancy SaundersIndiana Wesleyan University

4:00-7:00 p.m.Registration7:00 p.m.Dessert Reception Opens7:30-9:30 p.m.An Evening with Butch Wilson and Dessert ReceptionWelcomeDr. Bobby G. MaloneChairperson, Department of Educational LeadershipTeachers Co/legeBall State UniversityDr. Warren Vander MilProvost and lice President for Academic AffairsBall State UniversitySpecial Guest Presentation:"An Evening with Butch Wilson"Dr. Arthur L. Wilson, Ed.D.North Carolina State UniversityFRIDAY, OCTOBER 9, 1998Ball State University Alumni Center8:00-11:00 a.m.Registration8:30-9:30 a.m.Continental Breakfast9:15 a.m.WelcomeDr. Don ParkVice President of University AdvancementBall State University9:30-10:30 a.m.Opening Session"What Does Research-to-Practice Mean?"Panel Members: Phyllis Cunningham, Don Kreitzer,Joe Levine, and Butch Wilson.Panel Moderator: Henry Merrill11

Practitioner Research ShowcaseAlumni Center LibraryFRIDAY8:30 a.m.-noon12:30-5:00 p.m.Adult Basic Education, Literacy, GED,ESL Practitioner ResearchersBusiness and Industry PraCtitioner Researchers10:45-11:45 a.m.Concurrent Sessions: 1John M. Dirkx, Gloria Kelbaso, and Ann Allen,Fostering Adult Learner Success in the CommunityCollege Experience: The Role of MandatedCurricular PolicyMeeting Room 1Craig A Mea !man and Randee Lipson LawrenceCo-Creating Knowledge: A Collaborative Inquiry inCollaborative Inquiry.Meeting Room 2Cami Zawacki and Sharon AbrahamAffirmative Action Accountability: Learning thatBlends Individual and Organizational Values.Conference Room 1Simone Conceicao-Runlee and Barbara J. DaleyConstructionism Theory to Web-Based CourseDesign: An Instructional Design ApproachConference Room 2Falinda Geer lingAmanda's Story: A Case Study of Personal &Professional Transformative Learning.Board Room12:00 noon1:30 p.m.LuncheonDr. Suellen ReedSuperintendent of Public InstructionIndiana Department of EducationPresentation of the 1998 Midwest Research-to-PracticeConference Graduate Student Research Paper Award

1:30-2:30 p.m.Concurrent Sessions: 2Sherwood Smith and Catherine HansmanPraxis Not Consensus: Curriculum Meets Classroomin Multicultural Adult EducationMeeting Room 1Tonette S. RoccoCritical Reflection in Practice: Experience of a NoviceTeacherMeeting Room 2Rebecca D. ArmstrongFaculty Motivations for Learning to Teach at aDistance with instructional TechnologyConference Room 1Mitchell L. SpringerAdded Value from Being Outsourced to BeingPerceived as Representative of Best PracticesIn One Company's StoryConference Room 2Jeffrey F. SherlockThe Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes inManagement and Business-Related AdultAccelerated Degree Completion Programs in theCoalition for Christian Colleges and UniversitiesBowd Room2:30-2:45Refreshment Break2:45-345Concurrent Sessions: 3Gaye Ranck JenkinsJumping to Warp Speed with Our Vision Blurred:Distance Education and the Social Missions of AdultEducationMeeting Room 1Jessica T. KovanSustaining Activism: Learning about the SelfMeeting Room 2xi 13

Catherine A. Hansman and Arthur L. WilsonLearning to Write for the GED Exam: The RoleOf Activity, Tools, and CultureConference Room 1Michelle KuenziControversy, Culture, and Cognition: Issues forLiteracy Scholars and PractitionersConference Room 2Linda H. ChiangImplementing Learning Contracts:A Metacognitive ApproachBoard Room4:00-5:00 p.m.Concurrent Sessions: 4Larry G. Martin and James C. FisherThe Impact of Welfare Reform on the Delivery OfAdult Literacy InstructionMeeting Room ICharles A. Baker-ClarkReading Women's Lives: Implications for MenMeeting Room 2Polly J. BashoreLearning Organizations: Building Research intoPracticeConference Room ILeonard GieverAdvocacy in Non Formal Adult LearningOrganizations: Conceptual or OperationalConference Room 2German Cutz and Pierre J. AtchadeThe Long Term Impact of American Adult Educatorson International Graduate StudentsBoard Room5:30-7:00 p.m.Reception at the E. B. and Bertha C. Ball Center6:30 p.m.Dinner on own

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1998Ball State University Alumni Center7-8:15 a.m.Steering Committee MeetingBoard Roomwith continental breakfast8:00-9:00 a.m.Registration8:00-9:00 a.m.Continental BreakfastPractitioner Research ShowcaseAlumni Center LibrarySATURDAY8:30 a.m.-noonHealth Profession Practitioner Researchers8:30-9:30 a.m.Concurrent Sessions: 5Barbara J. Daley, James C. Fisher, and Larry G. MartinThe Urban Context: An Arena for ConstructingKnowledge and Fostering Critically Reflective Practicein Adult Education.Meeting Room 1R. Ann Austin and Wayne A. BabchukThe Use of Literature in Qualitative Research: APractitioner Driven Case StudyMeeting Room 24Corine M. CarrAssessing Teaching Style Preference and Factorsthat influence Teaching Style Preference ofRegistered DietitiansMeeting Room 28Aleza Beverly and Karen ClarkFaculty Perceptions of Adult Students and theirLearning NeedsConference Room 215

9:45-10:45a.m.Concurrent Sessions: 6John M. Dirkx, Marilyn Amey, and Lisa HastonBoundaries and Beliefs Among Teachers of Adults: ACase Study of Curricular TransformationMeeting Room 1Donald J. KreitzerWhat I Learned about Change I Learned in Practice,Not from the LiteratureMeeting Room 2ADan Folkman and Kalyani RaiIntegrating the Functions of Teaching, ResearchService and Income Generation through ParticipatoryAction ResearchMeeting Room 2BMary Katherine CooperLiteracy, Life Skills, Training and Transition in aCorrectional Facility: An EvaluationConference Room 2Ahmed K. Ahmed, Pierre J. Atchade, Jean Fleming, andMary Margaret WebberWhat Matters in Planning a Conference: A Self-StudyConference Room 111:00-noonConcurrent Sessions: 7Sarah J. Fishback and Cheryl J. PoisonCognitive Development of Undergraduate StudentsMeeting Room 1Second Presentation of Student Research WinnerMeeting Room 2ADeryl Davis-Harrison and Larry MartinLow-Literate Blue-Collar Male Workers: NonParticipation in Adult Literacy ProgramsMeeting Room 2B

Paul HoltorfPooling it Together: A Grounded Theory Based on aCohort's Learning Experience in a Degree CompletionProgramConference Room 2DiscussionPlanning and Organizing the 1999 Midwest Researchto-Practice Conference in St. LouisConference Room 112:30- 2:00 p.m.LuncheonKeynote Presentation:"Learning in Adulthood: The indMdual and Contextual Perspectives"Dr. Rosemary Caffarella, Ph.D.University of Northern ColoradoThis presentation win give an overview of the two primary perspectives that have drivenresearch and practice in adult education over the past twenty-five years. The first perspective,that of focusing on the teaming process of individual learners, was the predominate way ofthinking about adult learning until this past decade. Representative lines of Inquiry In thls .:perspective include the infondation processing framework of cognition and memory, brain-baiede .learning, and some theories of intelligence and aging and cognitive development In the secondperspective the context w4thin which adults learn becomes an essential component of the learningprocess. A contextual approach to learning encompasses two Important dimensions: theinteractive and the structural. The interactive dmension acknowdedges that teaming is a productof the indMdual interacting with the context. Adult educators' histodcal advocacy of socialprograms, as well as recent theories of situated cognition, reflective practice, and cognitivedevelopment are exemplary of this Interactive dimension. The structural dimension Includesconsideration of factors such as race, class, gender, cultural diversity, and power and oppression.My basic belief is that both perspectives inform our practice as adutt educators. They can In factbe brought together, providing a more comprehensive platform than either perspective does byitself from which to design adult leaming activities.s[ 1 Mark your calendars!!!The 1999 Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult,Continuing, and Community Education wm be hosted byUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSeptember 22-24, 1999Check out their 17

TABLE OF CONTENTSAhmed K Ahmed,Pierre J. Atchade,Jean Fleming, &Mary Margaret WebberWhat Matters in Planning a Conference: A SelfStudy by Members of the Planning Committeefor the 17th Annual Midwest Research-toPractice Conference1Rebecca D. ArmstrongFaculty Motivations for Learning to Teach at aDistance with Instructional Technology7R. Ann Austin &Wayne A. BabchukThe Use of Literature in Qualitative Research:A Practitioner Driven Case Study13Charles A. Baker-ClarkReading Women's Lives: Implications for Men17Aleza Beverly &Karen ClarkFaculty Perceptions of Adult Students and TheirLearning Needs23Corine M. CarrAssessing Teaching Style Preference andFactors that Influence Teaching StylePreference of Registered Dietitians29Linda II. ChiangImplementing Learning Contracts: AMetacognitive Approach35Simone Conceicao-Runlee &Barbara J. DaleyConstnictionism Theory to Web-based CourseDesign: An Instructional Design Approach39Mary Katherine CooperLiteracy, Life Skills, Training and Transition inA Correctional Facility: An Evaluation45German Cutz &Pierre J. AtchadeThe Long-Term Impact of American AdultEducators on International Graduate Students51Barbara J. Daley,James C. Fisher, &Larry G. MartinThe Urban Context: An Arena for ConstructingKnowledge and Fostering Critically ReflectivePractice in Adult Education57Deryl Davis-Harrison &Larry MartinLow-Literate Blue-Collar Male Workers:Non-Participation in Adult Literacy Programs63John M. Dirkx,Marilyn Amey, &Lisa HastonBoundaries and Beliefs Among Teachers ofAdults: A Case Study of CurricularTransformation69

John M. Dirkx,Gloria Kielbaso, &Ann AllenFostering Adult Learner Success in theCommunity College Experience: The Role ofMandated Curricular Policy75Sarah J. Fishback &Cheryl J. PolsonCognitive Development of Adult UndergraduateStudents81Dan Folkman &Integrating the Functions of Teaching, ResearchService and Income Generation ThroughParticipatory Action Research87Falinda Geer lingAmanda's Story: A Case Study of Personal andProfessional Transformative Learning93Catherine A. Hansman &Arthur L. WilsonLearning to Write for the GED Exam:The Role of Activity, Tools, andCulture99Paul Ho hodPooling it All Together: A Grounded TheoryBased on A Cohort's Learning Experiencesin a Degree Completion Program105Gaye Ranck JenkinJumping to Warp Speed with Our VisionBlurred: Distance Education and the SocialMissions of Adult Education109Jessica T. KovanSustaining Activism: Learning about the Self115Donald J. KreitzerWhat I Learned about Change I Learned inPractice, Not From the Literature121Larry G. Martin &James C. FisherThe Impact of Welfare Reform on the Deliveryof Adult Literacy Instruction127Craig A Mealman &Randee Lipson LawrenceCo-Creating Knowledge: A CollaborativeInquiry into Collaborative Inquiry133Tonette S. RoccoCritical Reflection in Practice: Experience of aNovice Teacher139KalyaniRaixvii11.9

Jeffrey F. SherlockThe Assessment of Student Learning OutcomesIn Management and Business-Related AdultAccelerated Degree Completion Programs inthe Coalition for Christian Colleges and145Universitie sSherwood Smith &Catherine HansmanPraxis Not Consensus: Curriculum MeetsClassroom in Multicultural Adult Education151Mitchell L. SpringerAdding Value: From Being Outsourced to BeingPerceived as Representative of Best PracticesIn One Company's Story157Cami Zawacki &Sharon AbrahamAffirmative Action Accountability: Learningthat Blends Individual and OrganizationalValues163hilly J. BashoreLearning Organizations: Building ResearchInto Work Practice1691998 Conference Information has been posted on the ldkonf

WHAT MATTERS IN PLANNING A CONFERENCE?: A SELF-STUDY BY MEMBERS OF THEPLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MIDWEST RESEARCH-TOPRACTICE CONFERENCEAhmed K. AhmedPierre AtchadeJean FlemingMary Margaret WebberABS7RACTThis paper reviews a process of self-study undertaken by four members of the planningcommittee of this year's Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference. In addition to supporting thecontention that planning theory does not match planning practice, this collaborative, reflectiveprocess of inquiry led to the identification of four perspectives that expand current planningmodels: the role of leadership, human relations, critical perspectives, and budgeting. Theresearch methodology is also detailedConference HistoryThe Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference was initiated by Northern IllinoisUniversity (NIU) in 1982. After three years at NIIJ, the decision was made to move theconference to different universities: Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska,Minnesota, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania have all been hosts. The conference steering committeehas grown accordingly, as local planners join and original members remain committed.Program Planninz: Theory and Practice"In theory there is no difference between theory and practice. But in practice, there is"(Jan van de Snepschent, n.d.). Program planning is a primary responsibility of adult andcontinuing educators (Caffarella, 1994, and Cervero, 1988) and "planning practice matters inadult education because the programs will make the world a different place" (Cervero & Wilson,1994, p.5). Knox (1991) maintains program development comprises the largest portion ofscholarly and professional literature in adult education. Yet planners rarely use the planningframeworks found there: Although usually highly prescriptive and technical in nature, theseframeworks do not adequately reflect the realities and nuances of actual planning practice(Cervero, 1988; Cervero & Wilson, 1994; Sork & Caffarella, 1989). Our experiences on the 1998Midwest Conference planning committee support this assertion.Over time, myriad planning models have been offered in the literature. Most, however,include tasks such as assessing needs, defining objectives, developing learning experiences, andevaluating. Recently, certain additions are noticeable. Cervero and Wilson (1994) focus on the"political richness, ethical dilemmas, and practical judgments of planning practices," (p. 6),viewing planning as "a social activity in which people negotiate personal and organizationalinterests" (p. 4). Sork (1997) traces the integration of "new sensitivities and understandings"derived from developing interests in feminisms, multiculturalism, critical theory, and121

postmodernism, proposing a "question-based approach.character of every planning situation" (pp. 5-6).[that] acknowledges the uniqueMethodologyOur study has allowed us to build on this lengthy yet continuously evolving foundation ofplanning. We are all members of the Seventeenth Annual Midwest Research-to-PracticeConference planning committee. In fall, 1997, as part of a class on program planning, we begankeeping reflective journals on our experiences as members of this committee. We were surprisedat how quickly we discovered differences between theory and practice. As Schon (1983) states,"much reflection-in-action hinges on the experience of surprise" (p. 56). The impetus for ourstudy was found: we determined to meet, reflect, and document our perceptions.General questions to guide our study were defined during early meetings: Did we see anymodels or particular perspectives on planning being followed during, or between, planningcommittee meetings? Were values, beliefs, and other ethical considerations ever discussed? Didwe notice facets of planning that were missing from the planning frameworks we had studied inthe literature? Did we have what we needed to do our assigned tasks?StrategiesWe attended committee meetings and then met to collaboratively reflect on the planningprocess. We have met ten times since January and will continue to meet until just after theOctober conference. We have reviewed, questioned, argued, refined, and finally written ourperspectives of the planning process in which we are engaged. We have compared perceptionsand questioned "what went on" in the planning committee meetings. We have analyzed howdecisions are made and assigned tasks completed. We have examined assumptions andexpectations we perceive to exist and questioned why and how certain tasks are done. Weclarified our perspectives on what was missing from the literature and identified what weconsidered essential to meeting our planning responsibilities. To direct our discussions, weconsidered three dimensions of planning, the technical, socio-political, and ethical, as proposed bySork (1997).Emerging InsightsAs a result of examining our perceptions of our conference planning experience, weidentified several emerging areas of concern: (a) cultural considerations; (b) the influence ofindividual personalities in adhering to specific planning models; (c) specific strategies fornegotiation and relationship building; (d) financial concerns; (e) influences of personal agendas,gender, race, class, and status; (g) the evolution of planning groups; (h) professional artistry(Schon, 1987, 1983) and intuition in planning; and (i) leadership in planning. We synthesized theseareas into four categories, although we were unable to explore all of them in depth: leadership,human relationships, critical perspectives, and budgeting. Due to feelings of personal andprofessional connection, each of us logically became responsible for the development and writingof one of these four areas.CommentsWe were curious about program planning and developed a process by which we couldinvestigate. We consider ourselves critically reflective practitioners engaged in a systematicprocess of inquiry. As a result of our collaboration, we have constructed new perspectives and

understandings of the planning process. Using the definition of research from Merriam andSimpson (1995), that "research is a systematic process by which we know more about somethingthan we did before engaging in the process" (p. 2), we maintain we have, and continue to conductresearch. We have drawn most heavily on concepts from reflection-in-action (Schon, 1987,1983), from action research (Quigley & Kuhne, 1997), and from collaborative inquiry (Reason,1988). Perspectives on the social construction of knowledge drawing on Habermas' work, and theemergent nature of qualitative research design (Merriam & Simpson, 1995) provided furthersupport for our research approach.Perspectives on Planning PracticeEach section provides a synthesis of our discussions and identifies implications forpractice, often in the form of questions we recommend planners ask. We are all newcomers to thisconference, although one of us has extensive experience in conference planning. Our newness hasallowed us some fresh pers

DOCUMENT RESUME. ED 424 419 CE 077 396. AUTHOR Wood, George S., Ed.; Webber, Mary Margaret, Ed. TIT

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