2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla inMississippiWedgeworth Creek,Forrest County, MSA Report to the Mississippi Bureau of Plant IndustryWilfredo Robles, John D. Madsen, Victor L. Maddox, and Ryan M. WersalGeoResources Institute and Department of Plant and Soil SciencesMississippi State UniversityBox 9652Mississippi State, MS 39762-9652February 15, 2008GeoResources Institute Report #5019
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in Mississippi2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla inMississippiWilfredo Robles, John D. Madsen, Victor L. Maddox, and Ryan M. WersalGeoResources InstituteMississippi State UniversityIntroductionInvasive aquatic plant species have been implicated in the degradation of water resourcesworldwide (Petr 1993). The introduction and growth of invasive aquatic plant speciesmay limit the water body function and impede boat traffic (Albright et al. 2004, Oliver1993, Madsen 2005). In the state of Mississippi, water bodies are mainly used fortransportation, recreation, and habitat for fish and wildlife; all of which are threatenedwith the introduction of invasive aquatic plant species. The two species hydrilla (Hydrillaverticillata) and giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) are considered invasive aquatic plantsworldwide. Giant salvinia is a free-floating aquatic fern that can double biomass in 10days through vegetative reproduction. Hydrilla is a submersed aquatic plant that canpropagate from stem fragments, turions, and subterranean tubers representing a triplethreat for management methods. Both plants are listed as noxious weeds on both theFederal Noxious Weed List and the Noxious Weed List for the State of Mississippi.Implementation of monitoring and management programs is needed for early detection ofand prevention of their introduction, establishment and spread in any water body.Pursuant to that, Mississippi State University has developed a Memorandum ofAgreement with the Mississippi Bureau of Plant Industry to survey water bodies inMississippi for aquatic plants listed on the state noxious weed list. This memorandum ofagreement has been renewed over the last three years as part of a monitoring program forthe state. The following report is an update of the survey progress for giant salvinia andhydrilla presence in the state of Mississippi.MethodologyStatewide surveys have been conducted since 2005 in the state of Mississippi to detectthe presence and absence of giant salvinia and hydrilla. Known locations reported witheither hydrilla or giant salvinia present in 2006 (Robles et al. 2007) were revisited in2007 to document establishment and spread. A handheld computer with Global PositionSystem (GPS) capabilities has used to obtain geographic coordinates of surveyedlocations. Data were acquire and reported in latitude and longitude, datum WGS 84.Location maps were produced using ArcGIS-ArcMap, v. 9.1.Mississippi State UniversityFebruary 20082
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiGiant Salvinia and Hydrilla StatusPresence and absence of giant salvinia and hydrilla from 2005 to 2007 in the state ofMississippi are presented in Figures 1-3. To date in 2007, a total of 37 counties have beensurveyed including reservoirs, waterways and major rivers. Current known locations ofeach species with their respective geographic coordinates are reported in Table 1 and 2.Giant Salvinia Status1- Wedgeworth CreekThe giant salvinia population still persists in Wedgeworth Creek, Forrest County, MS.(Figure 3). It was found at the mouth of Wedgeworth Creek which drains into the LeafRiver (Figure 4). It is likely to spread into the Leaf River, so additional surveys in thefuture are warranted. Several tributaries south of Wedgeworth creek were surveyed, butgiant salvinia was not found. At the time of the survey, 100% coverage of giant salviniais still found under the bridge at Sims Road, representing a significant source of plantmaterial to spread (see cover sheet photo). Biological control agents, specificallyCyrtobagous salviniae, were introduced to this area in 2006 by the MississippiDepartment of Agriculture and Commerce to suppress giant salvinia growth. However,giant salvinia still persists along Wedgeworth creek. If possible, sites with giant salviniashould be treated with herbicide as soon as possible to prevent further spread.2- Pascagoula RiverAn extensive two-day survey was performed east and west of the Pascagoula River,including bayous and oxbows related to former known locations of giant salvinia in 2005.To date, giant salvinia has not been found in this water body. However, associatedaquatic plant species such as Pontederia cordata have been found in locations thatformerly had giant salvinia, indicating that water quality may not be a limiting growthfactor at these locations. It is suggested that giant salvinia may have been eradicated atthis location through a combination of the increased salinity and storm surge fromHurricane Katrina, and follow-up chemical control by the Mississippi Department ofMarine Resources. Further follow up surveys are warranted.Hydrilla Status1. Tennessee-Tombigbee WaterwayPopulations of hydrilla at lakes Columbus, Aberdeen, Aliceville, and Gainesville stillpersist and are well established. At all lakes, hydrilla is localized next to boat ramps andsmall coves. In 2006, hydrilla was reported locally in the northeastern portion of LakeColumbus (Robles et al. 2007). Currently, hydrilla has spread to the southeastern portionof the lake. It is suggested that a reason for its spread is the fact that waterhyacinth hasbeen under management using herbicides since 2005. Because shading of hydrilla byMississippi State UniversityFebruary 20083
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in Mississippiwaterhyacinth is no longer limiting its spread it is likely that hydrilla will becomewidespread over the next years.2. Ross Barnett ReservoirPopulations of hydrilla are located in the northern portion of the lake covering a total of407 acres. Since 2005, hydrilla has been under management using herbicides successfullylimiting its establishment. Although hydrilla still persists as individual plants andfragments, asexual propagules (e. g. tubers) have not been found (Wersal et al. 2007).Conclusions and RecommendationsGiant salvinia has already escaped into the Leaf River. Many southward tributariesrelated with the Leaf River located in Perry, Greene, George and Jackson counties havebeen surveyed, however, giant salvinia have not been found in any of them. Furthersurveys are recommended in order to monitor the establishment of giant salvinia insoutheast Mississippi. The giant salvinia population in the Pascagoula River deltareported in 2005 before Hurricane Katrina has not reestablished according to extensivesurveys in 2006 and 2007.Hydrilla still persists in Ross Barnett Reservoir and Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Atthe latter, the implementation of a hydrilla management plan it is highly recommended tosuppress hydrilla populations and prevent future spread to nearby water bodies. Thehydrilla population reported at the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge in 2006 (Robles etal. 2007) is no longer present due a continuous drawdown at Lake Loakfoma.Literature CitedAlbright, T. P., T. G. Morehouse, and T. J. McNabb. 2004. The rise and fall of waterhyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River basin, 1989-2001. Journal ofAquatic Plant Management 42:73-84.Madsen, J. D. 2005. Developing plans for managing invasive aquatic plants inMississippi water resources. 2005 Proceedings of the Mississippi WaterResources Conference, pp.143-151, Mississippi Water Resources ResearchInstitute, Mississippi State, MS.Oliver, J. D. 1993. A review of the biology of giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell).Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 31:227-231.Petr, T. 1993. Aquatic weeds and fisheries production in developing regions of theworld. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 31:5-13.Mississippi State UniversityFebruary 20084
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiRobles, W., J. D. Madsen, V. L. Maddox, R. M. Wersal. 2007. The Invasive Status ofGiant Salvinia and Hydrilla in Mississippi. 37th Annual Mississippi WaterResources Conference, 24-25 April 2007, Jackson, MS. CD-Rom. 109-113.Wersal, R. M., J. D. Madsen, M. L. Tagert. 2007. Aquatic Plant Survey within theLittoral Zone of the Ross Barnett Reservoir for 2006. GeoResources InstituteReport. GRI #5011.Contact Information:Dr. John D. MadsenMississippi State UniversityGeoResources InstituteBox 9652Mississippi State, MS 39759-9652Ph. 662-325-2428E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgMississippi State UniversityFebruary 20085
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiTable 1. Geographic coordinates with known giant salvinia populations in Mississippi.Water bodyNearest TownCountyLatitudeLongitudeWedgeworth pi State UniversityFebruary 20086
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiTable 2. Geographic coordinates with known hydrilla populations in Mississippi andAlabama.Water bodyNearest TownCountyLatitudeLongitudeLake ColumbusColumbusLowndesLake AberdeenLake AlicevilleAberdeenBrooksvillePickensville, ALMonroeNoxubeePickens, ALLake GainesvilleGainesvilleGreene, ALRoss 18979-89.947598-89.940565MadisonMississippi State UniversityFebruary 20087
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiFigure 1. Distribution of giant salvinia and hydrilla in 2005.Mississippi State UniversityFebruary 20088
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiFigure 2. Distribution of giant salvinia and hydrilla in 2006.Mississippi State UniversityFebruary 20089
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiFigure 3. Distribution of giant salvinia and hydrilla in 2007.Mississippi State UniversityFebruary 200810
2007 Statewide Survey of the Status of Giant Salvinia and Hydrilla in MississippiFigure 4. Mouth of Wedgeworth Creek, where giant salvinia was found in May 2007, asit drains into the Leaf River.Leaf RiverMouth ofWedgeworth CreekMississippi State UniversityFebruary 200811
propagate from stem fragments, turions, and subterranean tubers representing a triple threat for management methods. Both plants are listed as noxious weeds on both the Federal Noxious Weed List and the Noxious Weed List for the State of Mississippi. Implementation of monitoring
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Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.