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PROOF MARKS2149PROOF MARKSThe proof marks shown below will assist in determining nationality of manufacturers whenno other markings are evident. Since the U.S. has no proofing houses (as in England, France,Germany and other European countries), most U.S. manufacturers voluntarily proof theirfirearms with a specifed style of proofmark (i.e. the interlocked WPª synonymous with theWinchester trademark can be fired using modern smokeless powder) shells. Pre-1850 European firearms oftentimes do not exhibit any commercial proof marks and, with the exceptionof an occasional barrel address, they represent the single hardest bracket of firearms one canresearch properly. Captured weapons from major wars occasionally show two differentnationalities of proofmarks. This is acceptable since the gun was proofed in a national proofhouse after original manufacture and again when the gun was exported to a different countryas a military acquisition. Please refer to the References section in this text for proofmarksource information.AUSTRIAN PROOF MARKSPROOF MARKCIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNPROOF MARKSsince 1891Viennaprovisional proof for multi barrel gunssince 1891Ferlachprovisional proof for multi barrel guns1892-1918Pragueprovisional proof for rifles1892-1918Ferlachblack powder proof for rifles1892-1918Pragueblack powder proof for rifles1892-1918Weipertblack powder proof for rifles1892-1918Vienablack powder proof for rifles1918-1938Ferlachblack powder proof for rifles1918-1938Vienablack powder proof for rifles1938-1940Ferlachblack powder proof for rifles1938-1940Vienablack powder proof for riflessince 1945Viennablack powder proof for multi barrel gunssince 1945Ferlachblack powder proof for multi barrel gunssince 1891Bundesheerpreliminary proof for multi barrel guns

2150PROOF MARKS: AUSTRIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKCIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUN1891-1928Budapestsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistolsSince 1981Ferlachsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistols1891-1931Ferlachsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistolssince 1891Viennasmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistols1891-1931Weipertsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistolsPROOF MARKS: AUSTRIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.BELGIAN PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNPROOF MARKPROOF MARKS: BELGIAN PROOF MARKSMARKS, cont.since 1852Liegeprovisional black powder proof for breechloading guns and rifled barrels-Liege-double proof marking for unfurnishedbarrels-Liege-triple proof provisional marking forunfurnished barrelssince 1893-Liegedefinitive black powder proof for breechloading guns, small bore guns and handgunssince 1853LiegeView stamp and inspectors mark forfirearms "Perron"since 1924-LiegeNitro proof for rifled barrel and parabellumpistolssince 1852-Liegerifled arms defense for smokeless proofparabellum pistols--LiegeSuperior nitro proofPROOF MARKS: BELGIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKPROOF MARKS: BRITISH PROOF MARKS - ENGLAND, cont.BRITISH PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1856Londonprovisional proof for barrelssince 1856Birminghamprovisional proof for barrels

PROOF MARKS: BRITISH PROOF MARKS - ENGLAND, cont.PROOF MARKPROOF MARKS: BRITISH PROOF MARKS - ENGLAND, cont.2151CIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1637Londondefinitive black powder proof forshotguns,muzzle loader barrels1811-1892Liegeblack powder proof for rifles1897-1923Liegeblack powder proof for rifles1891-1968Liegetype EC. smokeless powder proof for rifles1898-1968Liegetype Pt. smokeless powder proof for rifles1898-1968Liegesmokeless powder proof for riflessince 1968Liegesmokeless powder proof for riflessince 1904Londondefinitive nitro proof for allguns - parabellum pistolssince 1954Birminghamdefinitive nitro proof for barrel and actionsince 1904Birminghamblack powder proof only for parabellumpistols1868-1925Londondefinitive special super power prooffor parabellum pistols1868-1925Birminghamvoluntary special black powder proof1868-1925Londonreproof marking for black powder rifles1868-1925Birminghamreproof marking for black powder rifles1868-1925Birminghamdefinitive black powder proof for shotgunssince 1904Birminghamdefinitive nitro proof for all gunssince 1670Londonview marksince 1904Birminghamview mark

2152PROOF MARKS: FRENCH PROOF MARKSPARIS HOUSEPROOF MARKS: FRENCH PROOF MARKSFRENCH PROOF MARKSST ETIENNE HOUSE CIRCA TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1897provisional proof unfinished shortbarreled guns1897standard proof for finished guns1897double proof finished and joinedbarrels1897single barrel proof fornon-assembled guns1897finished black powder gunssince 1962black powder proof for rifles1962-1972final black powder proof for rifles1926-1962final black powder proof for riflessince 1962final black powder proof for riflessince 1900smokeless powder proof for rifles1896-1926smokeless powder proof for rifles1896-1926smokeless powder proof for rifles1896-1926smokeless powder proof for rifles1900-1972smokeless powder proof for rifles1926-1972smokeless powder proof for rifles1962-1972final smokeless powder proof for riflessince 1962final smokeless powder proof for riflessince 1982final smokeless powder proof for rifles

PROOF MARKS: FRENCH PROOF MARKS, cont.PARIS HOUSEST ETIENNE HOUSECIRCA2153TYPE OF PROOF AND GUN1897special proof for finished guns1897ordinary smokeless powder proof1897superior smokeless powder prooPROOF MARKS: FRENCH PROOF MARKS, cont.GERMAN PROOF MARKSPROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS,MARKS cont.PROOF MARKResearch continues for the inclusion of Pre-1950 German Proofmarks.CIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1952Ulmsince 1968Hannoversince 1968Kiel (W. German)since 1968Munichsince 1968Cologne (W. German)since 1968Berlin (W. German)since 1952Ulmvoluntary proof for hand/long gunssince 1952Ulmrepair proof for major gun partssince 1952Ulmprovisional black powder for shotgun& multi barreled riflessince 1952Ulmdefinitive nitro proof for all gunssince 1952Ulmdefinitive black powder for smokelessammo gunssince 1952UlmFlobert for special purpose guns signal,flare, gas, & stun gunssince 1945E. German, Suhlsmokeless powder proofsince 1950E. German, Suhl1st black powder proof for rifled barrelssince 1950E. German, Suhlnitro powder proof

2154PROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKCIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1950E. German, Suhlrepair proofsince 1950E. German, Suhl1st black powder proof for smoothbored barrelssince 1950E. German, Suhlinspection marksince 1950E. German, Suhlchoke-bore barrel markPROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKPROOF MARKS: ITALIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.ITALIAN PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1951Bresciaprovisional proof for all gunssince 1951Gardoneprovisional proof for all gunssince 1951Gardone & Bresciadefinitive proof for guns withsmokeless powdersince 1951Gardone & Bresciafinish proof for firearms ready for salesince 1951Gardone & Brescia1st black powder proofPROOF MARKS: ITALIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKPROOF MARKS: SPANISH PROOF MARKS, cont.SPANISH PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSETYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1910Eibarprovisional black powder proof for shotgunssince 1910Eibartemporary black powder proof for shotgunssince 1910Eibarfinal black powder proof for breech loadingshotgunssince 1910Eibarfinal smokeless powder proof for breechloading shotgunssince 1910Eibarre-enforced smokeless powder proof forbreech loading shotgunssince 1910Eibarprovisional proof for shotgunssince 1910Eibarfinal black powder proof for breech loadingshotgun

PROOF MARKS: SPANISH PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKPROOF MARKS:MARKS, SPANISHcont.PROOF MARKS, cont.CIRCAPROOF HOUSE2155TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1923Eibarfinal and single black powder proof fordouble barreled muzzle loading shotunsince 1923Eibarfinal and single black powder proof for singlebarrel smooth bored breechloading gunssince 1923Eibarfinal black powder proof for double barreledbreechloading riflessince 1923Eibarfinal black powder proof for single barrelbreechloading riflessince 1923Eibarreinforced voluntary proof for single prooffor single and double barrel shotgunssince 1923Eibarfinal proof of military-style riflesince 1923Eibarsingle and final proof of non-self loadingpistolssince 1923Eibarsingle and final proof for self loading pistolsand revolverssince 1929Eibaradmission proof for guns with old markssince 1929Eibarproof used in Barcelona for guns with oldmarkssince 1929Eibarfinal proof for revolversince 1929Eibarproof for semiautomatic pistolssince 1929Eibarspecial manufacturer's mark for guns madefor foreign salessince 1929Eibarsmokeless proof for shotgun barrelssince 1929Eibarreinforced smokeless proof for shotgunbarrels

2154 PROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS, cont. PROOF MARK CIRCA PROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUN since 1950 E. German, Suhl repair proof since 1950 E. German, Suhl 1st black powder proof for smooth bored barrels since 1950 E. German, Suhl inspection mark since 1950 E. German, Suhl choke-bore barrel mark PROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS, cont.

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