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PROOF MARKS2357PROOF MARKSPROOF MARKSThe proof marks shown below will assist in determining nationality of manufacturers when no othermarkings are evident. Since the U.S. has no proofing houses (as in England, France, Germany andother European countries), most U.S. manufacturers voluntarily proof their firearms with a specifedstyle of proofmark (i.e. the interlocked WPª synonymous with the Winchester trademark canbe fired using modern smokeless powder) shells. Pre-1850 European firearms oftentimes do notexhibit any commercial proof marks and, with the exception of an occasional barrel address, theyrepresent the single hardest category of firearms one can research properly. Captured weaponsfrom major wars occasionally show two different nationalities of proof marks. This is acceptablesince the gun was proofed in a national proof house after original manufacture and again when thegun was exported to a different country as a military acquisition. Please refer to the Referencessection in this text for proof mark source information.PROOF MARKAUSTRIAN PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1891Viennaprovisional proof for multi barrel gunssince 1891Ferlachprovisional proof for multi barrel guns1892-1918Pragueprovisional proof for rifles1892-1918Ferlachblack powder proof for rifles1892-1918Pragueblack powder proof for rifles1892-1918Weipertblack powder proof for rifles1892-1918Viennablack powder proof for rifles1918-1938Ferlachblack powder proof for rifles1918-1938Viennablack powder proof for rifles1938-1940Ferlachblack powder proof for rifles1938-1940Viennablack powder proof for riflessince 1945Viennablack powder proof for multi barrel gunssince 1945Ferlachblack powder proof for multi barrel gunssince 1891Bundesheerpreliminary proof for multi barrel guns

2358PROOF MARKS: AUSTRIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKCIRCAPROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUN1891-1928Budapestsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistolsSince 1981Ferlachsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistols1891-1931Ferlachsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistolssince 1891Viennasmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistols1891-1931Weipertsmokeless powder proof for parabellumpistolsPROOF MARKS: AUSTRIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.MARKS cont.PROOF MARKS: BELGIAN PROOF MARKS,PROOF MARKBELGIAN PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1852Liegeprovisional black powder proof for breechloading guns and rifled barrelsLiegedouble proof marking for unfurnishedbarrelsLiegetriple proof provisional marking forunfurnished barrelssince 1893-Liegedefinitive black powder proof for breechloading guns, small bore guns and handgunssince 1853LiegeView stamp and inspectors mark forfirearms "Perron"since 1924-LiegeNitro proof for rifled barrel and parabellumpistolssince 1852-Liege--Liegerifled arms defense for smokeless proofparabellum pistolsSuperior nitro proofPROOF MARKS: BELGIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKS: BRITISH PROOF MARKS - ENGLAND, cont.PROOF MARKBRITISH PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1856Londonprovisional proof for barrels

PROOF MARKS: BRITISH PROOF MARKS - ENGLAND, cont.PROOF MARKCIRCAsince 18562359PROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNBirminghamsince 1637Londonprovisional proof for barrelsdefinitive black powder proof forshotguns,muzzle loader barrels1811-1892Liegeblack powder proof for rifles1897-1923Liegeblack powder proof for rifles1891-1968Liegetype EC. smokeless powder proof for rifles1898-1968Liegetype Pt. smokeless powder proof for rifles1898-1968Liegesmokeless powder proof for riflessince 1968Liegesmokeless powder proof for riflessince 1904Londonsince 1954Birminghamdefinitive nitro proof for allguns - parabellum pistolsdefinitive nitro proof for barrel and actionsince 1904Birminghamblack powder proof only for parabellumpistols1868-1925Londondefinitive special super power prooffor parabellum pistols1868-1925Birminghamvoluntary special black powder proof1868-1925Londonreproof marking for black powder rifles1868-1925Birminghamreproof marking for black powder rifles1868-1925Birminghamdefinitive black powder proof for shotgunssince 1904Birminghamdefinitive nitro proof for all gunssince 1670Londonview marksince 1904Birminghamview mark

2360PROOF MARKS: BRITISH PROOF MARKS - ENGLAND, cont.PROOF MARKS: BRITISH PROOF MARKS - ENGLAND, cont.FRENCH PROOF MARKSPROOF MARKS: FRENCH PROOF MARKSPARIS HOUSEST ETIENNE HOUSE CIRCATYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1897provisional proof unfinished shortbarreled gunsstandard proof for finished guns18971897double proof finished and joinedbarrels1897single barrel proof fornon-assembled guns1897finished black powder gunssince 1962black powder proof for rifles1962-1972final black powder proof for rifles1926-1962final black powder proof for riflessince 1962final black powder proof for riflessince 1900smokeless powder proof for rifles1896-1926smokeless powder proof for rifles1896-1926smokeless powder proof for rifles1896-1926smokeless powder proof for rifles1900-1972smokeless powder proof for rifles1926-1972smokeless powder proof for rifles1962-1972final smokeless powder proof for riflessince 1962final smokeless powder proof for riflessince 1982final smokeless powder proof for rifles

PROOF MARKS: FRENCH PROOF MARKS, cont.PARIS HOUSE ST ETIENNE HOUSECIRCA2361TYPE OF PROOF AND GUN1897special proof for finished guns1897ordinary smokeless powder proof1897superior smokeless powder prooPROOF MARKS: FRENCH PROOF MARKS, cont.GERMAN PROOF MARKSMARKS cont.PROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS,Research continues for the inclusion of Pre-1950 German Proofmarks.PROOF MARKCIRCAPROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1952Ulmsince 1968Hannoversince 1968Kiel (W. German)since 1968Munichsince 1968Cologne (W. German)since 1968Berlin (W. German)since 1952Ulmvoluntary proof for hand/long gunssince 1952Ulmrepair proof for major gun partssince 1952Ulmsince 1952Ulmprovisional black powder for shotgun& multi barreled riflesdefinitive nitro proof for all gunssince 1952Ulmdefinitive black powder for smokelessammo gunssince 1952UlmFlobert for special purpose guns signal,flare, gas, & stun gunssince 1945E. German, Suhlsmokeless powder proofsince 1950E. German, Suhl1st black powder proof for rifled barrelssince 1950E. German, Suhlnitro powder proof

2362PROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKCIRCAsince 1950PROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNE. German, Suhlsince 1950E. German, Suhlrepair proof1st black powder proof for smoothbored barrelssince 1950E. German, Suhlinspection marksince 1950E. German, Suhlchoke-bore barrel markPROOF MARKS: GERMAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKS: ITALIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKITALIAN PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1951Bresciaprovisional proof for all gunssince 1951Gardoneprovisional proof for all gunssince 1951Gardone & Bresciadefinitive proof for guns withsmokeless powdersince 1951Gardone & Bresciafinish proof for firearms ready for salesince 1951Gardone & Brescia1st black powder proofPROOF MARKS: ITALIAN PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKS: SPANISH PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKSPANISH PROOF MARKSCIRCAPROOF HOUSE TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1910Eibarprovisional black powder proof for shotgunssince 1910Eibartemporary black powder proof for shotgunssince 1910Eibarfinal black powder proof for breech loadingshotgunssince 1910Eibarfinal smokeless powder proof for breechloading shotgunssince 1910Eibarreinforced smokeless powder proof forbreech loading shotgunssince 1910Eibarprovisional proof for shotgunssince 1910Eibarfinal black powder proof for breech loadingshotgun

PROOF MARKS: SPANISH PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKCIRCAPROOF HOUSE2363TYPE OF PROOF AND GUNsince 1923Eibarfinal and single black powder proof fordouble barreled muzzle loading shotunsince 1923Eibarfinal and single black powder proof for singlebarrel smooth bored breechloading gunssince 1923Eibarfinal black powder proof for double barreledbreechloading riflessince 1923Eibarfinal black powder proof for single proofbreechloading riflessince 1923Eibarreinforced voluntary prooffor single and double barrel shotgunssince 1923Eibarfinal proof of military-style riflesince 1923Eibarsingle and final proof of non-self loadingpistolssince 1923Eibarsince 1929Eibarsingle and final proof for self loading pistolsand revolversadmission proof for guns with old markssince 1929Eibarproof used in Barcelona for guns with oldmarkssince 1929Eibarfinal proof for revolversince 1929Eibarproof for semiautomatic pistolssince 1929Eibarsince 1929Eibarspecial manufacturer's mark for guns madefor foreign salessmokeless proof for shotgun barrelssince 1929Eibarreinforced smokeless proof for shotgunbarrelsMARKS: cont.SPANISH PROOF MARKS, cont.PROOF MARKS,

PROOF MARKS: BELGIAN PROOF MARKSPROOF MARKS: BELGIAN PROOF MARKS, cont. BELGIAN PROOF MARKS PrOOF mark CirCa PrOOF hOuse tYPe OF PrOOF and gun since 1852 Liege provisional black powder proof for breech loading guns and rifled barrels - Liege- double proof marking for unfurnished barrels - Liege- triple proof provisional marking for

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