The Political System Of The European Union, Second Edition

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The Political System ofthe European Union,Second EditionSimon Hix

THE EUROPEAN UNION SERIESGeneral Editors: Neill Nugent, William E. Paterson, Vincent WrightThe European Union series provides an authoritative library on the European Union,ranging from general introductory texts to definitive assessments of key institutions andactors, issues, policies and policy processes, and the role of member states.Books in the series are written by leading scholars in their fields and reflect the most upto-date research and debate. Particular attention is paid to accessibility and clear presentationfor a wide audience of students, practitioners, and interested general readers.The series editors are Neill Nugent, Professor of Politics and Jean Monnet Professor ofEuropean Integration, Manchester Metropolitan University, and William E. Paterson,Director of the Institute of German Studies, University of Birmingham.Their co-editor until his death in July 1999, Vincent Wright, was a Fellow of NuffieldCollege, Oxford University. He played an immensely valuable role in the founding anddevelopment of The European Union Series and is greatly missed.Feedback on the series and book proposals are always welcome and should be sent toSteven Kennedy, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, UK,or by e-mail to s.kennedy@palgrave.comGeneral textbooksPublishedDesmond Dinan Encyclopedia of the EuropeanUnion [Rights: Europe only]Desmond Dinan Europe Recast: A History ofEuropean Union [Rights: Europe only]Desmond Dinan Ever Closer Union: AnIntroduction to European Integration (3rd edn)[Rights: Europe only]Simon Hix The Political System of the EuropeanUnion (2nd edn)Paul Magnette What is the European Union?Nature and ProspectsJohn McCormick Understanding the EuropeanUnion: A Concise Introduction (3rd edn)Brent F. Nelsen and Alexander Stubb TheEuropean Union: Readings on the Theory andPractice of European Integration (3rd edn)[Rights: Europe only]Series Standing Order (outside North America only)ISBN 0–333–71695–7 hardcoverISBN 0–333–69352–3 paperbackFull details from www.palgrave.comNeill Nugent (ed.) European Union EnlargementNeill Nugent The Government and Politics of theEuropean Union (5th edn)[Rights: World excluding USA and dependencies and Canada]John Peterson and Elizabeth Bomberg Decisionmaking in the European UnionBen Rosamond Theories of European IntegrationForthcomingLaurie Buonanno and Neill Nugent Policies andPolicy Processes of the European UnionMette Eilstrup Sangiovanni (ed.) Debates onEuropean Integration: A ReaderPhilippa Sherrington Understanding EuropeanUnion GovernanceAlso plannedThe Political Economy of the European UnionVisit Palgrave Macmillan’sEU Resource area atwww.palgrave.com/politics/eu/

The major institutions and actorsPublishedRenaud Dehousse The European Court of JusticeJustin Greenwood Interest Representation in theEuropean UnionFiona Hayes-Renshaw and Helen WallaceThe Council of MinistersSimon Hix and Christopher Lord Political Partiesin the European UnionDavid Judge and David Earnshaw The EuropeanParliamentNeill Nugent The European CommissionAnne Stevens with Handley StevensBrussels Bureaucrats? The Administration ofthe European UnionForthcomingSimon Bulmer and Wolfgang Wessels TheEuropean CouncilStephen Keukeleire and Jennifer MacNaughtan TheForeign Policy of the European UnionJames Mitchell and Paul McAleavey Regionalismand Regional Policy in the European UnionJörg Monar Justice and Home Affairs in theEuropean UnionJohn Vogler, Richard Whitman and Charlotte BrethertonThe External Policies of the European UnionAlso plannedDefence Policy in the European UnionPolitical UnionThe member states and the UnionPublishedCarlos Closa and Paul Heywood Spain and theEuropean UnionAlain Guyomarch, Howard Machin and Ella RitchieFrance in the European UnionForthcomingThe main areas of policyPublishedMichelle Cini and Lee McGowan CompetitionPolicy in the European UnionWyn Grant The Common Agricultural PolicyMartin Holland The European Union and the ThirdWorldBrigid Laffan The Finances of theEuropean UnionMalcolm Levitt and Christopher Lord The PoliticalEconomy of Monetary UnionJanne Haaland Matláry Energy Policy in theEuropean UnionJohn McCormick Environmental Policy in theEuropean UnionJohn Peterson and Margaret Sharp TechnologyPolicy in the European UnionHandley Stevens Transport Policy in the EuropeanUnionForthcomingLaura Cram Social Policy in the European UnionBart Kerremans, David Allen and Geoffrey EdwardsThe External Economic Relations of the EuropeanUnionSimon Bulmer and William E. Paterson Germany andthe European UnionPhil Daniels and Ella Ritchie Britain and the EuropeanUnionBrigid Laffan The European Union and its MemberStatesLuisa Perrotti Italy and the European UnionBaldur Thorhallson Small States in the European UnionIssuesPublishedDerek Beach The Dynamics of EuropeanIntegration: Why and When EU Institutions MatterForthcomingThomas Christiansen and Christine RehConstitutionalizing the European UnionSteven McGuire and Michael Smith The USA andthe European UnionAlso plannedEuropeanization and National Politics

The Political System ofthe European UnionSecond EditionSimon Hix

Simon Hix 1999, 2005All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of thispublication may be made without written permission.No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmittedsave with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of theCopyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licencepermitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency,90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP.Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publicationmay be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.The author has asserted his right to be identified as the author of thiswork in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.First edition 1999Second edition 2005Published byPALGRAVE MACMILLANHoundmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010Companies and representatives throughout the worldPALGRAVE MACMILLAN is the global academic imprint of the PalgraveMacmillan division of St. Martin’s Press, LLC and of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.Macmillan is a registered trademark in the United States, United Kingdomand other countries. Palgrave is a registered trademark in the EuropeanUnion and other countries.ISBN-13: 9780333–96181–0ISBN-10: 0333–96181–1ISBN-13: 9780333–96182–7ISBN-10: This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fullymanaged and sustained forest sources.A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataHix, Simon.The political system of European Union / Simon Hix. — 2nd ed.p. cm. — (The European Union series)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-333–96181–1 (cloth) — ISBN 0–333–96182–X (pbk.)1. European Union. I. Title. II. Series.JN30.H5 2005341.242'2—dc2212 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 315 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06Printed and bound in China2004056955

For Ben and Ruthcitizens of the EU and the US

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ContentsList of Tables and FiguresxivPreface to the Second EditionxviiPreface to the First EditionxviiiList of Abbreviations1Introduction: Explaining the EU Political System1The EU: a Political System but not a StateHow the EU Political System WorksActors, Institutions and Outcomes: the Basics of ModernPolitical ScienceTheories of European Integration and EU PoliticsAllocation of Policy Competences in the EU: a‘Constitutional Settlement’Structure of the Book25PART I2xxi9141823GOVERNMENTExecutive Politics27Theories of Executive Power, Delegation and DiscretionGovernment by the Council and the Member StatesTreaties and treaty reforms: deliberate and unintendeddelegationThe European Council: EU policy leadership andthe ‘open method of coordination’National coordination of EU policy: ‘fusion’and ‘Europeanization’Government by the CommissionA cabinet: the EU core executiveA bureaucracy: the EU civil serviceRegulators: the EU quangosComitology: Interface of the EU Dual ExecutiveThe committee proceduresInterinstitutional conflict in the choice and operation ofthe proceduresDemocratic Control of the EU ExecutivePolitical accountability: selection and censure of theCommission2731vii323538404146495253535959

viiiContentsAdministrative accountability: parliamentary scrutiny andtransparencyExplaining the Organization of Executive Power in the EUDemand for EU government: selective delegationby the member statesSupply of EU government: Commission preferences,entrepreneurship and captureConclusion: the Politics of a Dual Executive346265656769Legislative Politics72Theories of Legislative Coalitions and OrganizationDevelopment of the Legislative System of the EULegislative Politics in the CouncilAgenda organization: the presidency, sectoral councils andcommitteesVoting and coalition politics in the CouncilLegislative Politics in the European ParliamentMEP behaviour: reelection versus promotion and policiesAgenda organization: leaderships, parties and committeesCoalition formationLegislative Bargaining between the Council and the EPTheoretical models of EU bicameralismEmpirical evidence of EP powerConclusion: Complex but Familiar Politics72767980838989909699103106109Judicial Politics111Political Theories of Constitutions and Courts111The EU Legal System and the European Court of Justice115Composition and operation of the European Court ofJustice117Jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice119Constitutionalization of the European Union121Direct effect: EU law as the law of the land for nationalcitizens121Supremacy: EU law as the higher law of the land122Integration through law, and economic constitutionalism123State-like properties: external sovereignty and internalcoercion124Kompetenz-Kompetenz: judicial review of competenceconflicts126Penetration of EU Law into National Legal Systems128Quantitative: national courts’ use of ECJ preliminary rulings 128Qualitative: national courts’ acceptance of the EU legalsystem131

ContentsExplanations of EU Judicial PoliticsLegal formalism and legal culturesActivism by the European Court of JusticeStrategic national courts: judicial empowerment andintercourt competitionPrivate interests: the other interlocutors of the ECJStrategic member state governmentsConclusion: Unknown Destination or Emerging Equilibrium?PART II567ix134134136137138140142POLITICSPublic Opinion147Theories of the Social Bases of PoliticsPublic Support for the European Union: End of thePermissive ConsensusMore or Less Integration: Europe Right or Wrong?National divisionsTransnational conflicts: class interestsOther transnational divisions: age, education, gender,religion and elite versus massWhat the EU Should Do: Europe Right or Left?The Electoral Connection: Putting the Two DimensionsTogetherConclusion: the EU as a Plural Society147149151152157161166170173Democracy, Parties and Elections175Democracy: Choosing Parties, Leaders and PoliciesThe ‘Democratic Deficit’ DebateParties: Competition and OrganizationNational parties and EuropeParties at the European levelElections: EP Elections and EU ReferendumsEP elections: national or European contests?Referendums on EU membership and treaty reformsTowards a More Democratic EU?A more majoritarian and/or powerful parliamentElection of the Commission: parliamentary or presidential?Conclusion: Towards Democratic EU erest Representation208Theories of Interest Group PoliticsLobbying Europe: Interest Groups and EU Policy-MakingBusiness interests: the large firm as a political actorTrade unions, public interests and social movementsTerritorial interests: at the heart of multilevel governance208211213216220

xContentsNational Interests and the Consociational CartelExplaining the Pattern of Interest RepresentationDemand for representation: globalization andEuropeanizationSupply of access: policy expertise and legislative bargainingConclusion: a Mix of Representational StylesPART III89223225225227230POLICY-MAKINGRegulation of the Single Market235Theories of RegulationDeregulation via Negative Integration: the Single Marketand Competition PoliciesThe single marketCompetition policiesNew liberalization methods: the open method ofcoordination and the Lamfalussy processThe impact of deregulatory policies: liberalization andregulatory competitionReregulation via Positive Integration: Environmental andSocial PoliciesEnvironmental policySocial policyThe EU reregulatory regime: between harmonization andvoluntarismExplaining EU Regulatory PoliciesThe demand for regulation: intergovernmental bargainingThe demand for regulation: private interests and EuropluralismThe supply of regulation: policy entrepreneurship, ideasand decision framingInstitutional constraints: legislative rules and politicalstructureConclusion: Neoliberalism Meets the Social 7269Expenditure Policies271Theories of Public Expenditure and RedistributionThe Budget of the European UnionRevenue and the own-resources systemExpenditureThe annual budget procedure: ‘the power of the purse’The Common Agricultural PolicyObjectives and operation of the CAPProblems with the CAP271275276277278281281283

ContentsReform of the CAP: towards a new type of (welfare)policyMaking agricultural policy: can the iron triangle bebroken?Cohesion PolicyOperation of the policyImpact: a supply-side policy with uncertain convergenceimplicationsMaking cohesion policy: Commission, governments andregionsOther internal policiesResearch and developmentInfrastructureSocial integration and a European civil societyExplaining EU Expenditure PoliciesIntergovernmental bargaining: national cost–benefitcalculationsPrivate interests: farmers, regions, scientists and‘Euro-pork’Commission entrepreneurship: promoting multilevelgovernanceInstitutional rules: unanimity, majority, agenda-settingand the balanced-budget ruleConclusion: a Set of Linked Welfare 3304305307Economic and Monetary Union309The Political Economy of Monetary UnionDevelopment of Economic and Monetary Union in EuropeThe Delors ReportThe Maastricht Treaty designWho qualifies? Fudging the convergence criteriaResolving other issues: appeasing the unhappy FrenchgovernmentExplaining Economic and Monetary UnionEconomic rationality: economic integration and a coreoptimal currency areaInterstate bargaining: a Franco-German dealAgenda-setting by non-state interests: the Commissionand central bankersThe power of ideas: the monetarist policy consensusMonetary and Economic Policy in EMUIndependence of the ECB: establishing credibility andreputationECB decision-making in the setting of interest rates309313313314316319320320323325326328328331

xii1112ContentsInflation targets: ECB-EcoFin relationsNational fiscal policies: the Stability and Growth PactEuropean fiscal policies: budget transfers and taxharmonizationLabour market flexibility: mobility, structural reformsand wage agreementsThe external impact of EMUConclusion: the Need for Policy Coordination333334Citizen Freedom and Security Policies344Theories of Citizenship and the StateEU Freedom and Security PoliciesFrom free movement of workers to ‘an area of freedom,security and justice’Free movement of personsFundamental rights and freedomsImmigration and asylum policiesPolice and judicial cooperationExplaining EU Freedom and Security PoliciesExogenous pressure: growing international migrationand crimeGovernment interests: from high politics to regulatoryfailure and voters’ demandsBureaucrats’ strategies: bureau-shaping and the controlparadigmSupranational entrepreneurship: supplying credibilityand accountabilityConclusion: Skeleton of a Pan-European 369372Foreign Policies374Theories of International Relations and Political EconomyExternal Economic Policies: Free Trade, Not ‘FortressEurope’The pattern of EU tradeThe Common Commercial PolicyMultilateral trade agreements: GATT and the WTOBilateral preferential trade agreementsDevelopment policies: aid and trade in ‘everything butarms’External Political Relations: Towards an EU Foreign PolicyDevelopment of foreign policy cooperation anddecision-makingPolicy success and failure: haunted by the capabilityexpectations gap374378378379382384385387387393

Contents13xiiiExplaining the Foreign Policies of the EUGlobal economic and geopolitical (inter)dependenceIntransigent national security identities and interestsDomestic economic interests: EU governments andmultinational firmsInstitutional rules: decision-making procedures andCommission agenda-settingConclusion: a ‘Soft Superpower’?395396398Conclusion: Rethinking the European Union406What Political Science Teaches Us About the EUOperation of government, politics and policy-making inthe EUConnections between government, politics and policymaking in the EUWhat the EU Teaches Us About Political Science406400402404406409412Appendix: Decision-Making Procedures in the European Union415Bibliography422Index475

List of Tables and 7.38.1Basic data on current and prospective EU member statesAllocation of policy competences in the EU and USThe Barroso CommissionThe Commission presidentsPolitical careers of commissionersThe Commission bureaucracy under the Prodi CommissionAutonomous executive agencies of the EUHow comitology worksActivities of the implementing committeesFrequency of sectoral council meetings, 1986–2000Voting weights and voting power in the CouncilSeats in the European Parliament, July 2004Work of the EP committees in the 1994–99 parliamentEP party voting power under simple and absolutemajoritiesNumber of Article 234 references, by member stateProportion of Article 234 references, by subject matterNon-compliance cases brought before the ECJ, 1972–93Nationality and European integrationSocial class and European integrationOther transnational social divisions and EuropeanintegrationComparison of elite and mass support for EuropeanintegrationLeft–right location and support for EU policy competencesElectoral strength of parties and political blocsStrength of parties in the EU institutionsParty cohesion in the European ParliamentThe ‘second-order election’ effect in EuropeanParliament electionsReferendums on European integrationTypes and number of interest groups at the Europeanlevel, c. 2001Regions and localities with offices in Brussels, 2004MEPs’ contacts with interest groups, by party group, 2000The single market scoreboard, 1997 and 164165169182188189195198212221229242

List of Tables and .212.1Treaty bases and decision procedures for EU sociallegislationWealth and government expenditure in the EU andelsewhere, 1994–2004EU budget, financial perspective, 2000–6The annual budget cycleThe changing status of agriculture in the member states,1970–2000/1Member state receipts from cohesion policy, 2000–6Expenditure on other internal policies, 2004Qualification for economic and monetary union, byconvergence criterionTrade integration in the EU and openness to theworld economy, 1994–2001Productivity, labour costs and unemployment in the EUThe euro in the global economyMinorities and migrants in the EUSurvey on whether freedom and security policies shouldbe decided at the national or the EU levelExternal trade of the 46.16.28.1The EU political systemBureaucratic drift by the European CommissionControlling bureaucratic drift by re

Ben Rosamond Theories of European Integration Forthcoming Laurie Buonanno and Neill Nugent Policies and Policy Processes of the European Union Mette Eilstrup Sangiovanni (ed.) Debates on European Integration: A Reader Philippa Sherrington Understanding European Union Governance Also planned The Political Economy of the European Union SeriesStanding Order (outside North America only) ISBN 0 .

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