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DOCUMENT RESUMEED 089 498EC 061 442TITLEDale Avenue School Early Childhood Education CenterProject. Research Bulletin, Volume I, No. 4,INSTITUTIONSPONS AGENCYPaterson Board of Education, N.J.Bureau of Elementary and Secondary EducationPUB DATENOTE71EDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORSMF- 0.75 HC- 4.20 PLUS POSTAGE*Culturally Disadvantaged; Disadvantaged Youth;*Early Childhood Education; *Exceptional ChildResearch; Performance Factors; *Program Evaluation;*TestingElementary Secondary Education Act Title III; ESEATitle III; Paterson (New Jersey)1970-71.(DREW /OE), Washington, D.C.IDENTIFIERS77p.; For related information see EC 061439 throughEC 061441, and EC 061443 through EC 061449rABSTRACTReported are results of a 1-year educationalintervention program for 120 pre-kindergarten and 120 kindergartenaged culturally disadvantaged children in Paterson, New Jersey.Described are the three experimental and five control groups whichcontrasted advantaged with disadvantaged children, and groups usingthe staff developed set of performance objectives with groups notusing the performance objectives. Defined are the terms culturallydisadvantaged and culturally advantaged. Explained is program use ofthe following tests: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the SkillAssessment Tests (at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten levels), theIdentity and Body Parts Tests (also at both levels), and the Anne E.Boehm Test (a group test of basic concepts). Use of the PerformanceObjectives Record, an aid for diagnostic teaching, is described.Provided are the statistical data which led to the followingconclusions: project children showed significant gains on all testsfar exceeding gains of the disadvantaged groups, project childrendecreased the gap between their scores and scores of advantagedchildren, parents approved of the project (as shown by questionnaireresults), groups using the performance objectives scored higher thangroups not using the performance objectives, and program success waspositively affected by the low student-teacher ratio and immediatefeedback to teacher of testing results. (DB)

CODALE AVENUE SCHOOLCOPATERSON, NEW JERSEYA TITLE III E.S.E.A. PROJECTPATERSON BOARD OF EDUCATIONU.S. DEPARTME NT OF HEALTH,EDUCATION I WELFARENATIONAL INSTITUTE OFEDUCATIONTHIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROMTHE PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORILiNATiNG IT POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONSSTATED DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OFEDUCATION POSITION OR POLICYRESEARCH BULLETIN1970VOLUME I- 1971NO. 4

THE PATERSON BOARD OF EDUCATIONLeonard R. JacobyPresidentRev. Louis M. RichardsonVice PresidentGilbert CollazoRonald J. FrederickDonald GreenspanMrs. Ruth HirshbergRev. Robert KirchgessnerMrs. Marian M. RauschenbachLeon WilsonDr. Michael GioiaSuperintendentJoseph W. GoldbergAssistantSuperintendentDr. Norman S. WeirAssistantSuperintendentCharles J. RileySecretary/BusinessAdministratorRobert P. SwartzAssistant SecretaryCounselMrs. Vera P. ThompsonDirector of FundedPrograms

iiTITLE III STAFFMrs. Helen B. HansonDirector-Title IIIMrs. Rita GavzyResearch DirectorMr. Charles PachellaPsychometricianMrs. Rhoda Schenberg . Tester/SupplementaInstructorMiss Marion LippaTester/SupplementaInstructorMrs. Gilda WalshAudiologistMrs. Anna TaliaferroParent CoordinatorMiss Charlene VigoritoSecretaryCONSULTANT STAFFMr. Peter J. WildPrincipal, DaleAvenue SchoolMr. Joseph HeitzmanAssistant Directorof Funded ProgramsMiss Harriet GibbsDirector of PreKindergarten, DaleAvenue School

iiiTITLE III COMMUNITY ADVISORY COMMITTEEDr. Michael GioiaSuperintendent ofSchoolsMr. Leonard JacobyPresident, Board ofEducationRev. Louis Richardson.Vice President,Board of EducationDr. Norman S. WeirAssistant Superintendent of SchoolsMr. Joseph Goldberg.Assistant Superintendent of SchoolsMr. Charles J. Riley.Secretary-BusinessAdministrator, Boardof EducationRev. John CarrollAssistant Superintendent, PatersonDiocesan SchoolsMr. John BellDirector, ModelCitiesMrs. Hilda ConnAssistant Director,Model CitiesMr. Willie SweetAdvisory Committee,Model CitiesMr. James AdamsConsultant, ModelCitiesMr. Fred WilkesExecutive Director,Paterson Task ForceMr. Aaron P. Braverman.President, PatersonTask Force

ivMrs. Cecile DickeyActing Director,Head StartMr. Gilbert BensonExecutive Director,Planned ParenthoodMr. Harold SimonPresident, PatersonAdministrator'sAssociationMr. James Comerford.President, PatersonPrincipal's AssociationMrs. Ruth FriedmanPaterson EducationAssociationMrs. Roberta CohenPresident, KindergartenAssociationMrs. Mary OliverPresident, NationalCouncil of Negro WomenMrs. Josephine Chamber. President, PatersonCouncil of P.T.A.'sMr. Anthony Carbone.Trustee, PatersonCouncil of P.T.A.'sMrs. Sarah JacksonPresident, FollowThrough AdvisoryCommitteeDean Harry T. Gumaer.Dean of ProfessionalPrograms,WilliamPaterson CollegeDr. Edward WardChairman, Departmentof Education, WilliamPaterson CollegeProfessor Alice Meeker.William Paterson College

VMr. Peter J. WildPrincipal, DAECEC*Miss Harriet GibbsDirector, PreKindergarten,DAECEC*Mrs. Helen HansonProject Director,Title III, DAECEC*Mrs. Rita GavzyResearch Director,Title III, DAECEC*Mrs. Marie O'MaraPsychologist,DAECEC*Mrs. Vera P. ThompsonDirector of FundedProgramsMr. Joseph HeitzmanMr. Reginald Brown.Assistant Directorof Funded ProgramsSocial Worker- Coordinator DAECEC** Dale Avenue Early Childhood EducationCenter

viDALE AVENUE TITLE IIIPARENT ADVISORY COMMITTEEMrs. Anna TaliaferroMrs. Eliza BickleyMr. Frank CampbellMr. John CabarcasMrs. Barbara ChaseMr. Charles CouncilMrs. Lucia CourtneyMrs. Mary DawsonMr. Harold FosterMr. Ian D. HalsMrs. Ann HolmesMrs. Carnilla JeterMrs. Sandra KirklandMr. Robinson MendozaMrs. Henrietta YoungMrs. Awilda Torres

vii.TABLE OF CONTENTSpageI.Description of Population Studied 1-7A. Pre- Kindergarten Children(Pre-K)II.III.2-3B. Kindergarten ChildrenC. Pupil SelectionD. Control Groups4Definitions of Terms Used8-9Rationale of the Testing Program 10-16A. Peabody Picture VocabularyTest (P.P.V.T.)B. Skill Assessment. TestC. Identity and Body Parts TestD. Anne E. Boehm Test of BasicConcepts1. Performance Objective Record(P.O.R.)IV.1415-1617-56A. Glossary of Terms ndergarten (P.P.V.T.)Pre-K Mental AgePre-K Mental Age GainsKindergarten Mental AgeKindergarten Mental Age GainsPre-K Skill Assessment TestKindergarten Skill AssessmentTestJ. Pre-K Identity and Body PartsTestK. Kindergarten- Identity andBody Parts TestVI.10-121213Analysis and Results of DataB. Pre ion57-61Bibliography62

viiiLIST OF TABLESTABLEI.page'lean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Pre-KExperimentaland Control Groups (Peabody4A)19Analysis of Variance of Pre -K,Experimental and Control Groups(Peabody A)19F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups(Peabody A)20,II.III.IV.V.VI.VII.VIII.IX.Analysis of Variance of Pre-K,Experimental and Control Groups,(Peabody B)20Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Pre-K, Experimentaland Control Groups (Peabody B)21F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups (Peabody B)21Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGroups(Peabody A)24Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experimental and Control Groups (PeabodyA)24F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Groups, (Peabody A)25

ixX.Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experimental and Control Groups Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGromos, Peabody R)26F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Groups (Peabody II)27Analysis of Variance - Mental Ageof Pre-X, Experimental and ControlGroups (Pre-test)28Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups, Mental Age (Pretest)28F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts,Mental Age- Pre-K (Pre-test)29Analysis of Variance of Pre-K,Experimental and Control GroupsMental Age (PeabodyPost-Test)29Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experimental and Control Groups, MentalAge (PeabodyPost-Test)30F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Groups, Mental Age(Post-test)30Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGroups, Mental Age (Pre-test)33

xXX.XXI.XXII.XXIII.XXIV.Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experimental and Control Groups, MentalAge (Pre-test)F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts,Mental Age- Kindergarten (PreTest)34Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGroups, Mental Age (Post-Test)35Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experimental and Control Groups, MentalAge (Post-Test)35F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Grouns,Mental Age(Post-Test)XXV.XXVI.XXVII.XXVIII.3336Analysis of Variance of Pre-KExperimental and Control GroupsSkill Assessment (Pre-test)39Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Pre-K, Experimentaland Control Groups, Skill Assessment (Pre-Test)39,F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups, Skill Assessment(Pre-Test)40Analysis of Variance of Pre-K,Experimental and Control GroupsSkill Assessment, (Post-Test)40

XXIX,XXX.Mean, Standard DeViation andNumber of Pre-K, Experimentaland Control Groups, Skill Assessment (Post-Test)41F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups, Skill Assessment(Post-Test)XXX/.41Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGroups, Skill Assessment (PreTest}XXXMXKXI I.XXXIV.Mean-, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experiimental and Control Groups, SkillAsseSsment (Pre-Test)43:44F-Ratio For Paired ContrastS between Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Groups, Skill Assess-!menti (Post-Test)Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGroups, skill Assessment, (PostTest)XXXV.XXXVI.XXXVII.44dean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experimental and Control Groups, Skill'Assessment, (Post-Test)r -Ratio For Paired ContraSts betWeen Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Groups, Skill Assessment (Post -test)454646Analysis of Variance of Pre-K,EXperimental and Control GrOtips,Identity and Body Parts, (Pre -Test)48

xiiXXXVIII,XXX/X,XL.XLI.XLII.mar/.Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Pre-K, Experimentaland Control Groups, Identity andBody Parts (Pre-Test)48P-Ratio For PAired Contrasts between Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups, Identity and BodyParts (Pre-Test)45Analysis of Variance of Pre-K,Experimental and Control Groups,Identity and Body Parts,(Post- test)50Mean, Standard Deviation and.Number of Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups, Identity and BodyParts (Post-Test)50F-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Pre-K, Experimental andControl Groups, Identity and BodyParts (Post-Test)51Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGroups, Identity and Body Parts(Pre-Test)XL/V.XLV.XLVI.53Mean, Standard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experi-0mental and Control Groups, Identity53and Body Parts (Pre -Test)P-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Groups, Identity andBody Parts (Post-Test)54Analysis of Variance of Kindergarten, Experimental and ControlGroups, Identity and Body Parts(Post-Test)55

XLVII.XLVIII.Mean, STandard Deviation andNumber of Kindergarten, Experimental and Control Groups, Identity55and Body Parts (Post-Test)P-Ratio For Paired Contrasts between Kindergarten, Experimentaland Control Groups, Identity andBody Parts,(Post-Test)56

xivLIST OF FIGURESFIGUREI.II.III.pagePeabody Performance of PreKindergarten Experimental andControl Groups Plotted Over Time22Mental Age Gains of Pre-Kindergarten Experimental and ControlGroups Plotted Over Time31Mental Age Gains of KindergartenExperimental and Control GroupsPlotted Over Time36IV.Pre-Kindergarten Mean Skill Assess42ment Scores Plotted Over TimeV.Kindergarten Mean Skill Assessment48Scores Plotted Over TimeVIVII.Pre-Kindergarten Identity andBody Parts Scores Plotted OverTime52Kindergarten Identity and BodyParts Scores Plotted Over Time56

DESCRIPTION OF THE POPULATION STUDIEDThe Title III research design asformulated in the original proposal consisted of three experimental groups andfive control groups.These were:Pre-Kindergarten Experimental GroupDale Avenue School132 childrenPre-Kindergarten Control GroupAdvantaged15 childrenDisadvantaged15 childrenKindergarten Experimental GroupDale Avenue School117 childrenKindergarten Control GroupAdvantaged15 childrenDisadvantaged15 childrenKindergarten Experimental Group#24 with Performance Objectives38 childrenKindergarten Control Group#24 without Performance Objectives34 children

2.DESCRIPTION OF THEPRE-KINDERGARTEN CHILDRENOne hundred and twenty Pre-kindergarten children at Dale Avenue School(whose chronological ages at pre-testtime averaged four years and three months)form one part of the experimental groupin the Title III study. The childrenare in eight classes which are labeledPre-kindergarten II/III/I, and IV A.M.and Pre-kindergarten rtrifxrr, and IVEach class has one teacher andP.M.There are fifteentwo teacher aides.children per class and the same teachersand aides teach both the A.M. and P.M.classes.Sixty-one percent of the childrencome from Title I school areas and arebussed to Dale Avenue School five days aweek.They attend either the A.M. orThe children, who come inP.M. session.the morning, eat lunch at school and arethen bussed home.The children, who comein the afternoon, have lunch soon aftertheir arrival and are bussed home ataround three o'clock.Thirty-one percent of the one hundred and twenty Pre-kindergarten childrencome from families where the parents areseparated. Five percent come from families where the parents are divorced andfour percent where the mothers are unmarried. The average family income isaround 5,000 per year. Twenty-eightpercent of the families receive somewelfare.

3.The fathers occupations are varied.They include machine operators, salesmen,assemblers, key punch operators, electronic workers, patrolmen, platform operators,factory workers, mechanics, laborers,private detectives, truck drivers, boxstrippers, warehouse workers, firemen,green keepers, pressers, clerks, electricians, hospital orderlies, garmentcutters, musicians, mailmen, dye casters,printers, teachers, sheet metal workers,carpenters, special service coordinators,bus drivers, machinists, dental technicians, maintenance men, shoe makers,welders and repair men.The mothers occupations include hairstylists, diet aides, waitresses, nurses,students, packers, meter maids, factoryworkers and housewives.Forty -four percent of the one hundred and twenty Pre-kindergarten childrenare Black, twenty percent are White,twenty-one percent are Puerto Rican andfifteen percent are Columbian, Chilean,Costa Rican and Chinese. Fifty -threepercent are boys and forty-seven percentare girls.Thirteen percent of the one hundredand twenty children in the study are repeating pre-kindergarten.They were retained because it had been decided bytheir teachers, the psychologist and thedirector and assistant director of Prekindergarten that this would be beneficialto them.

4.The Kindergarten population is comprised of a similar group of childrenwhose family income was slightly higherbut whose test scores were similar tothis year's Pre-kindergarten childrenwhen they entered Dale Avenue School lastyear.DESCRIPTION OF PUPIL SELECT/ONThe Pre-kindergarten and Kindergartenchildren at Dale Avenue Early ChildhoodEducation Center, who comprise our experimental group, are predominantly fromareas where the schools receive Title IApplications are taken on a firstfunds.come, first served basis from people whohave either read about the school in thenewspaper or heard of it from the following sources:Guidance CounselorsSocial WorkersSchool NursesPrincipalsPTA CouncilPaterson Task ForceMental Health Clinic of Passaic CountyPassaic County WelfareBureau of Children's ServicesJewish Children and Family ServicesJuvenile Relations CourtProbation DepartmentParents of Dale Avenue PupilsStaff of Dale Avenue SchoolDay Care-One HundredPour C's Program (a group of thirty orforty community organizations)

5.The only new children admitted tothe program each year are the Pre- kindergarten children.These children movethrough Kindergarten, First, Second andThird grade and then return to their areaschool in Fourth grade.THE CONTROL GROUPSThe Pre-kindergarten disadvantagedcontrol group was randomly selected fromchildren who came to enroll at DaleAvenue School but who were not admittedbecause of lack of room. The Pre-kindergarten advantaged control group was selected from the Paterson Community andfrom Lincoln Park.The Pre-kindergarten and KindergartenExperimental Group at Dale Avenue Schoolis housed in a converted factory building.Bright colors constitute the decor. Pastelwalls are complemented with lovely autumncolored carpeting.All furniture andpermanent fixtures are geared to the heightof the children.Materials and equipment are gearedto fostering gross motor skills and tobuild conceptual and perceptual skills.The Dale Avenue Pre-kindergarten andKindergarten staff is a hand picked groupof master teachers who are assisted intheir classroom duties by an AssociateTeacher or Teacher Assistant and by aTeacher's Aide.Three people staff eachPre-kindergarten classroom and two peoplestaff the Kindergarten classrooms.

6.Operating under his own PerformanceObjective Record each child moves throughthe Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten athis own rate as he masters skills.As each child was individually testedon the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test(Form A), Skill Assessment Test I andIdentity and Body Parts Check List I, theteachers were given complete feedback onthe performance of each child.Workshops were held to enhance theteaching staff's understanding of programcontent and to enable them to better utilize the materials and equipment availableto them in the classrooms. Because ofPaterson's close proximity to New York,it was possible to have such noted peopleas Dr. Phoebe Lazarus, Dr. Marion Blank,and Mr. Murray Tesser present teachertraining sessions.The Pre-kindergarten children received complete medical examinations andaudiometric screening.Specialists in Physical Education,Art, Music, and Science serviced the Prekindergarten and Kindergarten childrenin these areas.Classrooms were monitored by theTitle III team and by Miss Harriet Gibbs,Pre-kindergarten Director, and Mr. Wild,Principal, Dale Avenue School to assurethat the program was being properlycarried out.The Pre-kindergarten Advantaged andDisadvantaged Control Groups were comprised of children who had had no previouspre-school experience and who received

7.no formal training between pre and posttesting.All the Kindergarten Control Groupswere housed in regular Paternon schoolbuildings and all but Control Group #24(with Performance Objectives) Were involved in a standard Kindergarten experience.Control Group 424 (with Performance Objectives) was tested and giventesting feedback and was presented withPerformance Objectives after February 1,1971.The teacher's from both ControlGroups 024 (with and without PerformanceObjectives) had aides in their classrooms.The teacher from Control Group #24 (withPerformance Objectives) also attended allteacher training workshops.All children in the ExperimentalGroup and the Control Group were not onlypre and post-tested with the PeabodyPicture Vocabulary Test, and Identity andBody Parts Check List, but they were alsogiven the Anne P. Boehm Test of BasicConcepts.It is important to note that theTitle III team was not hired until October15, 1970 and that while pre-testing began immediately in the Pre-kindergartenat Dale Avenue School, it did not beginin the Kindergarten until December orJanuary. Consequently, the pre-scores ofthe Dale Avenue children in Kindergartenreflect four months in the classroom.

8.DEFINITION OF TERMS VSEDCulturally Disadvantaged. The moststriking feature of the inner city culturally disadvantaged is that they arepoor. Their yearly incomes are generallyaround 5,000. Many come from brokenhomes and live in densely populated areasin substandard housing. Culturally disadvantaged children live in a world thatis dominantly physically rather thanIdsationally and verbally controlled.They lack early experiences of an educationally stimulating nature. (1)Children from culturally disadvantagedhomes often do poorly in school for thefollowing reasons. (11)1.The lack of an educational tradition in the home.2.The lack of books, toys andgames in the home.3.Insufficient standard Englishlanguage.4.Inadequate motivation to pursuea long-range educational career.5.Inadequate self image.6.Poor health, improper diet, frequent moving and noise.

9.Culturally Advantaged.Most of theculturally advantaged children come fromso called middle-class homes where theaverage yearly incomes are generally over 8,000. They live in less populated areasthan the disadvantaged and there are lesspeople per apartment or house.In thesemiddle-class homes communication is carefully nurtured.Children are encouragedto speak in words, phrases and completesentences.They have a repertoire ofnursery rhymes, poems, stories and songswhich have been taught by rote. Thereare many books, toys and games in theirhomes.Their curiosity is cultivated andquestions are answered by parents. Theylearn to talk freely with parents, siblings, other children, relatives, neigh hors, shopkeepers and friends of parents.

10.RATIONALE OF THE TESTING PROGRAMThe Materials UsedTestis TheYPAL441; q YA221?LLql1an-iiidiVistofintelligence that was developedby Lloyd M. Dunn, Ph.D, Director of theInstitute on Mental Retardation and Intellectual Development of George PeabodyCollege of the University of Illinois.The test, which requires no verbal response from the testee and no specialtraining requirement for the examiner,Itis a very good rapport establisher.is a time saver (takes only fifteen minutes to administer) yet a valid and rQliable individual intelligence test. leThe test must be administered in aprescribed manner (described in the manual that comes with the test) and the examiner must give no additional clue wordsIt is a graduated seriesor gestures.of one hundred and fifty plates, eachTo administercontaining four pictures.it the examiner, having taken the childinto a quiet room, provides a stimulusword orally as in "Point to man." Thetestee then indicates (usually bypointing) which picture on the platebest illustrates the meaning of theSince the plates arestimulus word.arranged in ascending order of difficulty,it is necessary only to test the subjectfrom a basal of eight consecutive correctresponses to a ceiling of six errors ineight consecutive plates.1.Test and Educational Materials Catalog, American Guidance Service, Inc.,(Minnesota, 1969), p.4.

11.Thus the scale is only given in theThere are differentcritical range.starting points for different age groups.For example, children three years andthree months old start with plate numberfifteen while children four years andthree months to five-years and fivemonths start with plate number twentyTwo forms of the test (A and B)five.are provided with different stimulusA raw score (number ofwords for eachcorrect responses) can then be quicklyconverted to three types of derivedscores; mental age, standard score, intelligence quotient and percentiles.The difference of one month in age between subjects can place a subject in adifferent age bracket (when determiningscores) and cause a considerable changein standard score.The Peabody Picture Vocabulary TeStwas used not only to determine standardEnglish vocabulary skills (receptivelanguage) and I.Q. but to provide A diag-,nestic tool to identify children, (1)!whOse quality, quantity and intelligibility of speech was poor; (althoughtest requires pointing only, the testerengages the pupil in a short preliminaryconversation. Many pupils volunteercomments on the pictures;) (2) wholacked ability to look at several pictures and select the one that bestapplied to stimulus words; (3) whoshowed excessive behavioral responses(perfunctory effort, excessive shyness,Much need for praise, short attentionspan); (4) who were possibly disabled inareas of hearing, vision and motor activity; (5)whose understanding of standard English vocabulary was so limitedthat they were not able to score.

12,The tostors were hired on a per diembasis for the testing and had no reasonto wish that any group of children woulddo better on the tests than any otherThey were not involved in the progroup.gram in any other capacity.Skill Assessment Tests I and IIThe Pre-kindergarten Skill AssessmentTest I inventories some of the skillswhich are included on the Performance Objectives and on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.Ability to name circle,square, and triangle, to name colors, torote count, to identify numerals presentedin random order, ability to count objects,and to see likes and differences areHere, thequickly assessed by this test.child must verbalize in order to answerin contrast to the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test where he is only required topoint to a pictorial representation of aword.Kindergarten Skill Assessment TestII is an extension of Test I.It containsfar more items than the Pre-kindergartenSome of the items are above extest.pected developmental performance forKindergarten children because it was feltthat our children could master theseskills. We have set as our norm that aproblem is solved by children of a certainage when 3/4's of the children of thisage respond correctly.Our children haveexceeded these norms.

13.The Identity and Body Parts Test I and IIThe staff-made Identity and Body PartsTest (Part I for Pre-kindergarten and PartII for Kindergarten) was developed becausethe Title III staff considered knowledgeof self essential before a child cansharpen his intelligence.Early childhoodliterature tells us that middle classchildren receive early training in knowledge of identity and body parts. (Parentslabel ayes, nose, etc., in many games,stories and songs) but many disadvantagedchildren do not receive this beneficialhelp.The staff felt that learning allabout who they are (their name, sex, wherethey live, etc.) and the labels for theparts of their bodies would help DaleAvenue children to have an understandingof their own uniqueness and worth as wellas to give them more standard Englishlanguage which would help them to seelikenesses and differences and to labeland think.Piaget tells us that thoughtand language do appear to interact withone another.2.The logical place t.)start would certainly seem to be wit)- thechildren themselves.2.Early Childhood Curriculum, CeliaStendler Lavatelli, "Piaget's TheoryApplied to A Center for Media Development," Inc. Book, American Scienceand Engineering, Inc., Boston, 1970,p.54.

14.Anne E. Boehm TestThe Anne E. Boehm Test (Form I) isa group test of basic concepts that indicates not only that a child knows certain concepts but that he can indicatethis by marking the proper concept withan X.The instrument consists of threesample questions followed by twentyfive pictorial items arranged in approximate order of increasing difficulty.Each item consists of a set of pictures,about which statements are read aloud tothe children by the examiner.The test requires approximatelyfifteen to twenty minutes to administerto Pre-kindergarten and Kindergartenchildren.The concepts tested are top, through,away from, next to, inside, some but notmany, middle, few, farthest, around,over, widest, most, between, whole,nearest, second, corner, several, behind,row, different, almost, after, half.

15.Performance Objectives RecordEducational Testing Service ofPrinceton, New Jersey was contacted inApril 1969 to seek assistance in creatingand formulating an evaluation programwhich would assess the development andactivities of the individual Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten child. Mr. J.Robert Cleary, Director of Field Services,Educational Test Services, suggested thatwe communicate to our staff the need tocompile a list of goals and objectivesleading to a sequence of behavioral objectives.Out of this grew the PerformanceObjective Record.This is a unique device which lists specific skills to bemastered. They are compatible with thedevelopmental sequence of the four andfive year olds as was illustrated by empirical testing in the pilot program initiated at Dale Avenue School in 1970.The performance objective record notonly provides an evaluation instrument,but also structures the material presentedin the Pre-kindergarten and Kindergartenclassroom. The teacher, however, has thefreedom to teach the skills and conceptsin any way she wishes. This enables herto use her own creative talents and tofind the teaching method that best suitseach child. Children move at their ownrate from skill to skill.

16.ror Pro-kindergarten and Kindergarten the Language Arts area was brokendown into Listening, Naming, Encoding,and Speaking.Science was broken downinto Observing and Classification. Mathwas included as well as Writing andMotor Skills and Perceptual Motor Skills.The Performance Objective Recordacts as the teacher's diagnostic pretest and, as a post-test.The recordgoes along with each child to his nextclass.This helps the new teacher toascertain what the child is able to doand to help him to continue at his ownrate.

17.ANALYSTS AND RESULTS OF DATAIn the pages that follow the analysis and results of the data from thePeabody Picture Vocabulary Test, FormsA and B, the pre and post Identity andBody Parts Test, and pre and post SkillAssessment Test can be found. It willinclude graphs,

DOCUMENT RESUME ED 089 498 EC 061 442 TITLE Dale Avenue School Early Childhood Education Cent

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