History IGCSE Introduction

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History IGCSEIntroductionHistoryIGCSEIntroductionWelcome to your IGCSE History course! History is the study of the past. Byunderstanding the past, we give ourselves a much better chance ofunderstanding the present and making the right decisions that will affect ourfuture.IGCSE HistoryThe written exams you will take at the end of this course cover a series ofhistorical themes, an in-depth study, and a study in change.The IGCSE examiners expect that the student should show application andunderstanding of: the key events, people, changes and issues in the specified periods or aspectsof history the key features and characteristics of the specified periods, societies andaspects of history.Naturally the examiners will be looking for good factual knowledge, but theIGCSE examination is designed to test more than this — the successfulcandidate will also have acquired the skills necessary to any true historian. Forinstance, he or she will not accept ‘facts’ at face value, but will instead becapable of evaluating how far they can be trusted, what they can and cannottell us about the past, and how people at the time felt about them.We will look at the nature of history in more detail later in this Introduction.Oxfor d Ope n Le arning1

History IGCSEIntroductionThe Arrangement of LessonsThe lessons of this course are arranged to cover the Edexcel HistorySpecification 4HI1, examined for the first time in May/June 2019.Final assessment consists of two written exam papers, each requiring twochoices. For Paper 1, you will be expected to answer questions on two out ofeight themes. You should choose themes 3 and 7, the two themes covered inModules 3 and 4 of the course. In Paper 2 you will be asked to answerevidence-based questions on one out of five in-depth studies using sourcesgiven in the assessment booklet. You should choose to answer questions onA3, the in-depth study covered in Module 2 of your course. On the other halfof Paper 2, you will be asked to answer questions on one out of seven Studiesin Change. You should choose B2, the Study in Change covered in Module 1 ofyour course.Further details of your syllabus and the structure of the examinations are givenlater in this introduction.Scheme of StudyPreliminary lesson on Using Historical SourcesModule One: Changes in Medicine, c1848–c1948Lesson1 Progress in the mid-19th Century; Nightingale, Chadwick, Snow and Simpson2 Medicine Discovery and Development, 1860–75; Lister and Pasteur3 Accelerating Change, 1875–1905; Ehrlich, Koch and ChemistryTutor-marked Assignment A4 Government Action and War, 1905–205 Advances in Medicine, Surgery and Public Health 1920–48; the NHSTutor-marked Assignment BModule Two: The USA, 1918–41Lesson6789The Roaring TwentiesIncreased Social Tensions in the 1920sThe USA in Depression, 1929–33Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1933–41Tutor-marked Assignment C10 The Opposition to the New DealTutor-marked Assignment D2

History IGCSEIntroductionModule Three: Germany: Development of Dictatorship, 1918–4511121314The Establishment of the Weimar Republic and its Early ProblemsThe Recovery of Germany, 1924–29The Rise of Hitler and the Nazis to January 1933Nazi Germany, 1933–39Tutor-marked Assignment E15 The Impact of the Second World War on GermanyTutor-marked Assignment FModule Four: A Divided Union: Civil Rights in the USA, 1945–7416171819The Red Scare and McCarthyismCivil Rights in the 1950sThe Impact of Civil Rights Protests, 1960–74Other Protest Movements: Students, Women, anti–VietnamTutor-marked Assignment G20 Nixon and WatergateTutor-marked Assignment H21 Revision andMock examinations: TMA I (Paper 1) and TMA J (Paper 2)What is history?History is, according to the Oxford English Dictionary:“The study of past events. The past considered as a whole. The past eventsconnected with someone or something. A continuous record of past eventsor trends.”The word comes from the Greek ‘historia’ which means ‘narrative’ or ‘history’.History, then, is the study of the past. It’s about looking at people, places andevents and seeing how the world has got to where it is now. It is only throughstudying history that we can really understand the present day. Modernconflicts can be explained by looking back in history, and firmly-held attitudesand ideas are often rooted in the past.3

History IGCSEIntroductionActivityLook at these quotations about history. What do you thinkof them? Which is your favourite?There are no right and wrong answers. This activity aims to getyou to think about what the study of history involves.“Life must be lived forward, but understood backward.”Kierkegaard “History is bunk.” Henry Ford“History is a myth we all agree to believe.”Napoleon“People are trapped in History, and History is trapped in them!”James Baldwin“Those that fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it.”Winston ChurchillWhy study history at IGCSE?Studying history helps you to understand more about the world we live in. Youwill learn about population expansion, technological developments and societytransformations.As well as being fascinating in itself, History IGCSE is also a very usefulqualification to have. It shows potential employers that you are: an independent thinkeropen-mindedself-disciplinedable to pick out the key points in a textYou will learn how to evaluate and analyse sources and how to apply your ownknowledge to decide what is probably true and what is propaganda.History also helps you to develop the skills to look beyond the headlines, to beable to ask questions confidently and express your own opinions.This History IGCSE will teach you the origins of some modern political andsocial problems. It will help you begin to understand why people behaved asthey did.4

History IGCSEIntroductionHow can we make judgements about the past?Since we cannot travel back in time to see the past for ourselves, we mustdepend on what has survived from a given period as evidence, which is boundto be incomplete or inaccurate to some extent. To make matters worse, muchof it reaches us secondhand, after processing by, for instance, book authors orfilm editors. It is hardly surprising that historians living at different times, orin different countries, have produced very different accounts of the sameevents.This is not a cause for despair. Rather, it offers the challenge of piecing togethera realistic picture of the past which may include many grey areas ofuncertainty, but which still makes sense as a whole. It is vital to remember thathistory is the study of people; human beings are nothing like as predictable asthe atoms studied in physics or chemistry!Nevertheless, as our knowledge of them increases, so too does ourunderstanding. “The past is a foreign country, they do things differently there”said L.P. Hartley. This is true and that’s what makes history so interesting!Two Kinds of SourcesSources are generally divided into two main categories: primary sources andsecondary sources. Primary sources stem directly from the period understudy, and could be written (letters, diaries, government records, and so on);visual (pictures or photographs) oral (sound recordings of descriptions of thepast from memory); material (objects surviving from the past like buildings orfurniture); or statistical (tables of figures based directly on past information).Secondary sources are generally accounts of the past which have alreadybeen processed or edited by someone closer to the present than the eventsdescribed (e.g. a printed textbook).Since secondary sources must be based on primary sources, an historian willgenerally work backwards to the original material, using textbooks only as anintroduction.SkillsWhen you have finished studying this course,able to demonstrate application and understanding of: youshouldbethe key events, people, changes and issues in the specified periods oraspects of history5

History IGCSEIntroduction the key features and characteristics of the specified periods, societies andaspects of history.The Syllabus/Specification 4HI1Your IGCSE History course follows the Edexcel specification 4HI1 forexaminations set in 2019 and later years. As explained above, each lesson ofthe course is designed to prepare you for a particular topic. The lessons arearranged to deal with topics in the order in which they occur on the syllabus.Studying the SyllabusYou should be sure to acquire your own copy of the specification or syllabus. Thiscan be downloaded from the IGCSE History webpage on the Edexcel website.We advise that you obtain a copy of the syllabus so that you can assess whichtopics you have covered in the most detail and which ones you will feelhappiest about in the exam. Edexcel also provides information for PrivateCandidates. This can also be accessed on the Edexcel website.As you approach the examination, it may also be helpful to tackle some sampleassessment papers. These can also be downloaded from the IGCSE Historywebpage on the Edexcel website.More past papers can be found by searching the Edexcel website under theterm ‘past papers’.You will also find lots of tips on preparing for your exam in the student area ofthe Edexcel website.Edexcel’s Scheme of Assessment (specification 4HI1)This Edexcel International GCSE in History comprises two examination papers. Paper 1 written examination. Students complete two depth studies from eightchoices.Paper 2 written examination. Students complete one historical investigationfrom five choices and one breadth study in change from seven choices.Paper 1 Paper code 4HI1/01Depth Studies Externally assessedAvailability: JuneFirst assessment: June 201950% of the total IGCSE raw marksStudents must study at least two depth studies from the following:6

History IGCSEIntroduction12345678The French Revolution, c1780–99Development of a nation: unification of Italy, 1848–70Germany: development of dictatorship, 1918–45Colonial rule and the nationalist challenge in India, 1919–47Dictatorship and conflict in the USSR, 1924–53A world divided: superpower relations, 1943–72A divided union: civil rights in the USA, 1945–74South Africa: from union to the end of apartheid, 1948–94OOL modules are in bold print.Students will: gain knowledge and understanding of the key features andcharacteristics of historical periodsdevelop skills to analyse and evaluate historical interpretations in thecontext of historical events studieddevelop skills to explain, analyse and make judgements about historicalevents and periods studied, using second-order historical concepts.Students are assessed through an examination based on their selected depthstudies.Students answer two questions, one on each of the depth studies they havestudied.There are 60 marks available in total.The assessment duration is 1 hour 30 minutes.Paper 2: Investigation and Breadth Studies Paper code 4HI1/02Externally assessed Availability: JuneFirst assessment: June 2019 50% of the total IGCSE raw marksStudents must study one historical investigation from the following:A1A2A3A4A5The origins and course of the First World War, 1905–18Russia and the Soviet Union, 1905–24The USA, 1918–41 (OOL’s selected module)The Vietnam Conflict, 1945–75East Germany, 1958–90Students must study one breadth study in change from the following:B1B2B3B4America: from new nation to divided union, 1783–1877Changes in medicine, c1848–c1948 (OOL’s selected module)Japan in transformation, 1853–1945China: conflict, crisis and change, 1900–897

History IGCSEB5B6B7IntroductionThe changing role of international organisations: the league and the UN, 1919–c2011The changing nature of warfare and international conflict, 1919–2011The Middle East: conflict, crisis and change, 1919–2012Students will: gain knowledge and understanding of the key features andcharacteristics of historical periods develop skills to explain, analyse and make judgements about historicalevents and periods studied, using second-order historical concepts learn how to use a range of source material to comprehend, interpretand cross-refer sources develop skills to analyse and evaluate historical interpretations in thecontext of historical events studied. AssessmentStudents answer two questions, one question on their historical investigationand one question on their breadth study in change.There are 60 marks available in total.The assessment duration is 1 hour 30 minutes.Specification AimsThe Pearson Edexcel International GCSE in History qualification requiresstudents to: acquire knowledge and understanding of selected periods and/oraspects of history, exploring the significance of historical events, people,changes and issuesuse historical sources critically, in context, recording significantinformation and reaching conclusionsdevelop an awareness that different interpretations have beenconstructed about people, events and developmentsorganise and communicate their knowledge and understanding ofhistorydraw conclusions and make historical judgements.8

History IGCSEIntroductionDetailed Specification ContentPaper 1 Depth Study: Choice (3): Germany: development of dictatorship, 1918–45What students need to learn:1The establishment of the Weimar Republic and its early problemsThe Abdication of the Kaiser and the German Revolution of 1918–19. Thestrengths and weaknesses of the new Republic and its Constitution. Reactionsto the Treaty of Versailles. Challenges from Right and Left, including the KappPutsch and the Spartacist uprising. French occupation of the Ruhr. Causes andeffects of hyperinflation.2The recovery of Germany, 1924–29The work of Stresemann. Rentenmark, Dawes and Young Plans, US loans andthe recovery of the German economy. Successes abroad – League of Nations,Locarno Treaties and Kellogg-Briand Pact.3The rise of Hitler and the Nazis to January 1933Hitler and the German Workers’ Party. Changes to the party (1920–22).Causes, events and results of Munich Putsch, (1923). Reorganisation of theParty (1924–28). Impact of the Great Depression. Nazi methods to winsupport. The role of the SA. Events of 1932 to January 1933, including the roleof von Papen, von Schleicher and von Hindenburg.4Nazi Germany 1933–39Setting up the Nazi dictatorship through the Reichstag Fire, Enabling Act, Nightof the Long Knives and Hitler as Führer. The methods of Nazi control and theextent to which they were successful, including the police state, censorship andpropaganda. Nazi policies towards education, women, the young, the Churchesand their impact. Nazi racial policies and increasing persecution of Jews.Policies to reduce unemployment and their impact. The Labour Service, theLabour Front and Strength Through Joy.5Germany and the occupied territories during the Second World WarNazi policies towards the Jews, including ghettos, death squads and the FinalSolution. The Home Front, including changing role of women, ‘total war’,rationing and the effects of allied bombing. The growth of opposition to Hitler,including the Edelweiss Pirates, the White Rose Group and the July Bomb Plot(1944). Hitler’s death and the end of the Third Reich.Depth Study: Choice 7: A divided union: civil rights in the USA, 1945–741The Red Scare and McCarthyismReasons for the Red Scare, including the Cold War (1945–50), Hiss andRosenberg cases, the FBI, the HUAC and the Hollywood Ten. Methods used byMcCarthy and the growth of opposition. Reasons for his downfall. Overallimpact of McCarthyism on the USA.9

History IGCSEIntroduction2Civil rights in the 1950sSegregation and discrimination. The influence of the Supreme Court andCongress. The importance of Brown versus Topeka (1954), death of EmmettTill (1955) and the key events and significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott(1955–56) and Little Rock (1957). The significance of the Civil Rights Act,1957. Revival of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).3The impact of civil rights protests, 1960–74Freedom riders, Anniston fire bombing, sit-ins and voting rights and theMeredith Case. The methods and activities of Martin Luther King. TheBirmingham and Washington Peace Marches and the ‘Dream’ speech. Thefailure of the Mississippi Freedom Summer. The impact of protest on civilrights legislation of the 1960s. Selma and voting rights. The Nation of Islam andthe work of Malcolm X. Reasons for the growth of Black Power and its impact,including the 1968 Olympics; the influence of Stokely Carmichael. The impactof race riots especially in the Watts District. The Black Panther movement andthe roles of Bobby Seale and Huey Newton.4Other protest movements: students, women, anti–VietnamReasons for the growth of protest movements. The student movement andlinks to war in Vietnam, including the anti-Vietnam War movement. TheBerkeley Free Speech movement. Students for a Democratic Society and‘hippies’. Betty Friedan, Eleanor Roosevelt, NOW, women’s liberationmovement and abortion. Phyllis Schafly and opposition to the women’smovement.5Nixon and WatergateReasons for and key features of the Watergate scandal. Impact on Nixon, USpolitics and new laws, including the War Powers Act (1973), the ElectionCampaign Act (1974), the Privacy Act (1974) and the Congressional BudgetControl Act (1974); Gerald Ford and the presidential pardon.Historical Investigation: A3 The USA, 1918–411The Roaring TwentiesThe economic benefits of the First World War. Reasons for economic boom inthe 1920s, Henry Ford and mass production, hire purchase, advertising,consumerism and the popularity of the stock market. Problems in farming,including over-production and mechanisation. The decline of older industries.The leisure industry, cinema, jazz, dancing, sport, radio, advertising andmotoring. The changing position of women, including the flappers.2Increased social tensions in the 1920sAttitudes and policies towards immigration. The Palmer Raids and the ‘RedScare’. The Sacco and Vanzetti Case. Attitudes towards black Americans. The10

History IGCSEIntroductionKu Klux Klan. Morals and values and the ‘Monkey Trial’. Prohibition and thegangsters.3The USA in Depression, 1929–33The causes and consequences of the Wall Street Crash (1929–30). Hoover’sreaction to the Great Depression: intervention and volunteerism. The impactof the Depression on banking, agriculture, industry and on people’s lives:Hoovervilles and the Bonus Marchers, unemployment and homelessness.4Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1933–41Roosevelt’s aims. The Hundred Days, the Alphabet Agencies, including the TVAand policies to deal with agriculture industry and unemployment. The secondNew Deal, including the Works Progress Administration, welfare for the poor,the old and farmers. The impact of the Social Security Act, the National LaborRelations Act (“Wagner Act”) and the Banking Act of 1935. Rural electrification.The achievements and shortcomings of the New Deal.5The Opposition to the New DealThe opposition of the Supreme Court, Republicans, business interests, theLiberty League; radical criticism such as Huey Long’s Share Our Wealthprogramme and Father Coughlin’s Social Justice campaign.Studies in Change: Option B2: Changes in medicine, c1848–c1948This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments inthe history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics: changes in medical treatment and in understanding the cause of illnessimprovements in public health provisionchanges in surgerythe changing role of women in medicinethe impact of war and science and technology on medicine.These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c) which will normallydraw on the content of two or more topics.What students need to learn:1Progress in the mid-19th century; Nightingale, Chadwick, Snow andSimpsonBarriers to progress, especially the lack of understanding of causes of disease.Florence Nightingale and changes in nursing and hospitals at Scutari. Dangersin surgery: pain, infection and bleeding; the impact of Simpson and chloroform.Problems and improvements in public health, including the work of Chadwickand the effects of

webpage on the Edexcel website. More past papers can be found by searching the Edexcel website under the term ‘past papers’. You will also find lots of tips on preparing for your exam in the student area of the Edexcel website. Edexcel’s Scheme of Assessment (specification 4HI1) This Edexcel International GCSE in History comprises two .

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