Comparison Of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive .

2y ago
29 Views
2 Downloads
1.98 MB
26 Pages
Last View : 28d ago
Last Download : 6m ago
Upload by : Mara Blakely
Transcription

Comparison of Battery Life AcrossReal-World Automotive Drive-Cycles7th Lithium Battery Power ConferenceLas Vegas, NVKandler Smith, Matthew Earleywine,Eric Wood, Ahmad PesaranNovember 7-8, 2011NREL/PR-5400-53470NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

Motivation Overcome barriers to clean, efficienttransportationoElectric-drive vehicleso3000-5000 deep cycles10-15 year calendar life at 35 C 300/kWh at pack level(2014 target 70% reduction) Maximize life, minimize cost of electricdrive vehicle batteries (alt: maximizeincome) Quantify systems-level tradeoffs forplug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) batteriesoo2

DOE’s Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT)Program Integrating Battery R&D ModelsPhysics of Li-Ion Battery Systems in Different Length ScalesElectrode ScaleParticle ScaleLi diffusion in solid phaseInterface physicsParticle deformation & fatigueStructural stabilityAtomic ScaleThermodynamic propertiesLattice stabilityMaterial-level kinetic barrierTransport propertiesCharge balance and transportElectrical network incomposite electrodesLi transport in electrolytephaseCell ScaleElectronic potential ¤t distributionHeat generation andtransferElectrolyte wettingPressure distributionModule ScaleThermal/electricalinter-cell configurationThermal managementSafety controlSystem ScaleSystem operatingconditionsEnvironmental conditionsControl strategyChallenge: How to perform life-predictive analysis for “what-if”scenarios untested in the laboratory (V2G, charging behavior, swapping, 2nd use, )3

Factors in Vehicle Battery AgingCell Design ChemicalElectrochemicalElectricalManuf. uniformityo defectsEnvironment Thermalo geographyo thermal managementsystem ( )o heat generation Humidity VibrationDuty Cycle System designo vehicleo excess power &energy @ BOL ( )o system controls Drivero annual mileageo trips/dayo aggressivenesso charging behaviorcharges/day– fast charge–4

Factors in Vehicle Battery AgingCell Design ChemicalElectrochemicalElectricalManuf. uniformityo defectsEnvironment Thermalo geographyo thermal managementsystem ( )o heat generation Humidity VibrationDuty Cycle System designo vehicleo excess power &energy @ BOL ( )o system controls Drivero annual mileageo trips/dayo aggressivenesso charging behaviorcharges/day– fast charge–(Not considered)5

Simulation ApproachVehicle drive cycles 782 speed vs. time tracesCharging assumptionsVehicleModelBattery power profile SOC(t), Heat gen(t), etc.e.g., Cyc 4378 1PHEV10 Opp. Chg6

Simulation ApproachVehicle drive cycles 782 speed vs. time tracesCharging assumptionsVehicleModelBattery power profile SOC(t), Heat gen(t), etc.Thermal management assumptionsBatteryThermalModelBattery stress statistics T(t), Voc(t), DODi, Ni, 7

Simulation ApproachVehicle drive cycles782 speed vs. time tracesCharging assumptionsVehicleModelBattery power profile SOC(t), Heat gen(t), etc.Thermal management assumptionsBatteryThermalModelBattery stress statistics T(t), Voc(t), DODi, Ni, Battery LifeModelCapacity LifeNCA/GraphiteMinneapolisHouston10 CPhoenix15 C20 C30 CYears825 C

Life Model ApproachBattery aging datasets fit with empirical, yet physically justifiable formulasCalendar fade SEI growth (partiallysuppressed by cycling) Loss of cyclable lithium a1, d1 f( g fade active material structuredegradation andmechanical fracture a2, e1 f( DOD,T,Voc)R a1 t1/2 a2 NQ min ( QLi , Qactive )QLi d0 d1 t1/2Qactive e0 e1 NEnables life predictions for untested real-world scenarios9

Acceleration Factors Arrhenius Eqn. E 11 T exp a R T (t) Tref Tafel Eqn. F V (t) Vref V exp oc R T (t) Tref Describe a1, a2, b1, c1 asf(T,Voc,ΔDoD) Combined effectsassumed multiplicative Wöhler Eqn. DoD DoD DoDref 10

Acceleration FactorsResistance growth during storageData: Broussely, 2007 Arrhenius Eqn. E 11 T exp a R T (t) Tref Tafel Eqn. F V (t) Vref V exp oc R T (t) Tref Wöhler Eqn. DoD DoD DoDref 11

Acceleration FactorsResistance growth during cyclingData: Hall, 2006 Arrhenius Eqn. E 11 T exp a R T (t) Tref Tafel Eqn. F V (t) Vref V exp oc R T (t) Tref Wöhler Eqn. DoD DoD DoDref 12

Acceleration FactorsCapacity fade during cyclingData: Hall, 2006 Arrhenius Eqn. E 11 T exp a R T (t) Tref Tafel Eqn. F V (t) Vref V exp oc R T (t) Tref Wöhler Eqn. DoD DoD DoDref 13

Vehicle & Battery AssumptionsPHEV10 PHEV40VehicleAll-electric range, kmTotal vehicle mass, kgElectric motor power, kWIC engine power, kWUseable power, kWUseable energy, kWhBattery Maximum SOC1Electrical Minimum SOC at BOLMinimum SOC at EOLExcess energy at BOLExcess power at BOL, 10% SOCBattery2,3ThermalHeat transfer area - cells-to-coolant, m22Heat transfer area - pack-to-ambient, m2Heat transfer coeff. - pack-to-ambient, W/m 4890%30%10%67%43%131.22.922PHEV10:50% DOD at BOL80% SOCmaxPHEV40:60% DOD at BOL90% SOCmax1. EOL condition 75% of BOL nameplate 1C capacity remaining2. Heat generation rate at 2/3 of EOL resistance growth14

Life Variability with Real‐World Drive Cycles Matrix of analytic scenariosDrive Cycles1Vehicles 782 Real-World drivecycles from Texas Dept.of Transportation PHEV10 sedan PHEV40 sedanThermal Management2Charging Profiles3 Fixed 28oC battery temperature* Limited cooling (forced ambient air) Aggressive cooling (20oC chilled liquid) Nightly charge (baseline) Opportunity charge1. Average daily driving distance of Texas dataset is 37.97 miles/day. This paper assumes 335 driving days and 30 rest days per year, scaling the Texas dataset to USequivalent average mileage of 12,375 miles/year. 5 th and 95th percentile daily driving distances from the Texas dataset are 99.13 and 4.87 miles/day, respectively.2. A constant ambient temperature of 28oC was assumed for all thermal simulations, representative of typical worst-case hot climate in Phoenix, AZ. Under battery storageoconditions, this effective ambient temperature causes similar battery degradation as would daily and annual temperature variations for a full year in Phoenix.3. Charging at Level I rate of 1.5 kW.** Level I charging rates.* Worst‐case hot climate, Phoenix Arizona 28 C15

Results Variability in PHEV battery life withreal‐world drive cycles Impact of thermal management Impact of opportunity versus nightlycharging16

Expected Life – PHEV10Nightly ChargePhoenix ClimateConstant 28oC Different daily driving distances and battery charge/dischargehistories result in a distribution of expected battery life outcomes Here, life expectancy across782 driving cycles in a hotclimate is 7.8 to 13.2 years Key assumptions:o Graphite/NCA chemistryo End‐of‐life condition:75% remaining capacity(of initial nameplate)o 80% SOCmaxo 30% SOCmin @ BOLOpportunities forV2G, 2nd use?17

Expected Life – PHEV10 vs. PHEV40Nightly ChargePhoenix ClimateConstant 28oC86% of drivingcycles 10 mi/day34% of drivingcycles 40 mi/day18

Battery TemperatureDriving StateThree battery thermal management scenariosillustrated for an example driving cyclee.g. Cyc 4378 1PHEV10Opportunity Charge2) Limited Cooling(forced 28oC ambient air)1) Isothermal(baseline case, battery fixed at 28oC)3) Aggressive(forced 20oC chilled liquid)(time shown here is initialized to start of first driving trip of the day)19

Expected Life – Thermal Management ImpactNightly ChargePhoenix ClimateLimited Cooling Scenario(Tfluid 28 C, h 15 W/m2K) Excessive temperature riseshortens life by 1‐2 yearscompared to baselinePHEV40PHEV10Aggressive Cooling Scenario(Tfluid 20 C, h 85 W/m2K)AggressiveLimitedIsothermalAggressiveLimited Periodic drawdown ofbattery temperature to20 C, possible duringcharging with chilledcoolant, extends life by 1‐3years compared to baselineIsothermal Error bars denote 5th and 95th percentile drive cycles20

Impact of Opportunity Charging (Level 1)Phoenix ClimateAggressive CoolingPHEV10 PHEV10: Frequent charging canreduce average life by 1 yearPHEV40 PHEV40: Frequent charging canextend average life by ½ year21

Impact of Opportunity Charging (Level 1)Phoenix ClimateAggressive CoolingLonger lifeShorter lifeCyc 4378 1Shallower DeepercyclingcyclingPHEV40:Longer life due toshallower CD cyclesPHEV10:Generally shorter life dueto many more CD cycles Worst case mostlyhigh mileage drivers Exception: Cycle4378 1 with fourdaily trips of 9miles ea.22

Life‐Extending ControlsControlsDrive cycle comparison Heat gen rateCyclic‐throughput environment charging behaviorThermalmanagement systemAllowable power Allowable energy ( DOD, SOCmax)Warrantyo Years lifeo Miles or kilometers lifeAllowable charge‐rate23

Opportunity for Life‐Controls – PHEV10Phoenix ClimateAggressive CoolingRegain 1% capacityat year 8 (extend lifeby 6 months) by: Reducing chargedepletionavailable energyby 1.5%, or Reducing avg. SOCby 5%, or Lowering avg. T by0.5oC24

Conclusions Electric‐drive vehicle batteries designed to last 8 yearsunder worst‐case duty cycles and environments may lastwell beyond that for typical aging conditionsoOpportunities for vehicle‐to‐grid and 2nd use Refrigeration‐type cooling systems reduce excessiveover‐sizing of batteries specifically for hot climates Worst‐case PHEV driving and charging patterns are thosewith high utilization of charge‐depletion mode ofoperationoooSmall PHEV10 battery life highly sensitive to frequent chargingscenarios for moderate‐to‐high mileage driversHowever, electricity is less expensive than petroleumoperation and can financially offset shorter battery lifeOpportunities to improve life through design and controls25

Acknowledgments DOE Office of Vehicle TechnologiesooDave HowellBrian Cunningham Data and Research SupportoooLoïc Gaillac, Naum Pinsky – S. California EdisonJohn Hall – BoeingMarshall Smart – NASA‐Jet Propulsion Laboratory26

Battery Life Model Battery Thermal Model Vehicle Model . 15 C 20 C 30 C 25 C 10 C . Minneapolis Houston Phoenix Capacity . NCA/Graphite . Life Battery stress statistics T(t), Voc(t), DODi, Ni, Battery power profile SOC(t), Heat gen(t), etc. Thermal management assumptions . 8

Related Documents:

Battery Status: To check the battery charge status, turn on the battery power by switching “On” the Battery Power Switch. Please do not let the battery fully die, this severly shortens the life of the battery. Battery Recharge: It will take about 4 hours to reach full charge. To recharge the battery, plug the supplied power supply into the

On-Battery - The Back-UPS is supplying battery power. Low Battery - The Back-UPS is supplying battery power and the battery is near a total discharge state. Replace Battery Detected - The battery needs to be charged, or is at end of life. Low Battery Shutdown - During On Battery operation Back-UPS BX Series 750VA, 950VA, 1200VA, 1600VA, 2200VA

When the battery weakens, the red indicator light will blink at a constant rate when the user’s hands are within the sensor range. the battery must be replaced within two weeks. To replace the battery on battery option: 1. carefully open the battery’s box. Remove the old battery. 2. Replace the used battery with a new 9V battery (Lithium .

Learning About the Reader’s Batteries 2-34 Lithium Backup Battery 2-34 NiCad Battery Pack 2-35 Installing the Battery Pack 2-35 Removing the Battery Pack 2-36 Checking the Power Remaining in the NiCad Battery Pack 2-38 Charging the Battery Pack 2-39 Disposing of the NiCad Battery Pack 2-39 Recognizing a Low or Discharged Battery 2-40

RLN4048A Battery Adapter, MT2000 RKN4037A Cable/Clip Lead, 7.5V VEHICULAR BATTERY ELIMINATOR The battery eliminator saves useful battery life by drawing power from a vehicle’s battery. Simply replace the portable battery with the battery eliminator and plug in the cigarette lighter adapter. RLN4335A

1 ABOUT YUASA BATTERY THE PIONEER AND LEADER OF POWERSPORTS BATTERIES SINCE 1979 1st Conventional battery: 12N14-3A 1st Yumicron battery: YB14L-A2 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1st OEM motorcycle battery YB14L-A2 to 1988 Honda 1st OEM ATV battery YB14A-A2 to Polaris 1st OEM snowmobile battery YB16L-B to Arctic Cat World’s 1 st maintenance-free AGM

RM 6000 Series RMD 6000 Series Battery Battery Removal Both Sides 45 Type Lead Acid 46 Min Weight/Max Amp-hrs C Battery Compartment- Up to 321" lb/Ah 2000 / 930 D Battery Compartment- Up to 341" lb/Ah 2280 / 1085 E Battery Compartment - 400" lb/Ah 2600 / 1240 Max Battery Size L x W x H C Battery Compartment in 38.38 x 16.25 x 31

All material appearing in aliens is the work of individual authors, whose names are listed at the foot of each article. Contributions are not refereed, as this is a newsletter and not an academic journal. Ideas and comments in aliens are not intended in any way to represent the view of IUCN, SSC or the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) or sponsors, unless specifically stated to the .