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NOVEMBER 1984Number 4NKOMATI UPDATEMozambique and South Africa signeda non-agression agreement on March16, 1984 at a place on the border of theirtwo countries called Nkomati.Since that time MNR activities in theCentral provinces have been broughtunder control by the Mozambican army,although not completely eliminated.According to the military commander ofInhambane province the MNR bandits"have no bases left" in that province.During the last two months the armycaptured the last significant bandit base.Since June, 13 MNR bases have beencaptured in inhambane.In August it was announced that a vitalrail link serving cities in three provincesin the north and central area had beenreopened . The line which waspreviously closed for a long period dueto MNR activity can now carry food andclothing to villages along the route aswell as pick up sugar and limestoneproduced in the area.The number of bandits still operatingin the southern province of Gaza wastermed insignificant ' by that province 'smilitary commander . Roads which wereonce only possible to travel in militaryconvoy are now traveled freely, makingit possible for food produced in thoseareas to reach Maputo markets.However, Maputo province has nowbecome the new theater of intense MNRactivity . Since Nkomati, attack tactics aswell as locations have changed . Beforethe accord was signed, attacks in theNorth were frequently raids of largegroups on isolated villages or sabotageagainst economic targets . Attacks in thesouth since the agreement have oftenconsisted of small groups of MNRbandits terrorizing those living near or insmall towns.In May, two meetings of theMozambique-South Africa JointSecurity Commission were held . One(actually meeting number 3) took placein Maputo on May 11 and 12 and anotherwas held on May 25 in Pretoria . TheMozambican delegation is chaired byDeputy Minister of Defense, ColonelSergio Vieira . General Johann Coetzeeleads the South African delegation.Issues taken up at the meetingsincluded each country ' s compliancewith the Accord and security of theCahora Bassa hydro-electrictransmission lines . A permanent subcommission was recommended to dealwith questions related to commonborders.In other meetings with South Africans,Mozambican Minister in the Presidencyfor Economic Affairs Jacinto Veloso,who spear-headed initial pre-Accorddiscussions led a delegation in meetingsat Capetown on May 16 . These meetingswere described as routine meetings toappraise the level of compliance . TheSouth African counterpart at themeeting was foreign Minister RoelofBotha . Veloso was also received byPrime Minister P .W . Botha.On June 30, South African ForeignMinister R .F . Botha was seen byPresident Samora Machel in Maputo.The Mozambican and South Africandelegations are said to have discussedmatters related to the security situationand economic relations.On July 18, the Mozambique-SouthAfrica Joint Security Commission heldits fifth session since the Accord inMaputo . The Commission publiclyconcluded that although the situationfollowing the Accord was satisfactory,that further progress was needed.During August a series of meetingstook place between Mozambican andSouth African representatives wheresecurity was the number one item on theagenda . On August 13, Minister Velosowas in Pretoria to deliver an undisclosedmessage to the South African PrimeMinister from Mozambique ' s PresidentMachel.Decisive steps, it was laterannounced, would be taken "within thenext few weeks" towards a solution ofthe security problem in Mozambique . Bythis time it was known that Mozambiquewas distrubed at the continuing MNRactivity which suggested that notenough was being done by the SouthAfricans to curb MNR activities and thatcertain forces inside South Africa stillmaintained links with the armed bandsinside Mozambique and with the groupsin Portugal who openly work in supportof the MNR.(continued on page 2)POPULATIONAND ARMYUNITEAS TERRORISTACTIVITIESINTENSIFYIN MAPUTOAfter the signing of the NkomatiAccord, Mozambican officials notedseveral changes in the patterns ofattacks by the armed bandit's . The newobjective, the Mozambicans noted,appeared to be for the bandits to keepthemselves in the news as much aspossible with minimum cost tothemselves in terms of lives andammunition . While the military situationimproved considerably in someprovinces, MNR actions increaseddramatically in Maputo Province.The Armed Forces announced that inbattles throughout the country in thefirst six months of this year, more than1,200 bandits were killed, 340 werecaptured, 93 MNR camps weredestroyed and approximately 10,000people who had been kidnapped by theMNR were released . During the sameperiod, more than 289 bandits turnedthemselves in . In September, more than4,000 people were released in militaryoperations in one Sofala district alone.As the MNR activities have increasedin Maputo Province, the districts thatmake up that province have each had tofind new tactics to strengthen thesecurity of each district ' s populations.The Army in Maputo Province nowworks closely with the population andvisa versa to accomplish the difficulttask of eliminating the MNR once andforever.What follows are reports from three ofMaputo Province ' s ten districtsdescribing how the Army and thepopulation have responded to theescalation in terrorism . These three arerepresentative of the ten and we believe(continued from page 4)1

NKOMATI UPDATE(continued from page 1)In August, the South African ForeignMinister denied that this was the case,adding that if there is evidence toindicate that is the case, the SouthAfrican government will not hesitate toact firmly in terms of the spirit and letterof the Nkomati Accord ."On September 27, Minister Velosospeaking with reporters beforedeparting for the most recent talksstated that "six months after theNkomati Accord there have still been nopractical results and the violence hascontinued ." He went on to declare thatthe continuing rebel activities could"sqriously endanger" the Accord.Officials in Mozambique believed thatthe South African , military wascontinuing to resupply MNR insurgentsand that South African intelligence mayhave been using some Portugueseimport-export firms for this purpose.They also contented that South Africanagents were providing arms to the MNRthrough Malawi.After intense meetings between theMozambicans and South Africansbeginning on September 27, a four pointdeclaration was read by the SouthAfrican Foreign Minister on October 3.The declaration which obliges SouthAfrica to take a firmer hand in dealingwith continuing violations of the Accordcame about after Mozambiquethreatened to cancel the Accord if SouthAfrica did not take immediate actions tocurb MNR activities.The declaration was presented by theSouth Africans after separate meetingsbetween the Mozambican and SouthAfrican delegations and between theSouth Africans and MNR representatives . At no time did the Mozambicandelegation, led by Veloso, and the MNRrepresentatives meet or negotiate.The Four Points as presented by theSouth African Foreign Minister are:1. Representatives of the MNRrecognized the authority of theMozambican state and agreed to acease-fire of violent acts withinMozambique . It stated that "SamoraMachel is recognized as the presidentof the People's Republic ofMozambique ."2. This point states that armed activitiesand conflict inside Mozambique fromwherever it comes from must end.Since the armed conflict inMozambique is between thelegitimate government of thatcountry and terrorists representingforeign interests this essentiallymeans that the MNR activist must laydown their arms.To make surrender morepalaticable, Mozambique isconsidering a general amnesty policy2to cover those Mozambicansconnected with the MNR inside thecountry as well as any Mozambicanswho may have been outside thecountry at the time of the signing.Mozambican officials are said to betalking to several countries, includingSouth Africa, about possible materialassistance to resettle and integratethose affected by an amnesty.3. South Africa was solicited to play arole in the implementation of thedeclaration and a commission will beformed to put into practice thedeclaration . The first two points formthe basis of the work.4. The South African governmentpublicly agreed to an activeparticipation in the implementationof the Nkomati Accord in unison withthe spirit of the Accord . This does notmean however that South Africantroops will necessarily be moving totake up positions inside Mozambiqueas suggested by the South AfricanMinister . According to MinisterVeloso the subject of South Africantroops in Mozambique was notdiscussed.Botha concluded the reading of thedeclaration in Pretoria, where he wasjoined by representatives of the MNR aswell as the Mozambican delegation, beemphasizing that the period whichfollows will be difficult and full ofdanger.For the world press, South Africa triedto use the occasion to play the part ofpeacemaker between two hostilewarring factions, while all evidenceshows clearly that the war' owes its veryexistence to the South Africangovernment's attempt to destablizeMozambique . South Africa's mediastance is similar to that of an arsonistpatting himself on the back for puttingout a fire he himself started.Statements made later by EvoFernandes, the proclaimed SecretaryGeneral of the MNR claimed the conflictwould "continue and may escalate " andthat recognizing Samora Machel as theleader of the government was "merely arecognision of a current fact" and doesnot limit the MNR's political demands inthe future.The MNR has "won " no concessionsin its long and bloody reign of terror inMozambique and the Mozambicangovernment has no interest in or reasonto negotiate with the MNR . Minister ofInformation Cabaco, speaking at arecent Washington seminar oninformation stated, "It would never enterthe mind of any minister that there wasthe possibility of sharing power withterrorists whose role has been to rob,mutilate and murder Mozambicans onbehalf of foreign interests ."Evo Fernades' comments stronglysuggest that there is tension andcontradictions between the master andhis creation . It remains to be seen whatrecourse South Africa will take todismantle the MNR.In a press conference following theOctober 3 declaration Minister Velosoleft no doubt about the continuingimportance of Mozambican armyactions against the MNR . The bandits hedeclared, would lay down their armseither through their "own decision,when fac6d with the unavoidable facts"or "because we neutralize themcompletely in action on the ground ."THE ACCORDWHOSE IDEASince the Nkomati Accord wasfinalized, there has been muchspeculation about whose idea theAccord actually was . Some believe thatthe militarily superior South Africansforced the Accord on the Mozambicans.Others believe that the U .S . governmentset-up the Accord in exchange forforeign assistance . Mozambicansofficials insist that neither premise iscorrect . The Accord and the talksleading up to it were entirely the result ofdecisions made in Maputo.High Mozambican officials explainthat it was they who approached theSouth African government as early as1982 with the objective of holding talkswhich they hoped would lead to sometype of non-aggression agreement . Atthat time the relationship between theMozambican government and the U .S.was still recovering from the snubbingwhich followed the Mozambicanexplusion of C .I .A . agents working at theU .S . Embassy . The Mozambicansarrived at the decision to approach itsarch enemy after a difficult but detailedstudy of their own as well as SouthAfrica's situation at the time.They considered, for instance, the factthat with the increased direct SouthAfrican military intervention which drewlittle or no international condemnation,Mozambique and South Africa werebeing brought close and closer to ageneral war situation . They consideredthe vast amount of military assistancethat Mozambique would require toupdate and substain a modern armycapable of dealing with the SouthAfrican Army and the fact that little aid toaccomplish this was forthcoming from(continued on page 13)

ARUSHA CONFERENCENEWINVESTMENT IN SUPPORT OF FRONT LINE STATESCODEOn August 18, Mozambiqueannounced the details of its longawaited new foreign investment code.Mozambique's previous code wasreleased in 1977 . Since that time thesituation has become more critical interms of Mozambique's need to attractdevelopment capital . The country'stremendous potentials need stimulation . Natural diasters have stemiedproduction in many areas . Moredestructive has been armed terroristactivities . Shortages exist in almostevery sector . Clothing, furnishings, foodand normal consumer goods areshortages which frustrate both city andcountry residents.Many factories which could produceshoes, shirts, toothpaste, soap and thelike produce a quarter or less of whatthey could produce if 1) they had rawmaterials needed for production ; 2) theyhad the machines and machine partsnecessary and 3) they had technicianswho were versed in modernmanagement techniques, improvedproduction systems and who couldexplore new markets.In many cases, goods and parts whichcould be produced locally if all theconditions existed, must be importedfrom Europe or more likely, donewithout because the small amount ofavailable foreign capital can't be madeto stretch that for.Until now the state has continuallyunderwritten the cost of many of theleast productive factories—a practicethat Machel severly criticized in aspeech during this year's annualinternational trade fair.The new investment code states thatMozambique "considers agriculture asthe basis and industry as the dynamicfactor—with first priority being given toself-sufficiency in food, raising exports,increasing import substitutions,guaranteeing the supply of rawmaterials for industry and improving thequalifications of the national laborforce ."Direct foreign investment can takeone of the following forms : 1) freelyconvertible foreign exchange, 2)imported equipment, machinery ormaterial or 3) the transfer of technology.Foreign companies doing business inMozambique will be expected to form anassociation with a Mozambicancompany, either state or private or may(continued on page 11)Three Mozambican ministers and thecountry's president attended theSeptember meeting of the SocialistInternational Conference in Support ofthe Front Line States held in Arusha.Presiding over the conference.Tanzania's president Julius Nyerere,urged those present to give themaximum support possible to the FrontLine States as well as to SWAPO and theANC . The attendees at the conferenceincluded European party leaders whoare part of the Socialist International.Nyerere called on the Europeandelegates to prevent the sale ofcomputers to South Africa and theissuance of production licenses andbank credits to South Africa . Nyererestressed that both the Front Line States(Angola, Botwans, Mozambique,Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe) andthe liberation movements urgentlyneeded material aid for their battleagainst apartheid . The need forinvestments by the West in the FrontLine States was underscored . Europeanrepresentatives were encouraged toinvest in the Front Line States ratherthan in South Africa . Their investmentsin these countries would be safer, hestressed, if South Africa was not allowedto perpetuate "insecurity" . PresidentNyerere observed that while SouthAfrica's tactics may have changedapartheid continued.In his speech President SomoraMachel called on participants to workout "a joint program which contributesin a tangible and effective way to endingoppression, inequality and war insouthern Africa ." He also appealed forpressure to be put on the South Africangovernment to begin talks with the ANCand for international pressure for therelease of all political prisoners and foran end to the hanging of freedomfighters in South Africa.Addressing the economic problems ofthe regions, President Machel called forgreater international support for theFront Line States and the SADCC(Southern African DevelopmentCoordination Conference) . "Westerncountries witnessed our destructionpassively," Machel pointed out, "notconcerning themselves with theviolence being used against our people.They did not convene conferences, nordid they set up appropriate machinery tohelp us establish a basis for economicand social development ." Consolidationof the security situation in Mozambiquehe added, "has been affected by thesupport which political forces inWestern countries are still giving to theagents of regional destabilization ." Hethen called for the internationalcommunity, including the West, toinvest in Mozambique in order to helpdevelop the country's "immensepotential ."The Swedish Prime Minister stated inArusha that his country already givesone-fifth of that country ' s foreign aidbudget to the Front Line States and heurged other countries to also cooperate.Represented at the conference wereSocialist and Social Democratic partiesfrom Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,Norway, France, Portugal, Sweden andGreat Britain.Tanzania's President Julius Nyerere as chair of Arusha Conference,3

POPULATIONANA ARMY UNITE(continued from page 1)that they give our readership an insightinto what living with and fighting againstterrorism is all about.Moamba DistrictSpeaking to reporters in earlySeptember, the Political Commissionerof the Army in Moamba explained thatone of their tasks had been to mobolizethe population, mainly those who werealready victims of the MNR and thosewhose isolated homes made them easytargets, to move into communal villageswhere they would be safer . The Armyassists with the construction of newhouses as well as arranging food andtransportation at times . The army alsoreturns to the homes left by the districtresidents fleeing from the MNR torecover their belongings for them.The Commissioner stated that inspiteof the difficulties faced by the Army, themorale of the soldiers appears to behigh . "We talk to our soldiers so that theywill understand why it is that they haveleft their homes and their families, tocome together here in the woods andfight the enemy . (We explain) who theenemy we are fighting is and all otherquestions relating to this ."The number of local residents whohave shown up to be trained as voluntarymilitias is increasing . Workers aretrained to defend their factory or workunits . Residents of the communal villageasked for arms to defend 'the communalvillages against the MNR and werepromised that they would receive armsand training.In elaborating on the uniquearmy/population relationship necessaryto carry out their work, another soldier,who is a- veteran of the armed strugglefor independence, commented : "Duringthe fight against the invader Ian Smith,many times, it was the population whoinformed us-of the enemy's movementand proximity, including their fightingcapacity . It was what gave us successuntil their defeat." Today, it is the population whoinforms us of the movements by thebandits . When we find them, the battlesthat result are not too difficult ."According cc) me commander beinginterviewed by TEMPO magazine : " Inthe .beginning of the year, the armedbandits intensified their sabotageactions against economic targets andincreased assassinations of undefendedpopulations . Shortly after we arrivedhere, we initiated operations and in spiteof everything—it hasn't always beeneasy—at this moment the situation is4satisfactory ."During August, the Armed Forcescarried out three search and destroyoperations and two ambushes on MNRpositions."After the August 28 battle, those whomanaged to escape our fire, dispersedThe population informed us of theirmovements . Thanks to this, we closedall of the access routes so that they areencircled . "NamaachaA meeting took place in Namaacha inearly September to examine theactivities of various state, party socialand economic structure during thepreceding three months . The district'sadministrator convened the meetingwhose participants included companymanagers, members of the ArmedForces, the women's organization, theyouth organization and localgovernment officials.Most of the time was spent ondiscussions relating to security and theeconomy . It was announced that morethan 1000 local residents had completedpolitical and military training to act asvoluntary militias . The administratorstated that the armed bandits hadalready caused "many deaths amongthe population and party members andcontinue to assassinate and rob thepopulation's possessions ."In the economic area, the creation oftwo productive cooperatives (one forshoe repair and another of tailors) wereannounced . It was also announced thatworkers in various sectors had startedplanting food for their ownconsumption.MagudeOne of the principle targets of theMNR in Magude is cattle . Magude, themost southern district in the province,has for decades been known as the maincattle producing district in the region.Four years ago, 160,000 heads of cattlewere recorded . The number wasreduced drastically by the drought andbandits operating in the area . The latestestimate of 80,000-100,000 is beingrevised, as it is known that currently onlyenough meat is produced to supply thecity of Maputo and then only in verylimited quantities.Families are the major cattleproducers in the district . Stateoperations account for only 15%-20% ofthe total . The MNR has tried frequentlyto attack the large cattle blocks but isusually repelled by the military unitsassigned to guard them.Since the beginning of the year, cattleand personal property belonging to thevillagers as well as large quantities ofarms have been recovered in Armyattacks on MNR bases in the district . Atone location weapons were foundwith NATO inscriptions . Personalproperty recovered included portableradios, sewing machines, chairs,motocycles and sacks of corn . The totalnumber of MNR bandits killed andwounded in the attacks was not given . Inan attack on a small MNR base inMongonzo where five MNR memberswere listed as killed, two women and twochildren who had been kidnapped werefreed.In September, it was announced thatfour employees of CFM-Sul (theregional railroad line) were killed andone wounded in an attack by the MNRon a train one Sunday evening . BecauseThe attack involved a train repair crew,no passengers were involved.Mozambican journalists writing inTEMPO magazine, describe a stretch of(continued on page 10)Residents of each area train with the army to act as voluntary militias in their villages andwork places.

Ministerial Changes AnnouncedIn June, the Mozambique governmentannounced the reorganization of severalimportant government posts . The firstcommunique announced only thedismissal of three ministers . They werethe Minister of Interior, LieutenantGeneral Armando Emilio Guebuza, theMinister of Security, Major-GeneralMariano Matsinhe and the Minister ofMineral Resources, Jose Carlos Lobo.On the following day more detailedchanges were announced whichinvolved the naming of new ministers,vice ministers and secretaries of state aswell as the creation of a Secretary ofState for Former Combatants under theMinistry of National Defense and theintergation of the Secretary of State forCoal and Hydrocarbons into theMinistry of Mineral Resources.On June 18, extensive changesinvolving the naming of promotion of 89staff member to state and economicstructure were announced.During the swearing in ceremony forthe new ministers, vice ministers andsecretaries of state, the President spokeabout the importance of the newreorganization . He also spoke of thehope that the Nation had that problemswhich had come to disturb the normalfunctioning of their lives would h psolved . At the root of the cabinet shakeup seems to be the determination ofMachel and others to not let die thecontinual fight against what has come tobe known in Mozambique as 'illegality'.Abuses of power and other seriousinadequacies were found in the twoministries reponsible for assuring legalprocedures and justice, Interior (whichoversees the Police) and Security.At a huge May 24 rally in Nampula,President Machel spoke extensively onthe importance of the correctfunctioning those ministries reponsiblefor defense and security . He spoke of theproblems or a relaxation found withinthese ministeries which mde if possiblefor certain abuses to continue . InNampula, the President stressed theneed for better educated, more highlytrained police and security agents.Morally they must be capableof resistingcorruption but they should also havesupervisors who will not allow personnelto use their positions to demand specialprivileges . In his speech, SamoraMachel pointed up that one of thedifficulties caused by such actions is aundermining of public confidence ascitizens come to believe that corruptofficers are acting with the knowledge oftheir superiors, and therefore the state.Machel stated that the decisionsrelating to changes in the Ministries ofSecurity, Interior and Justice resultedfrom discussions of the problems intheir ministries in an Aprilmeeting of theCentral Committee and the People'sAssembly.Explaining the need for changing theleadershp of the Ministry of MineralResources, President Machel talked ofhow illegality and injustice could affectstate structures to the extent that thenormal fucntioning is disrupted causing"great damage to the nationaleconomy ."The President stressed that "Thisleadership must be capable of creating anew climate of confidence and will towork" in order to make the sector "asource of foreign exchane andcontributes decisively to nationaleconomy".The last major reorganization at theMinisterial level was in May 1983following the Fourth Party Congress . Asstated during that government overhaul,changes within the government aremade after evaluating the political.technical and professional capacity ofthe existing personnel . Because of acolonial past which gave little attentionto education, few people have thetechnical and professional requirements for running a ministry . For thisreason, the periodic government movesseem destine to find the best job for thethose who possess the necessaryqualifications . But younger, new bloodis also being cultivated as evident in thenaming of new appointees to positionswithin all of the ministries.A description of the principle changesfollow .Mariano Matsinha . who was relievedof his position as the Minister of Securitywas appointed to replace Sergio Vieiraas the Governor of Nissa.Sergio Vieira was appointed toreplace Mariano Matsinha as theMinister of Security.Oscar Monteiro, was named as thenew Minister of Interior, replacingArmando Guebuza . Monteiro had beennamed Minister of Justice in May 1983following a period as Ministr of State inthe Presidency.Armando Guebuza was appointed asa Minister in the Presidency in aSeptember 28 communicado . The otherMinister in the Presidence's Office isJacinto Veloso who is responsible foreconomic affairs . Guebuza wasappointed as Minister of Interior in May1983 . Before that he was the ResidentMinister in Sofala.Ossumane Ali Daute, who waspreviously a senior official in theMinistry of Justice, was appointedMinister replacing Oscar Monteiro.Abdul Magid Osman, who wasSecretary of State of Coal andHydrocarbons which was intergratedinto the Ministry of National Resources,was named its minister replacing JoseCarlos Lobo.Jose Carlos Lobo, was appointed aVice-Minister in the Ministry of ForeignAffairs . The other Vice-Minister is DanielMbanza who was before Mozambique'sAmbassador to Zambia . Lobo was foreight years Mozambique ' s Ambassado rto the U .N .President Machel and newly sworn in cabinet members.

FIGHT AGAINSTDROUGHT CONTINUESIt was announced in September thatbeginning in October UNICEF would beconducting a program in Tete provinceto assist residents affected by thedrought . The program which has thesupport of the World Food Program andthe Mozambican Ministry of Health willdistribute food, strengthen agriculturalproduction and support activitiesrelated to nutritional rehabilitation . Theprogram will last approximately a yearand will affect six of the cities hardest hitby the drought including the city of Tete.Every person in a program area is toreceive rations including corn mill orbeans, sugar and cooking oil andpowdered milk . Seeds are also to bedistributed. 330,000 was allocated for theprovision of gasoline for vehicles takingfood to the affected areas . Animal plowsand bicycles for technicians are alsopart of the program . In addition, a6program for increasing the productionof sardines and other fish which alreadygrow in two districts is also planned.The necessity of such a program isevident in a report of one of the affecteddistricts which stated that 12% of thechildren weighed ' 70% less than thenormal weight for their height . BetweenJanuary and March, 50% of the childrenwere hospitalized for mal-nutrition . Ofthese 20% were reported to have died.In Inhambane Province, more than82,000 people were reported to be stillsuffering the affects of the continuingdrought in two districts alone . Manyfamilies have left their homes to seekfood in one of the several emergencycenters set up last year . The largest ofthese centers is now reported to house13,500 people of whom 10,000 arechildren . The delivery of food to the areais hampered by the shortage oftransportation . , .FOREIGN AIDPACKAGESANNOUNCEDSince July Mozambique has receivedpromises of foreign aid from severaldifferent parts of the world to assist inrepairing damage caused by naturaldisasters and the country's developmentin general . Highlighted below are someof the major aid packages announced.U .S .A .—In July, it was announced thatthe U .S . government would be givingMozambique 340 million to buyequipment to stimulate the recouperation of private farms damaged bycyclone Domaina' in Maputo province.The money is to be used to purchasemotors, spare parts and components forirrigation pum

clothing to villages along the route as well as pick up sugar and limestone . act firmly in terms of the spirit and letter of the Nkomati Accord ." On September 27, Minister Veloso . continued ." He went on to declare that the continuing rebel activities could "sqriously endanger" the Accord. Officials in Mozambique believed that the South .

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