Food And Nutrition Policy - NIPN

2y ago
45 Views
2 Downloads
284.31 KB
40 Pages
Last View : 20d ago
Last Download : 3m ago
Upload by : Melina Bettis
Transcription

Food and Nutrition PolicyFederal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaFood andNutritionPolicyNovember 2018We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia01

Food and Nutrition PolicyFederal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaFood andNutritionPolicyNovember 2018We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant EthiopiaI

Food and Nutrition PolicyTable of Contents1. Introduction. 42. Rationale of the Policy. 53. Vision, Mission, Goal and Objectives. 63.1 Vision.63.2 Mission.64. Policy Scope. 75. Policy Framework. 86. Policy Values and Guiding Principles. 86.1 Policy Values.86.2 Guiding Principles.87. Food and Nutrition Policy Directions. 97.1 Ensure availability, accessibility and utilization of diversified,safe and nutritious foods in a sustainable way.97.2 Ensure the safety and quality of foods from farm to table.97.3 Improve postharvest management of agricultural food products. 107.4 Ensure optimum nutrition at all stages of life. 107.6 Strengthen food and nutrition communication. 127.7 Establish and strengthen food and nutrition governance. 128. Policy Implementation. 148.1 Approaches. 148.1.1 Life cycle approach. 148.1.2 Food as human right. 148.1.3 Food based approaches. 148.1.4 Multi-sectoral integration, coordination and linkage.14We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant EthiopiaIII

Food and Nutrition Policy8.1.5 Nutrition specific and nutrition sensitive approaches.148.1.6 Farm to table approach. 158.2 Legal Framework. 158.3 Institutional arrangement. 158.4 Capacity Building. 168.4.1 Human resources. 168.4.2 Training and research institutions. 168.4.3 Regulatory agencies. 178.5 Food and nutrition communication. 178.6 Sustainable Financing. 179. Gender Responsiveness. 1710. Role of the various actors. 1810.1 Role of Government of Ethiopia. 1810.2 Role of non-governmental bodies. 1810.3 Role of private sector. 1810.4 Role of communities.1811. Monitoring and Evaluation. 1812. Glossary of Terms. 19IVWe shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

1Food and Nutrition PolicyIntroductionEnsuring the availability, accessibility, safety and quality consumptionof nutritious foods at all times to all citizens is a prerequisite forthe creation of a productive workforce, longevity of life, improvedlivelihood and innovative capacity that would lead to fast economic,social and sustainable development of a nation. This can be realizedwhen citizens across all ages of the life cycle enjoy a healthy life, havebetter knowledge of nutrient rich foods, practice improved utilizationof foods, ensure food safety and quality along the food value chain,avoid food and nutrient losses, develop food and nutrition emergencypreparedness and increase resilience capacity. Thus, the development ofFood and Nutrition Policy can be taken as a key input towards ensuringfood and nutrition security in the country.The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has been implementingcoordinated and fundamental economic reform programs over the pastdecades. These economic reforms have resulted in encouraging socialand macroeconomic developments. Ensuring food and nutrition securitycan play a significant role in sustaining the gains from the economicreforms and putting the economy on a solid foundation. Thus, to furtherspeed up the overall economic development of the country, the optimalutilization of these opportunities and implementation of cost-effectivefood and nutrition security interventions in a sustainable manner arefundamental.Considerable efforts have been made to ensure food and nutritionsecurity in Ethiopia. With regard to the enhancement of production andWe shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia1

Food and Nutrition Policyproductivity of farmers and pastoralists some of these efforts include:agriculture, natural resources, livestock and fish farming. Additionally,the country has demonstrated its resilience and capacity to successfullyrespond to manmade and natural emergencies. As revealed by variousstudies, significant progress has been made to reduce undernutritionin the country. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition (stunting) hasdecreased from 58% to 38.4% between 2000 and 2016. The proportionof underweight children declined from 41% to 23.6% and wastingdecreased from 12% to 9.9% during the same period. In addition, theprogress made has contributed to the reduction of under-five mortalityfrom 166 per 1000 children in 2000 to 67 per 1000 children in 2016,enabling Ethiopia to achieve the Millennium Development Goal and theincrease in estimated average life expectancy at birth from 45 yearsin 1990 to 64 years in 2016.However, the average annual food production growth lags behind thepopulation growth rate, thus widening the food need gap and exposingcitizens in all age ranges for food and nutrition insecurity and transientfood aids. At the national level, 50% of households receive their calorieneeds from starch staples. As a result, 40% of households are foodenergy deficient. Moreover, lower production and productivity coupledwith poor safety and quality of foods, poor postharvest managementsystems, weak maternal and child health care, poor access to healthservices and poor water, sanitation and hygiene are some of the causesfor the food and nutrition insecurity situation in the country. Thus,the Food and Nutrition Policy was developed with the involvementof relevant stakeholders in order to address the food and nutritionsecurity challenges of the country through multi-sectoral integrationand collaboration of government and nongovernmental organizationsat all levels.2We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

2Food and Nutrition PolicyRationale of the PolicyAttaining food and nutrition security is a constitutional and human right ofEthiopians and hence the Government of Ethiopia has the responsibilityto ensure that its citizens are food and nutrition secure. As part of itsnational development agenda, Ethiopia has been implementing differentstrategies and programs to ensure food and nutrition security. Efforts weremade to implement strategies and programs such as the Food SecurityStrategy, National Nutrition Strategy, National Nutrition Program, theSeqota Declaration roadmap, Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture Strategy,School Health and Nutrition Strategy and the Productive Safety NetProgram through multi-sectoral nutrition coordination and integration.However, the absence of a legal framework and lack of accountabilitysystem for food and nutrition implementing sectors has made theattainment of food and nutrition security lag behind what was expected.If the food and nutrition insecurity is unabated, it will continue tocontribute to increased morbidity and mortality in the country. Womenaffected by the food and nutrition related problems are wasted orunderweight and are then susceptible to developing anemia and itssevere consequences during child birth (i.e. postpartum hemorrhage)and other obstetric complications. Newborns from those motherswould likely be of low birth weight and stunted. Consequently,stunted children would be more susceptible to repeated illnesses,early child mortality, compromised physical and mental development,poor educability, limited innovative capacity, poor productivity andeconomic performance during their adulthood years. Furthermore, thehigh stunting rate and increasing trend of non- communicable diseasesWe shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia3

Food and Nutrition Policywill cause the country suffer from the double burden of malnutrition.This would significantly affect the production, productivity, humanresources and economic development of the nation.Addressing food and nutrition insecurity is one of the prioritydevelopment areas for the country. Implementation of multi-sectoralfood and nutrition coordination and integration, development of legaland accountability framework, investment of sustainable and adequatefinancing, technology supported increase in agricultural production andproductivity and nutrition-centered human resource development are thesustainable and key foundations to ensuring food and nutrition security.Cognizant of this, the policy shall ensure food and nutrition securityand eventually contribute towards improved livelihoods, economicproductivity, longevity of life of citizens and overall developmentand prosperity of the nation. The policy is necessary to put forthfood and nutrition priorities that the implementing sectors and otherrelevant stakeholders, through effective multi-sectoral collaborationand integration, will need to take forth with strong responsibility andaccountability.4We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

3Food and Nutrition PolicyVision, Mission, Goaland Objectives3.1 Vision To see all Ethiopians with optimal nutritional status, quality oflife, productivity and longevity of life.3.2 Mission We strive to ensure food and nutrition security throughcoordinated implementation of nutrition specific and nutritionsensitive interventions.3.3 Goal To attain optimal nutritional status at all stages of life at a levelthat is consistent with a high quality of life, productivity andlongevity of life.3.4 ObjectivesBy creating an enabling policy environment, the food and nutritionpolicy objectives will:1. Ensure the availability and accessibility of adequate food to allEthiopians at all times.2. Improve accessibility, and quality of nutrition and nutritionsmart health services at all stages of the life span in an equitablemanner.We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia5

Food and Nutrition Policy3. Improve consumption and utilization of a diversified andnutritious diet that ensures a citizen’s optimal heath throughouttheir life cycle.4. Improve the safety and quality of food throughout the valuechain.5. Reduce food and nutrient losses along the value chain.6. Improve food and nutrition emergency risk management,preparedness and resilience systems.7. Improve food and nutrition literacy of all Ethiopians.6We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

4Food and Nutrition PolicyPolicy ScopeThis policy is referred to as the “Food and Nutrition Policy of Ethiopia”.The Policy emanates from legal and ethical tenets related to thewellbeing of citizens that are enshrined in the country’s constitutionand it is aligned with the national and sectoral policies and strategies ofthe country. The Policy is formulated with a broader scope to provide apolicy foundation for multi-sectoral collaboration, community orientednutrition service provision, encourage high impact nutrition interventionsand developing related operational and management strategies.The Policy provides an overarching framework covering the keydimensions of food and nutrition security including sustained foodavailability, accessibility and utilization of food; food safety and quality;postharvest management; and optimal nutrition security at all levels ofsociety, agro-ecological zones and livelihoods as well as in recurringemergencies. The policy also considers matters that pose challengesto food and nutrition security such as land degradation, globalization,regional market integration, demographic change, income inequalities,increasing population pressure, urbanization, and the demand for naturalresources. The policy will also give emphasis to food and nutritioncapacity building at national, regional and institutional levels along withempowering communities, families and individuals to enhance optimalnutrition behaviors and practices. In addition, based on the principles offarm to table and life cycle approach, the policy will give a frameworkto provide guidance to any food and nutrition related critical issues atnational, regional and community levels.We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia7

5Food and Nutrition PolicyPolicy FrameworkThe policy is based on the global conceptual framework for nutritionsecurity as a change model to address the existing causes of nutritioninsecurity at various levels. The policy framework focuses on short,medium and long-term strategies in an integrated way to addressthe different layers of nutrition problems. The immediate causes ofmalnutrition are related to the inadequate nutrient intake and poorhealth of the individuals. Similarly, the medium term interventionsaimed at addressing the underlying causes are related to traditionalagricultural practices, lack of access to and availability of clean waterand sanitation, poor health services, low girls’ education and genderaffirmative action, poor social protection, and weak social safety netprograms. The lack of an appropriate institutional arrangement, politicalcommitment, economic and socio- cultural issues such as povertyreduction, economic growth, governance and stewardship capacities,basic education, and lack of agriculture, irrigation and other economicinfrastructures are considered as basic causes of malnutrition.8We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

6Food and Nutrition PolicyPolicy Values andGuiding Principles6.1 Policy ValuesThe policy upholds the following key values in all endeavors of itsimplementation.1. Community centered: Giving priority to equal participationand benefits.2. Coordination: Ensuring participation of all stakeholders in theimplementation of the policy in coordinated manner.3. Accountability: Being committed to and be responsible foractions taken and communicate the results in a transparentmanner.4. Equity: Narrowing vulnerability and inequalities with regardto sectoral, gender, disability, age, geography, social status andliving styles.5. Responsiveness: Ensuring timely and positive responsesfor food and nutrition demands of the community and buildresilience capacity for food shortage and vulnerability.6.2 Guiding PrinciplesThe food and nutrition policy is based on the following guidingprinciples:1. That it accommodates lifecycle approach with specialemphasis to the first 1000 days nutrition.We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia9

Food and Nutrition Policy2. That access to adequate, safe, high quality and nutritious foodis a human right and ensures the right to informed choiceof food based on trustworthy data/information and policyframework.3. That food and nutrition issues are cross-cutting in natureand that effective multi-sectoral coordination is encouraged.4. That the sustainable food value chain is encouraged anddietary practices of the community are improved through thepromotion of the indigenous knowledge on food and dietarypractices and sharing of relevant international experiences.5. That food sovereignty is ensured and shared responsibilityamong public-private partnerships is promoted along the foodvalue chain.6. That food is recognized as a national strategic resource,promotes innovation and application of new, profitable andenvironmental friendly technologies for preparation, processingand familiarization of new foods and food products.10We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

7Food and Nutrition PolicyFood and NutritionPolicy Directions7.1 Ensure availability, accessibility andutilization of diversified, safe and nutritiousfoods in a sustainable wayFood security is sustainably ensured when all people, at all times,have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safeand nutritious food which meets their dietary needs andfood preferences for an active and healthy life. The Governmentof Ethiopia (GoE) recognizes that food security is a fundamentalhuman right. Cognizant of this, food security is one of the policydirections.ObjectiveThe policy objective is to:1. Improve the availability and accessibility of adequate,diversified, safe and nutritious foods for all in asustainable way.StrategiesTo achieve this objective, the following strategies will beimplemented:1. Strengthen the system for improving access to naturalresources, agro-ecologically appropriate and climate smartinputs, technologies, skills and insurance services forWe shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia11

Food and Nutrition Policyenhancing agricultural, livestock and fishery productionand productivity in a sustainable way.2. Strengthen the system for improving income, job creation,purchasing power of individuals and households andmarket linkage of food commodities.3. Strengthen agricultural crops, livestock and fisheries healthand care services.4. Strengthen social protection programs for ensuringequitable distribution of diversified, safe and adequatenutritious foods, cash transfers and other services at alllevels.5. Strengthen coping strategies of food production systems ofhouseholds through climate resilient, climate adaptation,mitigation and response strategies.6. Develop a system for safe and appropriate use ofbiotechnology for food production and processing.7.2 Ensure the safety and quality of foods fromfarm to tableAn effective food safety system is vital to safeguard thecommunity from unsafe food consumption and contribute toeconomic benefits of the country from agricultural products. Itis essential to build a system for ensuring food safety and qualityusing a comprehensive and integrated farm-to-table approachin which all value chain actors play vital roles. Therefore, foodsafety and quality is as a policy direction.ObjectiveThe policy objective is to:1. Ensure the safety and quality of food throughout the foodvalue chain.12We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

Food and Nutrition PolicyStrategiesTo achieve this objective, the following strategies will beimplemented:1. Establish a system for ensuring the safety and quality ofprimary agricultural food commodities and processedfoods.2. Develop and adapt appropriate technologies to establishand implement a legal framework for ensuring the safetyand quality of foods throughout the value chain.3. Ensure the safety and quality of foods prepared and servedto the community by hotels, restaurants, street vendors andother catering establishments.4. Strengthen and implement a system that mitigates foodadulteration, misbranding, counterfeiting and substandardization to ensure and prevent the entry of unsafefoods into the market for public consumption.5. Establish a system for ensuring the availability, safety andquality control of water supplies.7.3 Improve postharvest management ofagricultural food productsIt is critical to improve the safety of foods and prevent thequantitative and qualitative loss of foods through establishingmodern postharvest management system, which demandsappropriate technologies, skills, infrastructure and sufficientresources along the food value chain. Cognizant of this,postharvest management is as a policy direction.We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia13

Food and Nutrition PolicyObjectiveThe policy objective is to:1. Improve postharvest management throughout the foodvalue chain.StrategiesTo achieve this objective, the following strategies will beimplemented:1. Develop and implement food-processing technologytraining (incubation) centers at community and householdlevels across the country.2. Establish a small, medium and large-scale agro-processingindustries and infrastructures to enhance value addition,improve postharvest management and implement transfer ofappropriate technologies.7.4 Ensure optimum nutrition at all stages of lifeThe prevention of malnutrition across all stages of life demandsmulti-sectoral planning and collaborative execution of highimpact nutrition specific and sensitive interventions. Ensuringoptimal nutrition along all stages of life would lead to improvednutritional status, quality of life, longevity of life and productivityof the people and ultimately, economic growth. With thisunderstanding, optimal nutrition at all stages of life is as a policydirection.ObjectivesThe policy objectives are to:1. Improve the nutritional status of people with specialfocus on pregnant and lactating women, children andadolescents.14We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

Food and Nutrition Policy2. Improve the nutritional status of people withcommunicable and non- communicable diseases and ofpeople affected by various circumstances, people that needspecial support and care.StrategiesTo achieve these objectives, the following strategies will beimplemented.1.Establish and strengthen a system to protect and promoteoptimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding.2.Establish and strengthen a system for food fortificationand optimal nutrition through food based approaches toprevent micronutrient deficiencies and related nutritionproblems.3.Strengthen comprehensive and integrated nutritionservices of schools, people in special circumstances andpeople with communicable and non- communicablediseases.4.Establish and strengthen a system to address economicempowerment and reduce workload of women through useof labor and time saving technologies.5.Strengthen access to context specific nutrition smart healthand nutrition services.6.Strengthen access to and utilization of universal water,sanitation and hygiene facilities and services.7.Develop and implement indigenous and suitable socialand behavioral change communication strategies to createnutrition literacy and eventually improve the feedingpractices of pregnant and lactating women, children andadolescents.We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia15

Food and Nutrition Policy7.5 Provision of timely and appropriate foodand nutrition emergency response fornatural and manmade disastersBuilding the capacity of the country to successfully implementearly warning and preparedness, strong monitoring and evaluationsystem, timely emergency response and rehabilitation duringnatural and manmade disasters is essential to significantly reduceboth the short and long term consequences of food and nutritionemergencies. Thus, the provision of timely and appropriate foodand nutrition emergency response is one of the policy directions.ObjectiveThe policy objective is to:1. Strengthen the national capacity to manage natural andmanmade food and nutrition emergencies with timely andappropriate response.StrategyTo achieve this objective, the following strategy will beimplemented:1. Develop and strengthen early warning, preparedness, timelyand appropriate response and rehabilitation systems fornatural and manmade food and nutrition emergencies thusaddressing the underlying causes of vulnerability for foodand nutrition related problems.16We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

Food and Nutrition Policy7.6 Strengthen food and nutritioncommunicationFood and nutrition communication is the art of creating a foodand nutrition literate community through advocacy, social andbehavioral change communication and community mobilization.Thus, the food and nutrition policy has identified food andnutrition communication as a policy direction.ObjectiveThe policy objective is to:1. Improve the nutrition literacy of individuals, families andcommunities along the food value chain to make informeddecision on the uptake of nutrition services.StrategiesTo achieve this objective, the following strategies will beimplemented:1. Develop and strengthen a system to optimally utilizethe communication approaches and untested communitycommunication approaches and channels for building thecapacity of food and nutrition influencers and decisionmakers.2. Develop and strengthen a system to utilize culturallyappropriate, context specific social, and behavior changecommunication channels to create nutrition model familiesand communities.We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia17

Food and Nutrition Policy7.7 Establish and strengthen food andnutrition governanceThe Food and Nutrition Policy provides a policy frameworkfor multi-sectoral governance of food and nutrition activities inthe country. The Government of Ethiopia shall establish a Foodand Nutrition Governing Body and institutional arrangement(structure) from Federal to Kebele levels with leadership of thehighest government decision makers to govern and coordinatethe implementation of the Food and Nutrition Policy. In addition,the government shall set directions to build the capacities ofthe various FNP implementing sectors and stakeholders. TheFood and Nutrition Governing Body shall give due emphasis toresearch and innovations, allocation of adequate resources anddevelopment of accountability framework for monitoring andevaluation. Hence, food and nutrition governance is as a policydirection.ObjectivesThe policy objectives are to:1. Create a functional governance body for strengthening thecoordination and integration of food and nutrition policyimplementing sectors.2. Ensure sustainable and adequate financing throughgovernment treasury, development partners’ allocation andinnovative financing mechanisms to translate the policyinto action.3. Build the institutional capacities of food and nutritionpolicy implementing sectors with human resource,research and technological development.4. Enhance evidence generation for decision-making,learning and accountability.18We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia

Food and Nutrition PolicyStrategiesTo achieve these objectives, the following strategies will beimplemented:1. Establish a Food and Nutrition Governing Body bestowedwith the required authorities, accountability, legalframework and functional organizational structure fromfederal to kebele levels.2. Strengthen food and nutrition related research, training,service and functional capacities of individuals,communities and institutions at all levels.3. Implement food and nutrition policy through thesupport of Information and Communication Technologyand monitoring and evaluation system with a strongaccountability framework.4. Establish a system for maximizing resource mobilizationand allocation from the government treasury, community,private sectors, development partners and other national,regional and international institutions and organizationsthrough fostering strong linkages for optimal learning,research and technology transfer.We shall strive to create food and nutrition self-reliant Ethiopia19

8Food and Nutrition PolicyPolicy ImplementationImplementation of the policy shall rely on evidence based approaches andimplementation framework to ensure sustainability, cost effectiveness,coordination and community involvement.8.1 Approaches8.1.1 Life cycle approachThis policy adopts a life-cycle approach viewing nutritionalissues across the stages of life cycles and generations. Thepolicy gives great focus to the critical periods of the first 1000days (pregnancy through the first two years of a child’s life),during which good nutrition delivers lasting benefits throughoutlife including optimal physical growth and mental developmentfor bright future. The policy considers interventions addressingnutritional problems during pregnancy, infancy, childhood andadolescence to prevent risks of diet related problems, chronicnon-communicable diseases, disability and mortality.8.1.2 Food as human rightThis policy ensures that food and nutrition security is a humanand constitutional right of all citizens. The provision of allfood and nutrition services shall consider the human rights ofall citizens. Therefore, this policy stipula

of foods, ensure food safety and quality along the food value chain, avoid food and nutrient losses, develop food and nutrition emergency preparedness and increase resilience capacity. Thus, the development of Food and Nutrition Policy can be taken as a key input towards ensuring food and nutrition security in the country.

Related Documents:

the Food and Nutrition Decade and in 1995 developed a ‘Food Security and Nutrition Policy for Namibia’ and a ‘Food Security and Nutrition Action Plan’. The objective of the Policy and Action Plan is the improvement of the nutritional status of the population. The National Food Security and Nutrition

Nutrition & Food Prep Topics and Related Standards Overview NUTRITION AND FOOD PREP I, II FACS I Middle School FACS MIS03 # 09131, 09135 MIS03 # 09022 MIS03 # 09006 Food Customs and Nutrition Food Customs and Nutrition Food Customs and Nutrition Nutritional Needs Through the Life Span (2.1.3, 9.3.1, 9.3.5, 9.3.6, 14.2.2)

Global Nutrition Transition This paper presents the conceptual linkages between food security and nutrition and reviews data on the associations between experience-based measures of food insecurity and nutritional status outcomes in countries at different stages of the nutrition transition. 1. Food security and nutrition - definitions and .

USDA. Project Team Jane Duffield, MPA Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food and Nutrition Service, USDA Jackie Haven, MS, RDN Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, USDA Sarah A. Chang, MPH, RDN Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, USDA Maya Maroto, MPH, RDN Child Nutrition, USDA. Pilot Schools Thurgood Marshall Academy Public

Role of the Supervisor of Food Services Role of Food Handlers Role of Nursing Role of Interdisciplinary Team The Audit Program Frequency of Nutrition and Food Service Audits Summary of Nutrition and Food Service Audits Glossary of Terms Chapter 2: Nutrition Care Plans Nutrition Care Planning

Management, Region Dietitian, Clinical Dietitian, Food Service Manager, Food Service Supervisor and Food Service Officer. 100.2 POLICY Food and Nutrition Management is a section of the Division of Prisons, in North Carolina's Department of Public Safety. This policy establishes the organization of the Food and Nutrition

Kat Pittore, Jessica Meeker, Tom Barker Institute of Development Studies May 2017 Summary and key recommendations An important part of the work of National Information Platforms for Nutrition (NIPN) is to produce evidence-based analysis to inform national policy makers and programme planners and to support their decisions.

A - provider is used by AngularJS internally to create services, factory etc. B - provider is used during config phase. C - provider is a special factory method. D - All of the above. Q 10 - config phase is the phase during which AngularJS bootstraps itself. A - true B - false Q 11 - constants are used to pass values at config phase. A - true B .