# Building Bridges – VOCABULARY Arch Bridges

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Building Bridges – VOCABULARYArch Bridges Deck Arch Roadway is above the arch Romans first used Half Through Arch Roadway cuts through the arch Through Arch Roadway is suspended from the arch Bowstring Roadway ends are hung from the arch by tension wires

Beam Bridges Girder Load carrying horizontal beam is supported ateach end by footings Boxed or arched girders are used for maximumstrength Cantilever Middle beam is supported by two outsidebeams Divides the bending movement into two parts Bridge whose two main spans extend towardeach other and support a short suspendedspan, which bears fewer loads. Truss Made from beams which are cross braced atregular intervals Horizontal beams are necessary to prevent thetruss from falling over Truss may be above or below the deck

Tension Bridges Suspension Deck is suspended by hangers from continuoussteel cable Cables are supported by towers and areanchored at each end of the structure Load is carried in tension which is transmitted tothe ground by each part Cable Stayed Deck is supported by cable connected directly toone or two towers Load is transferred directly to the towers Strut That part of a structure which carries the load incompression Thrust Lines Lines of force, caused by loads, transmitted through a structure to the ground Must remain in the middle third of a structure of it will fall over Is the limiting factor in the possible height of a structure Compression The tendency for a materials forcesto be applied inwards Tension The tendency for a material tostretch or be pulled apart Torque When a force is multiplied by the length of a lever arm If a lever arm is doubled, the torque is also doubled. Torsion The tendency of a material to be twisted

Weight The gravitational pull between two objects

We all rely on bridges for travelling over many of obstacles that get in the way of path to ourmany designations we need to go to each day. But do you know how they work? Or why somebridges are curved while others are straight? Engineers have to consider many things -- like thedistance to be spanned, the types of materials available, and the needs and functions of thebridge; before determining the size, shape, and overall look of the bridge.Since the earliest times, people have designed four major typesof bridges:The Beam Bridge. A simple bridge that has horizontal beams supportedby vertical posts Horizontal beams are supported at each end by piers.The weight of the beam pushes straight down on thepiers. When something pushes down on the beam, the beambends. Its top edge is pushed together, and its bottom edgeis pulled apart. The farther apart its piers, the weaker the beambecomes. This is why beam bridges rarely span morethan 250 feet. A continuous span bridge has the ability to spangreat distances because several beam bridges can belinked together.The Truss Bridge. Truss bridge consists of an assembly of triangles; they arecommonly made from a series of straight, steel bars.

Every bar in this cantilever bridge experiences either a pushing or pulling force. The bars rarelybend. This is why cantilever bridges can span farther than beam bridges.The Arch Bridge. Has great natural strength. Thousands of years ago,Romans built arches out of stone. Today, most archbridges are made of steel or concrete, and they canspan up to 800 feet. The arch is squeezed together, and this squeezing forceis carried along the curve to the supports at each end. Thesupports push back on the arch and prevent the ends of thearch from spreading apart.How are arch bridges built? Building an arch bridge isn't easy, since thestructure is completely unstable until the two spansmeet in the middle. For years, engineers used a technique calledcentering, in which a wooden form supported bothspans until they locked together at the top. A newer method supports the spans using cablesanchored to the ground on either side of the bridge.The Suspension Bridge. Can span 2,000 to 7,000 feet - much farther than any othertype of bridge! Most suspension bridges have a truss systembeneath the roadway to resist bending and twisting. The roadway hangs from massive steel cables, which aredraped over two towers and secured into solid concrete blocks,called anchorages, on both ends of the bridge. The cars push down on the roadway, but because theroadway is suspended, the cables transfer the load intocompression on the two towers. The towers support most ofthe weight.

Cable-Stayed BridgeThe cable-stayed bridge, like the suspension bridge, supportsthe roadway with massive steel cables, but in a different way.The cables run directly from the roadway up to a tower,forming a unique "A" shape.Cable-stayed bridges, like the Alex Fraser Bridge in the lower mainland,require less cable and can be built much faster than suspension bridges.Cable-stayed bridges are becoming the most popular bridges for mediumlength spans (between 500 and 3,000 feet).Lower Mainland Bridges1) Arthur Lang2) Oak St3) Knight St.4) Queensborough5) Alex Fraser6) Pattullo7) Port Mann8) Second Narrows9) Lions Gate

10) Cambie11) Granville12) Burrard13) Pitt River14) No. 2 Road15) George Massey Tunnel

Lower Mainland Bridge Quiz1) What is another name for the Iron Workers Memorial Bridge?a. Second Narrowsb. Alex Fraserc. Lions Gated. Port Mann2) What bridge runs from North Delta to Annacis Island?a. Cambieb. Burrard St.c. Port Mannd. Alex Fraser3) I lead to the Alex Fraser bridge, who am I?a. Knight St.b. Pattulloc. Queensboroughd. Lions Gate4) What bridge carries traffic from highway 99 from Richmond to Vancouver?a. Knight St.b. Burrard St.c. Oak St.d. Port Mann5) How many bridges tie the North Shore & West Vancouver to the rest of the GreaterVancouver?a. Zerob. Onec. Twod. Three6) Which bridge spans from Surrey to New Westminster?a. Pattullob. Arthur Langc. Alex Fraserd. Granville St.

7) What bridge goes from Sea Island to Vancouvera. Cambie St.b. Queensboroughc. Arthur Langd. Lions Gate8) I am a large bridge that spans from Surrey to Coquitlam. Who am I?a. Second Narrowsb. Port Mannc. Lions Gated. Knight St.9) I tie Vancouver to West Vancouver and North Vancouver, who am I?a. Oak St.b. Granville St.c. Pattullod. Lions Gate10) How many bridges tie Richmond to Vancouvera. Zerob. Onec. Twod. ThreeAnswer Key1)2)3)4)5)6)7)8)9)10)Second NarrowsAlex FraserQueensboroughOak St.TwoPattulloArthur LangPort MannLions GateThree

Student Activities – Lesson BreakdownsDay 1 Unit breakdowno Talk about unit objectiveso Talk about activitieso Fun Quiz - Lower Mainland BridgesVocabulary lessono Handout of vocabulary and termsStudent discussion questionso Handout of facts and informationo Handout of discussion questions (Homework)Breakout into groupso Pick groupso Start preliminary design conceptsFinish / Cleanup / Wrap-upo Finish vocabulary and discussion questions worksheetso Cleanup and setup classroom from group workDay 2 Pre-testBridge Building Site – MEDIA COMPONENTo http://stephenjl.googlepages.com/bridgebuildingo Explore resource listo Play bridge builder gameo Answer final questions (could be homework)Group workCleanup lab and log off computersDay 3 Post testBUILDING YOUR NEWSPAPER BRIDGE!!!!!!o Get equipmento Build bridgeo Return any unused resourceso Test bridgeso Awards ceremonieso Cleanup of room

require less cable and can be built much faster than suspension bridges. Cable-stayed bridges are becoming the most popular bridges for medium-length spans (between 500 and 3,000 feet). Lower Mainland Bridges 1) Arthur Lang 2) Oak St 3) Knight St. 4) Queensborough 5) Alex Fraser 6) Pattullo 7) Port Mann 8) Second Narrows 9) Lions Gate

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