Grammar And Language Workbook - ESL

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GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTSGrammarand LanguageWorkbookG RADE 8

Glencoe/McGraw-HillCopyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United StatesCopyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or means, or stored ina database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.Send all inquiries to:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill8787 Orion PlaceColumbus, Ohio 43240-4027ISBN 0-07-820541-7Printed in the United States of America2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 066 03 02 01 00

ContentsHandbook of Definitions and Rules .1Troubleshooter .23Part 1 Grammar .45Unit 1 Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences1.1Kinds of Sentences: Declarative andInterrogative .471.2Kinds of Sentences: Exclamatory andImperative.491.3Sentence Fragments .511.4Subjects and Predicates: Simple andComplete.531.5Subjects and Predicates: Compound .551.6Simple and Compound Sentences .57Unit 1 Review .59Cumulative Review .60Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-HillUnit 2 Nouns2.7Nouns: Proper and Common .612.8Nouns: Concrete and Abstract .632.9Nouns: Compounds, Plurals,and Possessives .652.10Nouns: Collective .672.11Distinguishing Plurals, Possessives, andContractions .692.12Appositives.71Unit 2 Review .73Cumulative Review: Units 1-2 .74Unit 3 Verbs3.13Action Verbs.753.14Verbs: Transitive and Intransitive .773.15Verbs with Indirect Objects .793.16Linking Verbs and Predicate Words .813.17Present and Past Tenses.853.18Main Verbs and Helping Verbs.893.19Verb Forms: Present Progressiveand Past Progressive.913.20Perfect Tenses: Present and Past .933.21Expressing Future Time.953.22Active and Passive Voices .973.23Irregular Verbs I.993.24Irregular Verbs II .101Unit 3 Review .105Cumulative Review: Units 1-3 .106Unit 4 Pronouns4.25Pronouns: Personal .1074.26Pronouns and Antecedents.1094.27Using Pronouns Correctly.1114.28Pronouns: Possessive and Indefinite.1134.29Pronouns: Reflexive and Intensive.1154.30Pronouns: Interrogative andDemonstrative .117Unit 4 Review .119Cumulative Review: Units 1-4 .120Unit 5 Adjectives and Adverbs5.31Adjectives .1215.32Articles and Proper Adjectives.1235.33Comparative andSuperlative Adjectives rative and Superlative Adverbs .1315.37Using Adverbs and Adjectives .1335.38Avoiding Double Negatives .135Unit 5 Review .137Cumulative Review: Units 1-5 .138Unit 6 Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections6.39Prepositions and PrepositionalPhrases.1416.40Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions .1436.41Prepositional Phrases as Adjectivesand Adverbs .1456.42Conjunctions: Coordinating andCorrelative .1476.43Conjunctive Adverbs and Interjections.149Unit 6 Review .151Cumulative Review: Units 1-6 .152Unit 7 Clauses and Complex Sentences7.44Sentences and Main Clauses .1557.45Complex Sentences andSubordinate Clauses.1577.46Adjective Clauses .1597.47Essential and Nonessential Clauses .1617.48Adverb Clauses.1637.49Noun Clauses.165Unit 7 Review .167Cumulative Review: Units 1-7 .168Unit 8 Verbals8.50Participles and Participial Phrases.1718.51Gerunds and Gerund Phrases .1758.52Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases .179Unit 8 Review .183Cumulative Review: Units 1-8 .184Unit 9 Subject-Verb Agreement9.53Making Subjects and Verbs Agree .1879.54Locating the Subject.1899.55Collective Nouns and OtherSpecial Subjects .1919.56Indefinite Pronouns as Subjects .1939.57Agreement with Compound Subjects.195Unit 9 Review .197Cumulative Review: Units 1-9 .198Unit 10 Diagraming Sentences10.58 Diagraming Simple Subjectsand Predicates .201Table of Contentsiii

Part 2 Usage Glossary .225Unit 11 Usage Glossary11.68 Usage: accept to a lot .22711.69 Usage: beside to less.22911.70 Usage: formally to teach .23111.71 Usage: leave to sit.23311.72 Usage: than to you’re.235Unit 11 Review .237Cumulative Review: Units 1-11 .238Part 3 Mechanics .241Unit 12 Capitalization12.73 Capitalization of Sentences,Quotations, and Salutations .24312.74 Capitalization of Names andTitles of Persons .24512.75 Capitalization of Names of Places .24712.76 Capitalization of Other Proper Nounsand Adjectives.249Unit 12 Review .251Cumulative Review: Units 1-12 .252Unit 13 Punctuation13.77 Using the Period and OtherEnd Marks.25513.78 Using Commas to Signal Pauseor Separation .25713.79 Using Commas with Clauses .25913.80 Using Commas with Titles, Addresses,and Dates .26113.81 Using Commas with Direct Quotes, inLetters, and for Clarity .26313.82 Using Semicolons and Colons .26513.83 Using Quotation Marks and Italics.26713.84 Using the Apostrophe .26913.85 Using the Hyphen, Dash,and Parentheses.27113.86 Using Abbreviations.27313.87 Writing Numbers.275Unit 13 Review .277Cumulative Review: Units 1-13 .278iv Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8Part 4 Vocabulary and Spelling .281Unit 14 Vocabulary and Spelling14.88 Building Vocabulary: Learningfrom Context.28314.89 Building Vocabulary: Word Roots.28514.90 Building Vocabulary: Prefixesand Suffixes.28714.91 Building Vocabulary: Synonyms andAntonyms .28914.92 Building Vocabulary: Homographs andHomophones .29114.93 Basic Spelling Rules I .29314.94 Basic Spelling Rules II .295Review: Building Vocabulary .297Review: Basic Spelling Rules .299Part 5 Composition.301Unit 15 Composition15.95 The Writing Process: Prewriting.30315.96 The Writing Process: Drafting.30715.97 The Writing Process: Revising.31115.98 The Writing Process: Editing .31515.99 The Writing Process: Presenting.31915.100 The Writing Process: Outlining .32115.101 Writing Effective Sentences.32315.102 Building Paragraphs.32715.103 Paragraph Ordering .33115.104 Personal Letters: Formal .33515.105 Personal Letters: Informal.33715.106 Business Letters: Letters ofRequest or of Complaint .33915.107 Business Letters: StatingYour Opinion .341Index.343TAE TestsUnit 1: Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences.349Unit 2: Nouns .351Unit 3: Verbs.353Unit 4: Pronouns .357Unit 5: Adjectives and Adverbs.359Unit 6: Prepositions, Conjunctions,and Interjections .361Unit 7: Clauses and Complex Sentences .365Unit 8: Verbals.369Unit 9: Subject-Verb Agreement .371Unit 10: Diagraming Sentences.373Unit 11: Usage .375Unit 12: Capitalization .377Unit 13: Punctuation .379Unit 14: Vocabulary and Spelling .381Unit 15: Composition .383Answer Key .387Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill10.59 Diagraming Direct and IndirectObjects and Predicate Words.20310.60 Diagraming Adjectives and Adverbs .20510.61 Diagraming Prepositional Phrases.20710.62 Diagraming Compound Sentence Parts.20910.63 Diagraming Compound Sentences .21110.64 Diagraming Complex Sentences withAdjective or Adverb Clauses .21310.65 Diagraming Noun Clauses.21510.66 Diagraming Verbals .21710.67 Diagraming Infinitives .219Unit 10 Review .221Cumulative Review: Units 1-10 .222

Handbook ofDefinitionsand RulesHandbook1

HandbookSUBJECTS AND PREDICATES1. The simple subject is the key noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about.A compound subject is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by aconjunction and have the same verb.The lantern glows.Moths and bugs fly nearby.2. The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that expresses the essential thoughtabout the subject of the sentence. A compound predicate is made up of two or moreverbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject.Rachel jogged down the hill.Pete stretched and exercised for an hour.3. The complete subject consists of the simple subject and all the words that modify it.Golden curly hair framed the child’s face.The soft glow of sunset made her happy.4. The complete predicate consists of the simple predicate and all the words that modifyit or complete its meaning.Lindy ate a delicious muffin for breakfast.The apple muffin also contained raisins.5. Usually the subject comes before the predicate in a sentence. In inverted sentences, allor part of the predicate precedes the subject.(You) Wait for me at the corner. (request)Through the toys raced the children. (inverted)Is the teacher feeling better? (question)There are seats in the first row.Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-HillPARTS OF SPEECHNouns1. A singular noun is a word that names one person, place, thing, or idea.auntmeadowpencilfriendshipA plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea.auntsmeadowspencilsfriendships2. To help you determine whether a word in a sentence is a noun, try adding it to thefollowing sentences. Nouns will fit in at least one of these sentences:He said something about .I know something about a(n) .He said something about aunts.I know something about a meadow.3. A common noun names a general class of people, places, things, or ideas.sailorcityholidaymusicA proper noun specifies a particular person, place, thing, event, or idea. Proper nounsare always capitalized.Captain AhabRomeMemorial DayTreasure IslandHandbook3

An abstract noun names an idea, a quality, or a characteristic.peacehealthstrengthcontentment5. A collective noun names a group. When the collective noun refers to the group as awhole, it is singular. When it refers to the individual group members, the collectivenoun is plural.The family eats dinner together every night. (singular)The council vote as they wish on the pay increase. (plural)6. A possessive noun shows possession, ownership, or the relationship between two nouns.Monica’s bookthe rabbit’s earsthe hamster’s cageVerbs1. A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make astatement. A verb will fit one or more of these sentences:He .We .She it.He knows.We walk.She sees it.2. An action verb tells what someone or something does. The two types of action verbs aretransitive and intransitive. A transitive verb is followed by a word or words—called thedirect object—that answer the question what? or whom? An intransitive verb is notfollowed by a word that answers what? or whom?Transitive: The tourists saw the ruins.The janitor washed the window.Intransitive: Owls hooted during the night.The children played noisily.3. An indirect object receives what the direct object names.Marcy sent her brother a present.4. A linking verb links, or joins, the subject of a sentence with an adjective or nominative.The trucks were red. (adjective)She became an excellent swimmer. (nominative)5. A verb phrase consists of a main verb and all its auxiliary, or helping, verbs.We had been told of his arrival.They are listening to a symphony.6. Verbs have four principal parts or forms: base, past, present participle, and pastparticiple.Base: I talk.Present Participle: I am talking.Past: I talked.Past Participle:I have talked.Regular verbs form their past form and past participle by adding -ed to the base form.4 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-HillHandbook4. A concrete noun names an object that occupies space or that can be recognized by anyof the senses.leafmelodydeskaroma

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF IRREGULAR VERBSCopyright by Glencoe/McGraw-HillBase egogrowhanghaveknowlayPast Formwas, vewentgrewhung orhangedhadknewlaidPast Participlebeenbeatenbecomebegunbitten or kdriveneatenfallenfeltfoundflownfrozengot or gottengivengonegrownhung orhangedhadknownlaidBase wwearwinwritePast nk orshrunksangsatspokesprang otePast seensetshrunk ldthoughtthrownwornwonwritten8. The principle parts are used to form six verb tenses. The tense of a verb expresses time.Simple TensesPresent Tense: She speaks. (present or habitual action)Past Tense:She spoke. (action completed in the past)Future Tense: She will speak. (action to be done in the future)Perfect TensesPresent Perfect Tense: She has spoken. (action just done or still in effect)Past Perfect Tense:She had spoken. (action completed before some other pastaction)Future Perfect Tense: She will have spoken. (action to be completed before somefuture time)Handbook5Handbook7. Irregular verbs form their past form and past participle without adding -ed to the baseform.

10. The voice of a verb shows whether the subject performs the action or receives the actionof the verb. A sentence is in the active voice when the subject performs the action. Asentence is in the passive voice when the subject receives the action of the verb.The robin ate the worm. (active)The worm was eaten by the robin. (passive)Pronouns1. A pronoun takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or anotherpronoun.2. A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing. First-person personalpronouns refer to the speaker, second-person pronouns refer to the one spoken to, andthird-person pronouns refer to the one spoken about.SingularPluralFirst PersonI, me, my, minewe, us, our, oursSecond Personyou, your, yoursyou, your, yoursThird Personhe, she, it, him, her, his, hers, itsthey, them, their, theirs3. A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of the sentence. An intensive pronoun addsemphasis to a noun or another pronoun. A demonstrative pronoun points out specificpersons, places, things, or ideas.Reflexive:Nikki prepares himself for the day-long hike.Intensive:Nikki himself prepares for the day-long hike.Demonstrative: That was a good movie! These are the files you wanted.4. An interrogative pronoun is used to form questions. A relative pronoun is used tointroduce a subordinate clause. An indefinite pronoun refers to persons, places, orthings in a more general way than a personal pronoun does.Interrogative: Whose are these? Which did you prefer?Relative:The bread that we tasted was whole wheat.Indefinite:Someone has already told them. Everyone agrees on the answer.5. Use the subject form of a personal pronoun when it is used as a subject or when it followsa linking verb.He writes stories.Are they ready?It is I. (after linking verb)6. Use the object form of a personal pronoun when it is an object.Mrs. Cleary called us. (direct object)Stephen offered us a ride. (indirect object)Sara will go with us. (object of preposition)7. Use a possessive pronoun to replace a possessive noun. Never use an apostrophe in apossessive personal pronoun.Their science experiment is just like ours.6 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8Copyright by Glencoe/McGraw-HillHandbook9. Progressive forms of verbs are made up of a form of be and a present particicple andexpress a continuing action. Emphatic forms are mad

Unit 14 Vocabulary and Spelling 14.88 Building Vocabulary: Learning from Context.283 14.89 Building Vocabulary: Word Roots.285 14.90 Building Vocabulary: Prefixes and Suffixes.287 14.91 Building Vocabulary: Synonyms and

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