Paper Birchslide 52b360%slide 52cslide 52d360%360%III-105
Environmental RequirementsPaper Birch(Betula papyrifera)SoilsSoil Texture - Does best on loamy or sandy soils alongrivers, lakes or ravines.Soil pH - 5.0 to 7.5.Windbreak Suitability Group - 1, 1K, 3.General DescriptionA native medium to tall tree which is loosely pyramidalwhen young, developing an irregular oval crown whenmature. Drought stress followed by borer attack oftencauses decline. The largest tree in North Dakota is 61 feettall with a canopy spread of 40 feet.Cold HardinessUSDA Zone 2.WaterDoes best on well-drained, moist sites. Does not toleratedrought. Similar to aspen in water needs.Leaves and BudsBud Arrangement - No terminal bud, lateral buds arealternate.Bud Color - Lustrous, brown-black in color, scales on budsare downy on the edges.Bud Size - Lateral buds are ovate, pointed, and 1/4 inchlong.Leaf Type and Shape - Simple, ovate to narrow-ovate.Leaf Margins - Coarsely and doubly-serrate, sharppointed, rounded at the base, and have 3 to 7 lateral veins.Leaf Surface - Leathery smooth texture above, hairy onthe veins below or nearly smooth.Leaf Length - 2 to 3 inches.Leaf Width - 1 to 2½ inches.Leaf Color - Dark green on top, duller green below; brightyellow fall color.Flowers and FruitsFlower Type - Male catkins, 2 to 4 inches long hangingin groups of 1 to 3, female about 1 inch long, borne erect.Flower Color - Flowers are greenish to brownish.Fruit Type - Heart-shaped, winged nutlets attachedto tiny oval seeds.LightFull sun.UsesConservation/WindbreaksSmall to medium tree for farmstead windbreaks onprotected sites or along riparian areas.WildlifeUsed as food by over 30 types of birds and mammals.Agroforestry ProductsWood - Firewood, tooth picks, spools, carving and woodpulp. Sap is used to treat leather. Oil extract used to repelinsects.Food - Birch wine is made from the sugary sap.Medicinal - Used for gout, rheumatism, dropsy, colds,coughs and other pulmonary ailments. It has also beenused as a laxative, burn and wound treatment and incancer research.Urban/RecreationalUsed as a landscape tree in yards and parks.Fruit Color - Brownish.Cultivated VarietiesFormGrowth Habit - Larger limbs grow upward and smallerbranches are more horizontal and flexible. Pyramidalwhen young, irregular oval to rounded at maturity.None.Texture - Medium-fine, summer; fine, winter.Crown Width - 20 to 40 feet.European White Birch (B. pendula) - Bronze birch borersusceptible.Gray Birch (B. populifolia)Bark Color - Smooth bark, marked with horizontallenticels, is reddish-brown when young, turningpapery white with age.River Birch (B. nigra) - Resistant to bronze birch borers,but many sources are questionable in hardiness andadaptation in North Dakota.Crown Height - 30 to 55 feet.Related SpeciesAsian White Birch (Betula platyphylla)Root System - Roots are shallow and superficial.PestsBronze birch borer is a major pest that can be a problemwhen trees are stressed by either drought or waterlogging. Native birches are less susceptible to the borerthan European birches. Extracts of Betula species are toxicto insect pests.III-106
Plant GuidePAPER BIRCHBetula papyrifera Marsh.Plant Symbol BEPAContributed By: USDA NRCS National Plant DataCenterPojar, & Coupe 192). It is also used by nativeAmericans to make canoes, buckets, and baskets.The Shuswap were noted for their beautiful birchbark baskets (Ibid.). North American Indian tribesused white birch to treat skin problems of variousrashes; skin sores, and burns (Moerman 1998). Thebark has been used to make casts for broken bones.Economic: White birch wood is used commerciallyfor pulpwood, plywood, veneer, and turnery. Treechips are used for paper manufacture and fuel.Medicinal: A decoction has been used to treatdysentery, various diseases of the blood, inducesweating, and to ensure an adequate supply of milk innursing mothers (Moerman 1998). Birch gum couldhave been medicinal for some stone-age gathers. Thechewable gum contains zylitol, a disinfectant, andsome terpenes, which could give the chewier a mildbuzz (MacKinnon & Pojar 1994).Landscaping & Wildlife: Betula papyrifera iscommonly used as a landscape tree for it’s strikingcoloration. It is a desirable ornamental to be plantedaround homes and public buildings, in parks, and oncampuses. Moose, snowshoe hare, and white-taileddeer browse paper birch. Numerous birds and smallmammals eat the buds, catkins, and seeds.Paper birch in the foreground with larch in the background. A.V. LozhkinAtlas of BeringiaNational Oceanic & Atmospheric AdministrationAlternative NamesWhite birch (B. p. var. paperifera), paperbark birch,silver birch, canoe birch; western paper birch (B. p.var. commutata), mountain paper birch (B. p. var.cordifolia), Kenai birch (B. p. var. kenaica)UsesEthnobotanic: The sap and inner bark is used asemergency food (MacKinnon & Pojar 1994). Whitebirch can be tapped in the spring to obtain sap fromwhich beer; syrup, wine or vinegar is made. Theinner bark can be dried and ground into a meal andused as a thickener in soups or added to flour used inmaking bread. A tea is made from the root bark andyoung leaves of white birch. The Shuswap madesoap and shampoo from the leaves (MacKinnon,Agroforestry: White birch is used in forested riparianbuffers to help reduce stream bank erosion, protectaquatic environments, enhance wildlife, and increasebiodiversity.StatusPlease consult the Plants Web site and your StateDepartment of Natural Resources for this plant’scurrent status, such as, state noxious status andwetland indicator values.DescriptionGeneral: Birch family (Betulaceae). White birch is adeciduous small to medium sized native tree. Theleaves are alternate, ovate or triangular, five to tencentimeters long. The flowers are male and femaleflowers in separate catkins two to four centimeterslong, the catkins break up at maturity (MacKinnon &Pojar 1994). The fruits are mature seed catkins thatare three to five centimeters long. The bark is thin,smooth, dark red to almost black on young stems,becoming reddish-brown and then bright creamywhite (Farrar 1995).Plant Materials http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/ Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page html National Plant Data Center http://npdc.usda.gov
Distribution: White birch is native in Northern NorthAmerica. It is widely distributed from northwesternAlaska east across Canada to Labrador andNewfoundland, south in northwestern states toPennsylvania and Iowa and in the western states toMontana and northeastern Oregon (Viereck & Little& 1972). For current distribution, please consult thePlant profile page for this species on the PLANTSWeb site.AdaptationWhite birch is adapted to a variety of soils. It growsbest in well-drained acid, sandy or silty loam, in coldsoil temperatures and ample moisture. It is nottolerant of drought, compacted soils, or areas withhigh air temperatures. This species grows best in fullsunlight and is very shade intolerant. It does notperform well in harsh conditions or heat and is nottolerant of pollution.EstablishmentPropagation from Seed: Propagation by seed requiresthat the seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe. Sowthe seeds in containers or seed trays containing a seedgermination medium to which a slow releasefertilizer is added. Firm the medium and sow theseed thinly and evenly on top, and cover withmedium to a depth of medium (Heuser 1997). Placethe pots in a sunny location in a cold frame. Plantseedlings into their permanent positions in late springor early summer. When seedlings are large enoughto handle they should be placed into individual potsand grown in a cold frame for their first winter.ManagementFertilization and irrigation should be done tomaintain white birch vigorous condition and to helpprevent borer infestation. Don’t prune this birch orother birches until summer because they are“bleeders” and should not be cut when the sap isflowing.White birch is susceptible to bronze birch borer andbirch leaf minor.Cultivars, Improved and Selected Materials (andarea of origin)Readily available at nurseries. Contact your localNatural Resources Conservation Service (formerlySoil Conservation Service) office for moreinformation. Look in the phone book under ”UnitedStates Government”. The Natural ResourcesConservation Service will be listed under thesubheading “Department of Agriculture.”ReferencesBarnes, B.V. & W.H. Wagner, Jr. 1981. Michigantrees. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor,Michigan.Britton, N.L. 1908. North American trees. HenryHolt & Company, New York.Dirr, M.A. 1997 Dirr’s hardy trees and shrubs: anillustrated encyclopedia. Timber Press, Portland,Oregon.Dirr, M.A. 1990. Manual of woody landscapeplants: their identification, ornamentalcharacteristics, culture, propagation, and uses. 4thed. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaigne, Illinois.Great Plains Flora Association 1986. Flora of thegreat plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawerence,Kansas.Farrar, J.L. 1995. Trees of the northern United Statesand Canada. Iowa State University Press, Ames,Iowa.Heuser, C.W. 1997. The complete book of plantpropagation. The Taunton Press, Newtown,Connecticut.Viereck, L.A. & E.L. Little, Jr. 1972. Alaska treesand shrubs. United States Department ofAgriculture, Washington, D.C. AgricultureHandbook No. 410.Pojar, J. & A. MacKinnon 1994. Plants of thePacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon,British Columbia, and Alaska. Lone Pine Publishing,Redmond, Washington.Preston, R.J. Jr. 1948. North American trees. 2nd ed.The Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa.MacKinnon, A., J. Pojar, & R. Coupe . 1992. Plantsof the northern British Columbia. Lone PinePublishing, Canada.McMinn, H.E. & E. Maino 1963. An illustratedmanual of pacific coast trees. University ofCalifornia Press, Berkeley, California.Moerman, D. 1998. Native American ethnobotany.Timber Press, Oregon.National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration1999. Paleoenvironmental atlas of Beringia.Accessed: 11jan02.
a/vphotos.html Preston, R.J. Jr. 1989. North American trees. 4th ed.Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.Sargent, C.S. 1961. Manual of the trees of NorthAmerica. Vol. 1. Dover Publications, Inc., NewYork, New York.Weber, W.A. 1990. Colorado flora: eastern slope.University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado.Prepared ByLincoln M. MooreUSDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, BatonRouge, LouisianaSpecies CoordinatorLincoln M. MooreUSDA NRCS National Plant Data Center, BatonRouge, LouisianaEdited: 09jan02 jsp; 14feb03 ahv; 31may06 jspFor more information about this and other plants, please contactyour local NRCS field office or Conservation District, and visit thePLANTS Web site http://plants.usda.gov or the Plant MaterialsProgram Web site http://Plant-Materials.nrcs.usda.gov The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibitsdiscrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis ofrace, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, politicalbeliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not allprohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilitieswho require alternative means for communication of programinformation (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contactUSDA's TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice and TDD).To file a complaint of discrimination write USDA, Director, Officeof Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th andIndependence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call202-720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunityprovider and employer.Read about Civil Rights at the Natural Resources ConvervationService.
Boxelderslide 53aslide 53b360%360%slide 53cslide 53d360%380%III-107
Boxelder(Acer negundo)General DescriptionA relatively fast-growing, short-lived, medium to tall treeof irregular form. Native to river bottoms, ravines andhillsides. Foliage is very susceptible to phenoxy herbicides. Also called Manitoba maple or ash-leaved maple.The largest tree in North Dakota is 61 feet tall with acanopy spread of 63 feet.Leaves and BudsBud Arrangement - Opposite.Cold HardinessUSDA Zone 2.WaterDoes best on well-drained moist soils along stream banks,but moderately drought tolerant.LightFull to partial sun. Shade tolerant.UsesConservation/WindbreaksSmall to medium tree for farmstead and field windbreaks,and riparian plantings. Of little value for field windbreakswhere phenoxy herbicides, e.g. 2,4-D, are used.Bud Color - Glaucous, gray.Bud Size - About 1/4 inch long.Leaf Type and Shape - 3 to 7 leaflets per leaf, 5 commonly.Leaf Margins - Coarsely-serrated, pointed at the tip,sometimes 3-lobed, with irregular toothed margin.Leaf Surface - Glabrous, may have a few hairs on underside.WildlifeFood and cover for birds and mammals. Older trees oftenprovide good den sites.Agroforestry ProductsWood - Crates, boxes, and firewood.Leaf Length - Leaves 3 to 7 inches; leaflets 2 to 3 inches.Food - Sap used by Indians and others to make syrupand sugar.Leaf Width - Leaves 2½ to 4 inches; leaflets 1 to 2 inches.Medicinal - Used in cancer research.Leaf Color - Light green above, paler green below; yellowfall color.Flowers and FruitsFlower Type - Dioecious, corymbs (male flowers),pendulous racemes (female flowers).Flower Color - Yellowish-green to reddish-orange.Fruit Type - Double-winged samara.Fruit Color - Tan to light brown.FormGrowth Habit - The short, crooked trunk commonlydivides into several stout and wide spreading branches,forming a rounded to irregular spreading crown.Texture - Medium, summer; coarse, winter.Urban/RecreationalUsed as a shade tree on boulevards and in yards,but not very desirable.Cultivated VarietiesBaron Boxelder (Acer neguudo ‘Baron’) - Introducedby Morden Research Station, Morden, Manitoba,male selection, hardy.Flamingo Boxelder (A. negundo ‘Flamingo’) This variegated cultivar lacks hardiness in theNorthern Plains.Variegated Boxelder (A. negundo ‘Variegatum’) Irregular white-margined leaves, not winter hardyin Northern Plains.Crown Height - 30 to 60 feet.Crown Width - 30 to 60 feet.Bark Color - Dark gray to gray-brown bark with shallowridges.Root System - Shallow to deep, depending on the site.Related SpeciesAmur Maple (Acer ginnala)Silver Maple (A. saccharinum)Tatarian Maple (A. tataricum)PestsEnvironmental RequirementsSoilsSoil Texture - Adapted to a wide range of soils.Soil pH - 5.0 to 7.5.Common diseases include stem decay. Boxelder bugs,a nuisance to people, are associated with boxelder.Highly sensitive to phenoxy herbicides. Extracts ofsome Acer species are toxic to some insect pests.Windbreak Suitability Group - 1, 3, 5.III-108
Ohio Buckeyeslide 54b360%slide 54cslide 54d360%360%III-109
Environmental RequirementsOhio Buckeye(Aesculus glabra)SoilsSoil Texture - Adapted to a variety of soils, prefers moistloams. Leaf scorch is a problem on dry sites.General DescriptionSoil pH - 5.0 to 7.5.A medium-sized tree with an oval to rounded crown.Unique characteristics include palmate compound leaves,terminal candle-like flowers and large globose fruits. Thelargest tree in North Dakota is 49 feet tall with a canopyspread of 38 feet.Windbreak Suitability Group - 1, 3, 4, 4C.Cold HardinessUSDA Zone 3.WaterNot drought resistant. Needs adequate moisture duringdrought, or leaf scorch may become a problem.Leaves and BudsBud Arrangement - Opposite.Bud Color - Brown, prominent scales.LightFull sun.Bud Size - Large, 1/2 to 1-1/5 inches long.Leaf Type and Shape - Palmate compound, leaves with5 and rarely 7 leaflets, leaflets are elliptic to obovate.UsesLeaf Margins - Acuminate, cuneate, and finely serrate.Conservation/WindbreaksMedium height tree for farmstead windbreaks andriparian plantings.Leaf Surface - Pubescent when young beneath, nearlyglabrous when mature.Leaf Length - 6 to 9 inches; leaflets 3 to 5 inches.Leaf Width - 5 to 6 inches; leaflets 1 to 2 inchesWildlifeNuts are eaten by wildlife, including squirrels.Leaf Color - Medium green; yellow to amber fall color.Agroforestry ProductsMedicinal - Extracts of related species are used for feversand as a source of quercitrin.Flowers and FruitsFlower Type - Upright panicles.Flower Color - Greenish-yellow.Fruit Type - Obovoid capsule, dehiscent, 1 to 2 inches long,with a prickly husk.Fruit Color - Light brown, nutlike ovule or “buckeye,”dark brown, glossy.FormGrowth Habit - Dense, broad-oblong crowns, becomingrounded with age.Urban/RecreationalGood specimen tree for landscaping. Attractive flowersand fall colors. Several hardy hybrid selections beloware superior to the species.Cultivated VarietiesNone.Texture - Medium-coarse, summer; coarse, winter.Related SpeciesCrown Height - 20 to 40 feet.Crown Width - 20 to 35 feet.Bark Color - Thick, ashy gray, deeply furrowed and plated.Root System - Forms a tap root.Autumn Splendor Buckeye (Aesculus x arnoldiana ‘AutumnSplendor ’) - Excellent, University of Minnesota introduction, semi-glossy, emerald green foliage, red-purple fallcolor. Good resistance to leaf scorch.Homestead Buckeye (A. x ‘Homestead’) - Superior SDSUhybrid introduction, reddish-orange fall color, densecrown.Yellow Buckeye (A. flava) - Good foliage quality, sufficientwinter hardiness.Common Horse-chestnut (A. hippocastanum) - Not hardy inNorth Dakota.PestsSusceptible to leaf scorch, leaf blotch and powderymildew. No major insect pests. Extracts of Aesculus speciesare toxic to some insect pests.III-110
Plant GuideOHIO BUCKEYEAesculus glabra Willd.Plant Symbol AEGLContributed By: USDA NRCS National Plant DataCenter & the Biota of North America Programdepression, paralysis, and stupor. Many landownershave eradicated it to prevent livestock poisoning.Native Americans ground buckeye to use as a powderon ponds to stun fish.Commercial: The soft, lightwood of Ohio buckeyehas limited commercial use as sawtimber and it is oflittle commercial importance. It is used for makingartificial limbs because it is light, easily worked, andresists splitting; it is also used in small quantities forvarious kinds of woodenware, crates, veneer, andtoys. Pioneers used the wood for cabin structure andfurniture.Ornamental: The tree is an attractive ornamental,best in open, natural settings or parks because of itsbroad crown. It also is sometimes cultivated as anornamental shrub.Other: Buckeye seeds have sometimes been carriedas good-luck charms and to prevent rheumatism.Despite the poisonous properties to humans andlivestock (below), squirrels are known to eat the rawseeds. Native Americans ate roasted seeds as astarchy meal.StatusPlease consult the PLANTS Web site and your StateDepartment of Natural Resources for this plant’scurrent status, such as, state noxious status andwetland indicator values.Nobel Foundation Plant Image GallerySamuel Roberts Noble FoundationAlternate common namesHorse chestnut, buckeye, American buckeye, fetidbuckeye, stinking buckeye, white buckeye, Texasbuckeye (var. arguta)Warning: Ohio buckeye is highly toxic when takeninternally.UsesPoisonous Plant: All parts of the plant (leaves, bark,fruit) are highly toxic if ingested – because of theglycoside aesculin, the saponin aescin, and possiblyalkaloids. Symptoms are muscle weakness andparalysis, dilated pupils, vomiting, diarrhea,DescriptionGeneral: Horsechestnut Family (Hippocastanaceae).Native, small trees, most less than 15 m tall (rarely to45 m), with a dense oval to round crown, branchingquite low, sometimes (usually on drier sites) athicket-forming shrub; twigs thick, red-brown, hairywhen young, with large triangular leaf scars; terminalbuds large, orangish brown with keeled scales; barksmooth and light gray, becoming rough and scaly.Leaves are deciduous, opposite, palmatelycompound, leaflets 5-7(-11), oval to obovate orlanceolate, 6-13 cm long with a finely toothedmargin, emerging bright green, deepening to darkgreen, often developing yellow or orange fall color,emitting a strong fetid odor when crushed. Theleaves have a somewhat unique shape. Flowers arecreamy to greenish yellow, about 1-2 cm long, inlarge, showy, upright, branched, terminal clusters atends of leafy branches, only those flowers near thebase of the branches of a cluster are perfect andPlant Materials http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/ Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page html National Plant Data Center http://npdc.usda.gov
fertile -- the others are staminate; petals 4; stamenslonger than petals. Fruits are rounded capsules about3 cm wide, borne on a stout stalk, with a warty orprickly, thick, leathery husk; seeds 1(-3) smooth,glossy, chestnut-brown seeds, each with a pale scar(the “buck's eye”). The common name refers to itsabundance in Ohio and the supposed likeness of thenut to the eye of a buck; other names are derivedfrom the fetid odor of the crushed leaves, bark,broken twigs, and flowers.Variation within the species: Two morphologicalsegments are said to exist within the species: var.glabra is the northern (northwestern) segment with 5leaflets, var. arguta the more southern form with 711 leaflets and other minor and variable differencesin vestiture and leaflet shape. Var. arguta is weaklydifferentiated and commonly not recognized (see forexample Diggs et al. 1999).DistributionPrimarily a species of the east-central US. Var.glabra grows from western Pennsylvania, Ohio, andsouthern Michigan west to Illinois and south toTennessee, Alabama, and rarely in Georgia,Mississippi, and states peripheral to the mainnorthern range. Var. arguta (if recognized) is nativeto upland forests of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas,Missouri, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Nebraska.Ohio buckeye is planted in various localities in theeastern US, including localities north and east of itsmain range. For current distribution, please consultthe Plant Profile page for this species on thePLANTS Web site.AdaptationOhio buckeye occurs in mixed hardwood forests ofbottom lands along river and stream banks and inrich, moist soils of ravines and other steep to gentleslopes, less commonly on drier sites mixed in oakhickory stands, on limestone slopes in thesouthwestern portion of the range.It is shade tolerant and often found in beech-sugarmaple woods. In dense stands, side competition andshade foster straight boles and encourage naturalpruning of this tree, which otherwise tends to have alarge crown that retains branches on the lowerportions.Ohio buckeye is one of the first trees to leaf out inspring. Flowering: March-May, after the leavesappear; fruiting: September-October.EstablishmentSeeds of Ohio buckeye ordinarily germinate in thespring after wintering on the ground. Seedlings cangrow under some shade, but the species seems todevelop best as isolated individuals in openings alongstreambanks and on other moist sites. Young treesshow moderate growth rates and may beginproducing fruit at 8 years. Most trees live 80-100years.Ohio buckeye can be propagated by seed (stratify 60120 days at 33-41 F); seeds must be kept moist toavoid loss of viability.ManagementLeaf scorch and leaf blotch are usually the mostserious problems of Ohio buckeye. Leaf scorch,seemingly a response to heat and drought along urbanstreets, results in browning of the leaf margins. Bylate summer to early fall the trees look unsightly andare often partially defoliated. Air pollution may bemore responsible for this problem than heat ordrought. The leaf blotch (Guignardia aesculi) beginsas brown spots or blotches on the leaves and mayeventually give the tree a scorched appearance. Thisdisease may slow the growth rate but does nopermanent damage to the tree and can be controlledon ornamentals.Cultivars, Improved and Selected Materials (andarea of origin)This tree is available through most local nurseries.Aesculus Autumn Splendor' is similar to wild formsbut has glossy dark green leaves that remain in goodcondition throughout the growing season, resistant toleaf scorch, and develops a maroon-red fall color.The Eurasian native horse-chestnut (Aesculushippocastanum) is occasionally planted as anornamental shade tree, but Ohio buckeye is morecommon. Ohio buckeye is often used as anunderstock for grafting cultivars of other species ofAesculus.ReferencesBrizicky, G.K. 1963. The genera of Sapindales in thesoutheastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 44:462501.Diggs, G.M., Jr., B.L. Lipscomb, & R.J. O’Kennon1999. Shinners & Mahler’s illustrated flora of northcentral Texas. Sida, Botanical Miscellany, No. 16.Felter, H.W. & J.U. Lloyd 2000. King's Americandispensatory: Aesculus. Scanned version. ulus.html
Hardin, J.W. 1957. A revision of the AmericanHippocastanaceae. Brittonia 9:145-171, 173-195.Samuel Roberts Nobel Foundation 1999. Noblefoundation plant image gallery. Ardmore,Oklahoma. 29nov2000. http://www.noble.org/imagegallery/index.html Williams, R.D. 1990. Aesculus glabra Willd. – OhioBuckeye. Pp. 92-95, IN: R.M. Burns and B.H.Honkala (tech. coords.). Silvics of North America.Volume 2. Hardwoods. USDA, Forest ServiceAgric. Handbook 654, Washington, D.C. http://willow.ncfes.umn.edu/silvics manual/Tableof contents.htm Prepared ByGuy NesomFormerly BONAP, North Carolina Botanical Garden,University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NorthCarolinaSpecies CoordinatorLincoln MooreUSDA, NRCS, National Plant Data Center, BatonRouge, LouisianaEdited: 17jan01 jsp;07feb03ahv; 30may06jspFor more information about this and other plants, please contactyour local NRCS field office or Conservation District, and visit thePLANTS Web site http://plants.usda.gov or the Plant MaterialsProgram Web site http://Plant-Materials.nrcs.usda.gov The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibitsdiscrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis ofrace, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, politicalbeliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not allprohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilitieswho require alternative means for communication of programinformation (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contactUSDA's TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice and TDD).To file a complaint of discrimination write USDA, Director, Officeof Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th andIndependence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call202-720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunityprovider and employer.Read about Civil Rights at the Natural Resources ConvervationService.
Silver Buffaloberryslide 4a400%slide 4b360%slide 4cslide 4d360%360%III-5
Environmental RequirementsSilver Buffaloberry(Shepherdia argentea)SoilsSoil Texture - Grows well in most soils.Soil pH - 5.5 to 8.0. Adapted to moderately alkaline andsaline soils.General DescriptionWindbreak Suitability Group - 1, 1K, 3, 4, 4C, 5, 6D, 6G, 8,9C, 9L.A tall, thorny, thicket-forming native shrub. Well adaptedto dry, moderately alkaline and saline soils. Toleratesinfertile soils, in part because of its ability to fix andassimilate atmospheric nitrogen. Berries used for jellies.Cold HardinessUSDA Zone - 2.Leaves and BudsBud Arrangement - Opposite.WaterDrought tolerant. Not adapted to wet, poorly-drainedsites.Bud Color - Silvery.Bud Size - Small, solitary or multiple, stalked, oblong.LightFull sun.Leaf Type and Shape - Simple, oblong-elliptical.Leaf Margins - Entire.Leaf Surface - Finely-scaled, pubescent.UsesLeaf Length - 1 to 2 inches.Conservation/WindbreaksMedium to tall shrub for farmstead and field windbreaks,riparian plantings, and highway beautification.Leaf Width - 1/4 to 5/8 inch.Leaf Color - Silvery-gray on both surfaces.Flowers and FruitsFlower Type - Dioecious.WildlifeHighly important for mule deer browse. Ideal cover andnesting site for many birds. Preferred food source of manysongbirds and sharptail grouse. Good late winter foodsource for birds.Flower Color - Yellowish.Fruit Type - Drupe-like, insipid, ovoid.Fruit Color - Predominately red, however, some femaleplants can produce yellow fruits.Agroforestry ProductsFood - Fruit processed as jams and jellies.FormGrowth Habit - Loosely branched shrub of roundedoutline.Urban/RecreationalOrnamental foliage and fruit, but limited in use because ofthorns and suckering habit.Texture - Medium-fine, summer; fine, winter.Crown Height - 6 to 14 feet.Crown Width - 8 to 14 feet.Cultivated VarietiesBark Color - Brown.Sakakawea Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea ‘Sakakawea’)- Released by USDA-NRCS, Plant Materials Center,Bismarck, North Dakota.Root System - Spreading.Related SpeciesRusset Buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis)Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)Silverberry (E. commutata)PestsCommon diseases include stem decay and branch canker.Deer commonly browse the twigs and leaves. Stems aresometimes broken by snow.III-6
Plant Fact SheetSILVERBUFFALOBERRYShepherdia argentea (Pursh)Nutt.Plant Symbol SHARContributed by: USDA NRCS Plant MaterialsProgramUSDA NRCS National Plant Materials CenterBeltsville, MDStatusPlease consult the PLANTS Web site and your StateDepartment of Natural Resources for this plant‟scurrent status (e.g. threatened or endangered species,state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).DescriptionShepherdia argentea (Pursh) Nutt., silverbuffaloberry, is a deciduous, thorny shrub or smalltree of 6 to 20 feet in height native to North America.It occurs as scattered to frequent plants alongstreams, in bottomlands, and on moist hillsidesthroughout western Wyoming and Colorado atelevations to 7,500 feet. The shrub is winter hardyand alkaline tolerant, but has only limited droughtand shade tolerance. Under favorable conditions, itreadily forms thorny thickets.Fruits are reddish, globe-shaped “berries” (drupes)about 1/8 to 1/4 inch across; flowers are brownishyellow, small, with male and female flowers borne onseparate plants in clusters of 1 to 3 at the leaf axils;leaves are opposite, silvery-scurfy, oblo
p. var. paperifera), paperbark birch, silver birch, canoe birch; western paper birch (B. p. var. commutata), mountain paper birch (B. p. var. cordifolia), Kenai birch (B. p. var. kenaica) Uses Ethnobotanic: The sap and inner bark is used as emergency food (MacKinnon & Pojar 1994). White birch can be tapped in the spring to obtain sap from
In Table 1, the chemical composition of diethyl ether extract (A) and volatile compounds (B) of whole birch buds is compared. Table 1. Chemical composition of the diethyl ether extract (A) and volatile compounds (B) of whole white birch buds  The analysis of volatile components from birch buds can also be performed using the HS-SPME method .
Outdoor Ethics & Conservation Roundtable March 9, 2022 The Distinguished Conservation Service Award, and Council Conservation Committees. DCSA and Conservation Committees 2 March 9, 2022 . (7:00pm Central) Safety moment -Campout planning BSA Conservation Video Council Conservation Committee Toolbox Distinguished Conservation .
Chatham County Chattahoochee County Chattooga County Cherokee County Clarke County Clay County Clayton County Cobb County Coffee County Colquitt County Columbia County Cook County Coweta County Crisp County 320 6 2 1 2 4 1 10 12 6 4 43 1 1 3 2 4 11 4 1 5 6 6 5 60 1 1 7 22 1 58 51 7 3 8 4 6 5 19.80% .37% .12% .06% .12% .25% .06% .62% .74% .37% .
software package for reactor design and safety analysis. The verification and validation of BIRCH are introduced in the paper. BIRCH calculates the temperature distribution transient in a fuel rod cross section (pellet, pellet-cladding gap and cladding), as well as the transient heat flux at the cladding surface, using as input the nuclear
adams county 376,750 alamosa county 18,435 boulder county 23 costilla county 334 delta county 464 jackson county 28,172 jefferson county 50,160 lake county 762 larimer county 522 mesa county 60 moffat county 12,075 rio grande county 24,304 saguache county 33,128
The construction of BALTIC BIRCH plywood has 30% more plys than conventional domestic plywood. The combined results of the Birch hardwood fiber and the multi-ply construction make for a panel that is specially designed to endure heavy loads or high impact. Baltic Birch is also available in unidirectional construction from 9mm-30mm thick. Brochure
Martin & Sheila Solmonson, 16402 Mapes Rd., Vanderhoof, BC V0J 3A1 250-567-4640 48 Birch-Hill Explosive 20E C03037364 MES 20E 03/11/17 95 3-D-L Approval 6A Birch-Hill Zorro 56Z 49 Birch-Hill Excaliber 23E C03037
API 656 Storage Tank NATECH Natech (Natural Hazard Triggered Technological Accidents) First meeting held on 14 Feb 2020 Taskgroup formed to author this publication PEMyers of PEMY Consulting and Earl Crochet of Kinder Morgan to co-chair this TG Tank owners/operators have interest in this project This project is needed given most of the world is not seriously considering how to .