THINC: A Virtual Display Architecture For Thin-Client .

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THINC: A Virtual DisplayArchitecture for Thin-ClientComputingRicardo A. Baratto, Leonard N. Kim, Jason NiehNetwork Computing LaboratoryColumbia University


.connectivitySource: Internet Mapping Project (

dis-integration of the computerclusters and gridcomputingnetworkstorage

remote displaydisplay updatesinput


ubiquitous access

remote collaboration

online help

thin clientsapplication processingand datastateless clientsecure server room

existing systems

existing performance problemPCICARDPGoToMyPCXNXVNCSun Ray0%20%40%60%audio/video qualityLANWAN80%100%


virtual display architecturehigh performance remote displaytransparent operation

system architecture display protocol translation delivery

system architecture


interception and redirectionapplicationshigh-level requests stateful client hurtsmobility app – window buffer

interception and redirectionapplicationshigh-level requestswindowsystem lose semantics:difficult to encodedevicedriverraw pixelsframebuffer

virtual display architectureapplicationswindowsystemdisplay updatesvirtual devicedriverinput events

irtual devicedriver

owsystemvirtual devicedriver

benefitsSimple, low-levelprotocoldisplay updatesvirtual devicedriver

benefitsSimple, statelessclientdisplay updatesinput eventsvirtual devicedriver

display protocolInspired by Sun Ray protocol2D Primitives copy solid and tile fill bitmap fill rawVideo

two key problemshow do we translatefrom application commandsto the display protocol?how and when do we send displayupdates?

translationuse and preserve semantic informationfor efficient translation

translation use semantic information whendoing translation

use request semantics to generate updateapplicationreq: fill window W, color Cwindowsystemreq: fill [x,y,w,h] color CTHINCupdate: solid fill[x,y,w,h] color C

translation use semantic information whendoing translation preserve semantic informationthroughout the system

preserving semantics:offscreen renderingdisplaydrawabcdeoffscreen regionscopyabcde

offscreen rendering (cont)offscreen regioncommand logmerge, clip, and discard commands as needed

using and preservingsemantics: video reuse existing hardware accelerationapplication interfacesYUV (luminance-chrominance) colorspace– formatindependence– client hardware acceleration (scalingfor free)

deliverymaximize interactive response of thesystem

delivery transmit updates as soon as possiblemerge, clip, and discard updates asneeded

shortest remaining size firstschedulerreal timeclientbufferCn. C3 C2queue 1C1.queue pcmdsize

beyond remote display


audioapplicationsaudiodaemonvirtual audiodriveraudiodataOSaudiodata

MobiDesk: Mobile VirtualDesktop Computing


virtualizationPCuser sessionOSNethardware

virtualizationMobiDeskuser sessionvirtualization translationOSNethardware

operating system: zapnetwork: movedisplay: thinc

2A M: Access-assuredMobile Desktop Computing

centralizationDDoS targetcomputersout of service


implementation X/Linux server– ongoing: windows serverX/Linux, windows, PDA, Java clients

experimental results web and video performance–comparison to existing systems–Internet 2 sites around the globe


web browsing performancePCICARDPGoToMyPCXNXVNCSun RayTHINC00.511.522.5per web page latency (s)Desktop LANDesktop WAN802.11g PDA3

a/v playback qualityPCICARDPGoToMyPCXNXVNCSun RayTHINC0%20%40%60%80%audio/video qualityDesktop LANDesktop WAN802.11g PDA100%



Internet2 web browsing performancepage latency (s)21.510.50nypama mn nmca can prlocationiefikr

Internet2 a/v playback qualityplayback quality100%80%60%40%20%0%nypa ma mn nm ca can prlocationiefikr

conclusionsTHINC: virtual display architecture transparentlyleverages existing display infrastructureefficient translation by using and preservingsemantic information from display requestdelivery mechanisms increaseresponsiveness of the system

for more info.


Web Browsing Data TransferPCICARDPGoToMyPCXNXVNCSun RayTHINC050100150200per web page data (KB)Desktop LANDesktop WAN802.11g PDA250

A/V Data TransferPCICARDPGoToMyPCXNXVNCSun RayTHINC050100150200audio/video data transferred (MB)Desktop LANDesktop WAN802.11g PDA250

thin clients. existing systems. existing performance problem 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% PC ICA RDP GoToMyPC X NX VNC Sun Ray audio/video quality LAN WAN. THINC. virtual display architecture high performance remote display transparent operation