18 Compare And Contrast Informational Texts

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18Compare and ContrastInformational TextsGetting the IdeaWhen you compare and contrast across texts, you look at thesimilarities and differences in the texts. Comparisons focus onthe things that the texts share. Contrasts focus on differences.Comparing and contrasting across texts will help you betterunderstand each text. You can think about the information in thetexts in different ways. Read these examples.Jimmy CarterJames “Jimmy” Carter was the thirty-ninth presidentof the United States. He was born and raised insouthwest Georgia. Carter was the first president bornin a hospital. He was a very gifted student who lovedto read. After high school, Carter attended college. Hejoined the navy and served for several years. After thenavy, Carter became a peanut farmer, a state senator,and a governor.154 Chapter 2: Informational TextsDuplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson was the seventh president of theUnited States. Unlike the presidents who came beforehim, Jackson was not born into a rich home. He wasborn in a log cabin in South Carolina and grew up onthe frontier. He did not have much education. Laterhe taught himself law and became a judge. He wasalso known for his success on the battlefield. A soldiernicknamed him “Old Hickory,” after the hickory treeknown for its hard, tough wood.

Lesson 18: Compare and Contrast Informational TextsBoth of the passages are about presidents of the United States. How areAndrew Jackson and Jimmy Carter alike? How are they different? Jacksondid not have much of an education, while Carter attended college. They bothserved in the military, but Carter never went to battle. How else are they alike?How else are they different?You can also compare and contrast the main ideas in different texts. Look atthe examples below.There are many different types of beverages that people drink,including juice, soda, and milk shakes. However, the best typeof drink for you is water. Drinks such as juice, soda, and milkshakes contain a lot of sugar, which has been shown to promotetooth decay. Water contains no sugar and no calories. Wateralso promotes healthy growth and helps your body function. Sothe next time you are thirsty, try a nice big glass of water!Health experts believe that people are eating too much junk foodtoday. They also think that it is important for people to develophealthy eating habits at a young age. What foods should weinclude in our diet? We should eat fruits, vegetables, and wholegrains, such as whole-wheat bread and brown rice. We shouldalso eat foods with calcium, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese.What foods should we avoid? We should not eat junk food, suchas potato chips and candy bars. Junk food contains too muchfat and sugar.Duplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.How are the passages alike? How are they different? Eating and drinking ina healthy way are the topics of both passages. Both passages are trying topersuade readers to eat and drink healthier. How else are they similar? Howelse are they different? You can look for clue words such as both, neither, like,unlike, and however.155

Thinking It ThroughRead the following paragraphs, and then answer the questions that follow.Some animals live with people. These are called domestic animals.Dogs and cats are domestic animals. They eat meat. Animals that eatmeat are called carnivores.Horses and cows are domestic animals. They do not have sharpteeth. They do not eat meat. Animals that do not eat meat are calledherbivores.HINTLook for clue words in each paragraph.DISCUSSThe word herbivore means “plant-eater.” What are someplant foods that horses and cows eat? Share your ideas witha partner.156 Chapter 2: Informational TextsDuplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.How are the two paragraphs alike? How are they different?

Lesson 18: Compare and Contrast Informational TextsCoached ExampleRead the passages and answer the questions.The OstrichThe ostrich is the world’s largest land bird. Infact, it is the world’s largest bird. It is found only onthe hot continent of Africa. An ostrich eats mainlyvegetation and insects. An adult male ostrich cangrow to be nine feet tall! That’s three feet taller thanan average adult male human. An ostrich can weighmore than 300 pounds. Of course, since this kindof bird is so large, it is unable to fly. However, anostrich can run as fast as forty-five miles per hour.Its legs are so strong that it can deliver a powerfuland even deadly kick when it feels it is in danger.The Emperor PenguinDuplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.The emperor penguin is the largest kind ofpenguin. This seabird cannot fly, but it is anexcellent swimmer. Most emperor penguins livein Antarctica where the weather is very cold.However, a thick layer of fat and feathers keepsthem warm. Another way these birds stay warm isby huddling in groups. These smart penguins taketurns moving to the center of the group where itis warmest. Emperor penguins can also be veryplayful. They enjoy running, hopping, jumping,and sliding down hills on their bellies.157

How are the ostrich and theemperor penguin alike?A. They both like cold weather.B. They are both fast swimmers.C. They both like hot weather.D. They are both unable to fly.HINTCompare the ostrich and the emperorpenguin to see how they are the same.2.Which of the following is one waythese two passages are different?A. Only the first passage usesnumbers as supporting details.B. Only the second passage talksabout what the animals eat.C. Only the second passage usesnumbers as supporting details.D. Only the second passage talksabout where the animals live.HINT3.Reread the passages. Think about thedetails in the passages.How are the ostrich and the emperor penguin different?HINTReread the passages. Think about how the two animals are different.158 Chapter 2: Informational TextsDuplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.1.

Lesson 18: Compare and Contrast Informational TextsLesson PracticeUse the Reading Guides to help you understand the passages.Reading GuideWhat do paleontologists do?Think about the main ideaand details.What can be compared andcontrasted in the passage?Clues to the PastDuplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.No one has ever seen a living dinosaur. So how doscientists learn about them? Paleontologists research thethings that dinosaurs left behind. They look for fossils,the hardened remains or traces of animals and plantsthat lived a long time ago. They study fossils for cluesabout how dinosaurs lived.For many years, scientists thought that dinosaurshatched from eggs. But no one knew for sure until1869. In that year, some fossil dinosaur eggs werefound in France. Since then, many more fossil dinosaureggs have been discovered elsewhere, including in theUnited States and China. These fossils show us thatsome dinosaurs built nests, and they give us clues abouthow those dinosaurs lived.Millions of years ago, dinosaurs left droppings on theground. Over time, the droppings turned into fossils.Today, by studying these fossil droppings, we can tellwhether a dinosaur ate grass, fish, or meat.Dinosaurs no longer exist, but they never reallydisappeared. We can learn plenty of things about themby studying the clues they left behind!159

Scientists Who Study the PastReading GuideThink about the subjectmatter. What can becompared in thetwo passages?Duplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.What can be contrasted inthe two passages?Have you ever read about people of long ago? Bookstell you how they lived. You can also learn what thepeople were like. Archaeologists are scientists who studypast human life and culture.Howard Carter, an English archaeologist, made agreat find in 1922. He studied ancient Egypt. Afteryears of work, he found King Tut’s tomb. King Tut wasa king in ancient Egypt. The king died at eighteen. Hisbody went through a special process. It was wrappedin cloth. King Tut’s body became a mummy. Thismummy was in the tomb. There was also treasure in thetomb, such as golden chairs and the king’s jewelry storedin magnificent boxes. A bed, a temple, and food wereleft inside the tomb. People are still amazed to see thesethings today.Howard Carter and other archaeologists showed thatthe past has much to teach us. However, our interestshould not let us forget that it is very important torespect the past. Luckily for us, archaeologists today docare. They help us understand what the world was likelong ago.160 Chapter 2: Informational Texts

Lesson 18: Compare and Contrast Informational TextsAnswer the following questions.1.What do the two passages havein common?3.A. Both passages give a name of aspecific scientist.A. They both study people.B. Both passages tell about thework of the scientists.B. They both study tombs.C. Both passages tell aboutKing Tut.D. They both study the past.D. Both passages tell aboutHoward Carter.2.According to the passages,how are paleontologists andarchaeologists alike?Which of the following is one waythe two passages are different?A. Only the first passage tellsabout what scientists do.B. Only the first passage gives thename of a specific scientist.C. Only the second passage givesthe name of a specific scientist.C. They both study dinosaurs.4.Which one of these would BESTcompare with the second passage?A. a detective who solves animportant caseB. a basketball player who wins abig gameC. a poet who writes a beautifulpoemD. a fireman who puts out a fireD. Only the second passage talksabout the past.Duplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.5.How are paleontologists different from archaeologists?161

Use the Reading Guides to help you understand the passages.What information does thefirst paragraph contain?What is the main idea ofthe passage?The Cherokee nation is a Native American tribewhose territory used to consist of an area in thesoutheastern part of the United States. At one time,before explorers and colonists from Europe began totake over their land, the Cherokee nation had morethan twenty-two thousand members and controlledabout forty thousand square miles of parts of Georgia,Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Theywere a powerful people.Life in the Cherokee nation took place incommunities called towns. Towns were divided intotwo main groups: white and red. White towns werepeace towns, while red towns were war towns. Eachtown had a chief in charge of day-to-day life; however,two supreme chiefs, one for white and one for red, hadpower over all of the towns’ chiefs.A typical Cherokee town had a council house.Families lived in smaller dwellings, or houses. Thesehomes were like log cabins, but they had no windowsand only a single door. There was a hole in the roof forsmoke to escape, since they used fire inside. The councilhouse also had a fire burning, known as a sacred fire. Inthis house, all men and women of the town would meetto discuss issues facing the town.The Cherokee nation had a system that workedwell for them. Despite having some powerful members,everyone had a chance to speak his or her mind. Thishelped make life in the Cherokee towns harmonious.162 Chapter 2: Informational TextsDuplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.The Cherokee NationReading Guide

Lesson 18: Compare and Contrast Informational TextsReading GuideWhat words help youconnect this passage withthe first passage?How is the main idea ofthis passage the same asthe main idea of the firstpassage? How are theydifferent?SequoyahDuplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.The Cherokee was a large and powerful NativeAmerican nation that lived in the southeast long ago.One of the most important members of that tribe was aman named Sequoyah. Sequoyah was born around 1775and was a Cherokee during the time when settlers fromEurope had begun to move into Cherokee territory.Sequoyah was a talented man. He worked as asilversmith and a painter, and he was also a fiercewarrior. However, Sequoyah’s greatest accomplishmentwas creating a system of writing for the Cherokee. Herealized that the European settlers had an advantageover the Cherokee because they could write on paper.The settlers used this to write treaties to convince theCherokee to give up their land. He wanted to find away for the Cherokee to communicate with each otherthrough writing.Sequoyah experimented with different styles ofwriting. At first, he used pictographs to represent theCherokee language. Then he began to include lettersfrom other languages including English and ancientGreek. Eventually, he made eighty-six separate symbolsthat represented all of the syllables of the Cherokeelanguage.At first, Sequoyah was not sure that the Cherokeenation would want to use his writing system. Eventually,though, he convinced his people that this system wouldbe simple enough to learn and use. When the Cherokeebegan teaching his writing in schools, Sequoyah knew itwas a success. He had invented a brand new way for theCherokee to communicate!163

Answer the following questions.6.What information is in the firstparagraph of the first passage butNOT the second passage?8.A. The Cherokee used the writingsystem to communicatebetween towns.A. The Cherokee were powerful.B. The tribe was located in thesoutheast.B. Sequoyah’s daughter helpedhim create his writing system.C. The Cherokee are a NativeAmerican nation.C. Outacite was the name of oneof the white chiefs.D. The Cherokee controlled alarge area of land.7.According to both passages, whatcaused the Cherokee to losetheir land?A. not having a written languageB. European settlers moving inC. the Cherokee fighting witheach otherD. the council voting to moveWhat new information wouldBEST fit in BOTH passages?D. Sequoyah’s name was given togiant redwood trees.9.What is one detail that is in thelast paragraph of BOTH passages?A. The Cherokee were goodcommunicators.B. The Cherokee writing systemspread throughout the tribe.C. The Cherokee nation hadpowerful members.Duplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.D. The Cherokee had schools.164 Chapter 2: Informational Texts

Lesson 18: Compare and Contrast Informational Texts10. How are the two passages different from each other? Use text evidence tosupport your answer.Duplicating any part of this book is prohibited by law.165

154 Chapter 2: Informational Texts When you compare and contrast across texts, you look at the similarities and differences in the texts . Comparisons focus on the things that the texts share . Contrasts focus on differences . Comparing and contrasting across texts will help you better understand each text .

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