Habitat Management Plan For Cicero Swamp Wildlife .

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Habitat Management PlanforCicero Swamp Wildlife Management Area2016 – 2025Division of Fish and WildlifeBureau of Wildlife1285 Fisher Ave, Cortland, NY 13045August 2, 2016

Prepared by:Kyle Olson, Seasonal Wildlife TechnicianThomas Cunningham, Wildlife TechnicianBonnie Parton, Wildlife TechnicianThomas Bell, State Wildlife Grants BiologistMichael Putnam, Wildlife Biologist 1Adam Perry, Wildlife Biologist 1Adam Robedee, Forest Technician 2Andrew Drake, Forester 1Young Forest InitiativeReviewed and approved by:Financial support for development of this Habitat Management Plan was provided by the Federal Aidin Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program and non-federal funds administered by the New YorkState Department of Environmental Conservation including Habitat & Access Stamp funds.1 Page

TABLE OF CONTENTSSUMMARY . 3I. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION . 3PURPOSE OF HABITAT MANAGEMENT PLANS. 3WMA OVERVIEW. 4LANDSCAPE CONTEXT . 10II. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES BY HABITAT TYPE . 10FOREST . 11SHRUBLAND . 20GRASSLAND . 21AGRICULTURAL LAND . 25WETLANDS (NATURAL AND IMPOUNDED). 25OPEN WATER (WATERBODIES AND WATERCOURSES) . 28HABITAT MANAGEMENT SUMMARY. 28III. FIGURES . 30IV. APPENDICES . 40APPENDIX A: DEFINITIONS . 40APPENDIX B. STATEMENT OF CONFORMITY WITH SEQRA . 43APPENDIX C: FOREST MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTIONS . 45APPENDIX D: AMENDMENTS. 48LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE 1. Location and access features at Cicero Swamp WMA. . 30FIGURE 2. Map Index at Cicero Swamp WMA. . 31FIGURE 3. Significant Ecological Communities on Cicero Swamp WMA (Map 1). . 32FIGURE 4. Significant Ecological Communities on Cicero Swamp WMA (Map 2). . 33FIGURE 5. Wetlands, open water, and streams of Cicero Swamp WMA (Map 1). . 34FIGURE 6. Wetlands, open water, and streams of Cicero Swamp WMA (Map 2). . 35FIGURE 7. Land cover types and conservation lands in landscape surrounding Cicero Swamp WMA. . 36FIGURE 8. Percent cover of land cover types within three miles of Cicero Swamp WMA. . 37FIGURE 9. Habitat types and location(s) of proposed management on Cicero Swamp WMA (West). 38FIGURE 10. Habitat types and location(s) of proposed management on Cicero Swamp WMA (East). . 392 Page

SUMMARYCicero Swamp Wildlife Management Area (WMA) is located in the northeastern portion ofOnondaga County. It is low and wet with upland islands scattered throughout its 4,991 acres. Most ofthe wetland complex is dominated by sphagnum moss and rich soils supporting black spruce,tamarack, stunted white pine, and leatherleaf. Its unique habitat supports a variety of wildlife,including one of only two statewide populations of the endangered Eastern massasauga rattlesnake,along with many other species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.Habitat management goals for Cicero Swamp WMA include: Manage 12% of the total forested area as young forest to provide American woodcock(AMWO) habitat. Increase shrubland habitat to 1% to provide habitat for shrubland obligate species. Decrease grassland habitat to 2% of the total WMA acreage. Decrease the WMA’s forested acreage to 76% to provide habitat diversity. Maintain the remaining 9% of the WMA in its various habitats as they are now. Improve the existing shrub and grassland areas for the benefit of grassland nesting birds. Provide habitat for a variety of wildlife species and to permit wildlife-dependent recreationaluses compatible with wildlife.I. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTIONPURPOSE OF HABITAT MANAGEMENT PLANSBACKGROUNDActive management of habitats to benefit wildlife populations is a fundamental concept ofwildlife biology, and has been an important component of wildlife management in New York fordecades. Beginning in 2015, NYS Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Divisionof Fish and Wildlife (DFW) initiated a holistic planning process for wildlife habitat managementprojects. Habitat Management Plans (HMPs) are being developed for WMAs and otherproperties administered by DFW Bureau of Wildlife, including select Multiple Use and UniqueAreas. The goal of HMPs is to guide habitat management decision-making on those areas tobenefit wildlife and facilitate wildlife-dependent recreation. HMPs guide management for a tenyear time period, after which the plans and progress on implementation will be assessed andHMPs will be modified as needed.HMPs serve as the overarching guidance for habitat management on WMAs. These plansincorporate management recommendations from Unit Management Plans (UMPs), existingWMA habitat management guidelines, NY Natural Heritage Program’s WMA BiodiversityInventory Reports, Bird Conservation Area guidelines, and other documents available forindividual WMAs.3 Page

SCOPE AND INTENTPrimary purposes of this document: Provide the overall context of the habitat on the WMA and identify the target species formanagement; Identify habitat goals for WMA-specific target species, contemplating juxtaposition of allhabitat types to guide the conservation and management of sensitive or unique species orecological communities; Identify acreage-specific habitat goals for the WMA to guide management actions; Provide specific habitat management prescriptions that incorporate accepted bestmanagement practices; Establish a forest management plan to meet and maintain acreage goals for various forestsuccessional stages; Address management limitations such as access challenges (e.g., topography); and Provide the foundation for evaluating the effectiveness of habitat management.Within the next five years, this HMP will be integrated into a comprehensive WMAManagement Plan that will include management provisions for facilitating compatible wildlifedependent recreation, access, and facility development and maintenance.Definitions are provided in Appendix A.The effects of climate change and the need to facilitate wildlife adaptation under expected futureconditions will be incorporated into the habitat management planning process and will beincluded in any actions that are recommended in the HMPs. For example, these may includeconcerns about invasive species, anticipated changes in stream hydrology, and the desirability formaintaining connectedness on and permeability of the landscape for species range adjustments.This plan and the habitat management it recommends will be in compliance with the StateEnvironmental Quality Review Act (SEQRA), 6NYCRR Part 617. See Appendix B. Therecommended habitat management also requires review and authorization under the EndangeredSpecies Act (ESA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and State Historic PreservationAct (SHPA), prior to implementation.WMA OVERVIEWLOCATIONCicero Swamp WMA is located in DEC Region 7, Town of Cicero in Onondaga County (Figure1).TOTAL AREA4,991 acres4 Page

HABITAT INVENTORYA habitat inventory of the WMA was conducted in 2015 and is proposed to be updated every tento fifteen years to document the existing acreage of each habitat type and to help determine thelocation and extent of future management actions. Table 1 summarizes the current acreage byhabitat type and the desired acreage after management. Desired conditions were determined withconsideration of habitat requirements of targeted wildlife, current conditions on the WMA, andconditions in the surrounding landscape (see Landscape Context section below).Table 1. Summary of current and desired habitat acreage on Cicero Swamp WMA.Current ConditionsDesired Conditions(as of 2015)Habitat TypePercent ofAcresMilesAcresPercent of WMAWMA4,41789%3,788 Decrease to 76%Forest aYoung forest15 1%624 Increase to 12%Shrubland24 1%55 Increase to 1%Grassland1253%113 Decrease to 2%Agricultural land00%0 No ChangeWetland (natural) b3066%306 No ChangeWetland (impounded) b541%54 No ChangeOpen water21 1%21 No ChangeOther (parking lots,17 1%18 Increase by 1%transmission line)Roads12 1%212 No ChangeRivers and streams24,991100%4,991Total Acres:aForest acreage includes all mature and intermediate age classes of natural forest, plantations, and forestedwetlands. Young forest is reported separately. Definitions are provided in the Forest section of this plan.bWetland acreage does not include forested wetlands, since they are included in the Forest category.ECOLOGICAL RESOURCESWildlife Overview:Wildlife present on Cicero Swamp WMA includes many species commonly found throughoutcentral New York, such as: Beaver, muskrat, mink, coyote, white-tailed deer American woodcock, ruffed grouse, eastern wild turkey, mallard, wood duck, Virginiarail, pied-billed grebe, osprey Spotted turtle, eastern snapping turtle, painted turtle Spotted salamander, green frogWildlife and Plant Species of Conservation Concern:The following federal or state listed Endangered (E), Threatened (T), or state Special Concern(SC) species and/or Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) may occur on the WMA5 Page

(Table 2). 1 SGCN listed below include species that have been documented on or within thevicinity of the WMA that are likely to occur in suitable habitat on the WMA. Other SGCN mayalso be present on the WMA. Data sources include: the NY Natural Heritage Program, NYBreeding Bird Atlases,2 NY Reptile and Amphibian Atlas,3 DEC wildlife surveys andmonitoring, and eBird.4Table 2. Species of conservation concern that may be present on Cicero Swamp WMA,including state and federal Endangered (E) and Threatened (T) species, state Species of SpecialConcern (SC), High Priority SGCN (HP), and SGCN (x).SpeciesGroupBirds cSpeciesAmerican bitternAmerican black duckAmerican kestrelAmerican woodcockBald eagleBay-breasted warblerBlack-billed cuckooBlack-throated blue warblerBlue-winged tealBlue-winged warblerBobolinkBrown thrasherCanada warblerCerulean warblerCommon nighthawkCooper’s hawkEastern meadowlarkGolden-winged warblerHorned larkLeast bitternLong-eared owlNorthern harrierNorthern pintailOlive-sided flycatcherOspreyRed-shouldered hawkRuffed grouseRusty blackbirdScarlet tanagerSharp-shinned hawkVesper sparrowFederalStatusNY StatusSCTSCSCSCSCSCTTSCSCSCSCNY PxHP1The 2015 New York State Wildlife Action Plan identifies 366 Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN)including 167 High Priority SGCN. Available online at http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7179.html.2Available online at http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7312.html.3Available online at http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7140.html.4Available online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/about/. Audubon and Cornell Lab of Ornithology.6 Page

Table 2. -willWood thrushYellow-breasted chatMammalsAmphibiansand reptilesTri-colored batIndiana bat (myotis)Little brown bat (myotis)Northern long-eared bat (myotis)Blue-spotted salamanderCommon ribbonsnakeEastern massasauga rattlesnakeEastern ratsnakeEastern snapping turtleFour-toed salamanderNorthern coal skinkSmooth greensnakeSpotted turtleWood turtleFishNo survey done to dateInvertebratesBog Elfin (see explanation below)PlantsLarge twaybladeSouthern twaybladeTroublesome sedgeRam’s-head ladyslipper (h)Cloud sedge (h)NY StatusNY TECSeveral listed bird species only utilize this WMA as migratory habitat and are considered as such in managementplans.(h) Historical- According to NY Natural Heritage this is a historical record and has not been recently found on theWMA.Ram’s-head ladyslipper was last found on Cicero Swamp WMA in 1902 and a survey in 1992failed to find any occurrences on the WMA. Cloud sedge was last found on Cicero Swamp in1949 and no surveys have been conducted since to determine its exact location, or if it is stillpresent on the WMA.Bog turtle was reported on the WMA in 1950, with several unverified reports in the 1960s-70s.The turtle was considered extirpated from the property in 1993 after routine surveys of the areaby researchers and DEC staff for the preceding 15 years failed to document any occurrences.7 Page

NY Natural Heritage records Bog Elfin as possibly occurring on Cicero Swamp; it was lastfound in 1988. However, the species is now considered extirpated from New York and thereforeis not listed as E/T/SC/SGCN.Significant Ecological Communities:There are several rare and significant natural communities located on Cicero Swamp WMA asidentified by the NY Natural Heritage Program. The state rank reflects the rarity within NY,ranging from S1, considered the rarest, to S5, considered stable; definitions are provided inAppendix A. The following significant ecological communities occur on the WMA; communitydescriptions are from Ecological Communities of New York State, Second Edition 5 (Figures 3and 4): Silver Maple-Ash Swamp (S3) - A hardwood basin swamp that occurs in poorly-draineddepressions or in poorly-drained soils along the borders of large lakes or, less frequently,rivers. These sites are characterized by uniformly wet conditions with minimal seasonalfluctuations in water levels. The dominant trees are usually silver maple (Acersaccharinum) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica). Black Spruce-Tamarack Bog (S3) - A conifer forest that occurs in cool, poorly draineddepressions. The characteristic trees are black spruce (Picea mariana) and tamarack(Larix laricina). Red Maple-Hardwood Swamp (S4, S5) - A hardwood swamp that occurs in poorlydrained depressions, usually on inorganic soils with peat, if present, that is less than 20cmdeep. This is a broadly defined community with many variants. In any one stand, redmaple (Acer rubrum) is either the only canopy dominant, or it is codominant with one ormore hardwoods. Red Maple-Tamarack Peat Swamp (S2, S3) - A mixed swamp that occurs on organicsoils (peat or muck) in poorly drained depressions. The dominant trees are red maple(Acer rubrum) and tamarack (Larix laricina). These species usually form an open canopywith numerous small openings dominated by shrubs or sedges.Additional information about significant ecological communities is available in the CiceroSwamp WMA Biodiversity Inventory Final Report (1993) prepared by the NY Natural HeritageProgram.Special Management Zones:Special Management Zones (SMZs) are areas adjacent to wetlands, perennial and intermittentstreams, vernal pool depressions, spring seeps, ponds and lakes, recreational trails, and other landfeatures requiring special consideration. SMZs on Cicero Swamp WMA include: One wetland regulated by Article 24 of the Environmental Conservation Law and 99additional wetlands shown on the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI; Figures 5 and 6).Each state-regulated wetland is protected by a buffer zone of 100 feet from the delineatedwetland boundary, known as the adjacent area. There may be forestry prescriptions5Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero. 2014. EcologicalCommunities of New York State, Second Edition. New York Natural Heritage Program, NYS Department ofEnvironmental Conservation, Albany, NY. Available online at http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/97703.html.8 Page

associated with forested wetlands and adjacent areas, and each management prescriptionwill be reviewed individually for determination of impacts. Six streams (a watercourse entirely within the WMA) or segments of streams (a streamthat meanders in and out of the WMA). Streams designated as class C(T) or higher areregulated by Article 15 of the Environmental Conservation Law however, the higheststream classification on this property is C.6 Water quality standards will be adhered to onall streams.Guidelines for habitat management projects within these areas are outlined in the Division ofLands and Forests Rules for Establishment of Special Management Zones on State Forests andWildlife Management Areas.7 Some habitat management activities may either be prohibited orrestricted in order to protect these features. Any deviations from these guidelines will beaddressed in the individual stand prescriptions.State Nature and Historic Preserve Trust:In 1977, Cicero Swamp was 4,018 acres in size, compared to the 4,991 acres that it is today. Inthat year, the property was added to the State Nature and Historic Preserve Trust (SNHPT) whichis outlined in the NYS Environmental Conservation Law, Article 458 as follows:ECL 45-0117(3): “Lands dedicated to the preserve are declared to be put to their highest, bestand most important use and are to be held for one or more of the following purposes:1. As natural areas for maintaining plants, animals and natural communities, includingpreservation of old-growth forests dedicated to the preserve specifically for that purpose;2. As reservoirs of natural materials and ecological processes that contribute to the state’sbiological diversity;3. As field laboratories for scientific research and education in the natural sciences,including the fields of biology, conservation, ecology, geology, natural history andpaleontology;4. As places of natural and historic interest and beauty which provide the public withpassive recreational opportunities including, where appropriate, fishing, hunting andtrapping, or commercial fishing opportunities that are compatible with protecting theecological significance, historic features, and natural character of the area.”Lands that are in the SNHPT are different from those lands that are part of the Adirondack andCatskill Parks. Allowed management activities include, but are not limited to, mowing, burning,wood product sales and boundary and sign maintenance.Since Cicero Swamp was enrolled in the SNHPT there have been multiple, subsequentacquisitions bringing the total acreage today to 4,991 acres. However, those acquisitions are notpart of the SNHPT as there was no provision in the 1977 law to automatically enroll futureacquisitions into the SNHPT.6Information about stream classification is available online at http://www.dec.ny.gov/permits/6042.html.Available online at http://www.dec.ny.gov/outdoor/104218.html.8More information can be found online at: tion-law79 Page

Planned habitat management activities that would occur on parts of the property enrolled in theSNHPT would be conducted in accordance with the stipulations under NYS ECL Article 45pertaining to the SNHPT.LANDSCAPE CONTEXTThe goals of this HMP have been developed with consideration of surrounding landscapefeatures, the availability of habitats, and other conservation lands adjacent to Cicero SwampWMA (Figure 7). The landscape within a three mile radius of the WMA is primarily privatelyowned land including: Forest (28% combining evergreen, deciduous and mixed) Agriculture (21% combining cultivated crops and hay) Early successional (7% combining grasslands and shrublands) Wetlands (27% combining open water, emergent and woody wetlands) Developed areas (17%)In addition there are four parks within the three mile radius of Cicero Swamp WMA. Central (25acres), Gateway Community (39 acres), and Skyway Parks (11 acres) are owned by the Town ofCicero, and Maxwell Park (105 acres) is owned by the Town of Dewitt. All of the parks aremanaged for public recreation including ball fields, playgrounds, and picnic areas.Nearly half of the surrounding landscape is comprised of forest and woody wetlands intermixedwith grasslands, agricultural lands, and developed lands, with smaller amounts of open water,shrub/scrub and emergent herbaceous wetlands.This is in contrast with Cicero Swamp WMA, which is comprised mainly of forested wetlandwith very little developed areas or grasslands/shrublands. Cicero Swamp WMA also containsmuch larger areas of contiguous forest, which is lacking in the surrounding landscape. With anever changing surrounding landscape, the amount of young forest may change drastically overtime as land uses change. By managing for young forest on Cicero Swamp, young forest will beprovided as habitat to serve the immediate area around the WMA. As part of DFW’s YoungForest Initiative (YFI) on WMAs, future habitat management plans for Cicero Swamp WMAwill enhance young forest habitat across the landscape as well as maintain important contiguousforest habitat.Further details on management of each habitat type can be found in the next section of this plan.II. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES BY HABITAT TYPEDEC will continue active management of wildlife habitats on Cicero Swamp WMA to providethe following benefits: Maintain habitat characteristics that will benefit wildlife abundance and diversity withinthe New York landscape.10 P a g e

Promote Best Management Practices for targeted wildlife and habitats.Provide opportunities for wildlife-dependent recreation such as trapping, hunting, andbird watching compatible with the ongoing habitat management practices and speciesmanagement considerations.Improve habitat quality by reducing invasive species, if present and identified fortreatment.FORESTForested acreage includes the following forest types:Natural forest: naturally forested acres, including hardwoods and softwoods. Includes anyupland forested acreage that is not young forest, i.e., pole stands, other intermediate forest ageclasses, mature forest, and old growth forest.Plantation: planted forested acres, generally planted in rows dominated by one or two species.Forested wetland: wetland acres where forest or shrub vegetation accounts for greater than 50%of hydrophytic vegetative cover and the soil or substrate is periodically saturated or covered withwater.Young forest: young or regenerating forested acres, which are typically aged 0-10 years since adisturbance or regeneration cut, depending upon the site conditions. May include both naturalforest and plantations.Young forest (forested wetland): young, regenerating forested wetland acres.Forest management on Cicero Swamp WMA incorporates an approach to create and/or maintainthe diversity of forest age classes that are required to support a diversity of wildlife. In 2015,DEC launched the YFI to increase the amount of young forest on WMAs to benefit wildlife thatrequire this transitional, disturbance-dependent habitat. 9MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES Increase young forest cover from 15 acres ( 1% of total forested area) to 624 acres (14%of total forested area, 12% of the WMA) over the next 10 years to improve habitat foryoung-forest dependent wildlife, specifically targeting American woodcock and Easternmassasauga rattlesnake.DESCRIPTION OF EXISTING FOREST HABITAT AND TARGET SPECIESAs shown in Table 1, nearly 90% of the total area of Cicero Swamp WMA is forested (4,432acres). Of this habitat type, approximately 11% is composed of natural or plantation forest (503acres), 88% is forested wetlands (3,914 acres) and less than 1% is young forest (15 acres).Compared to the surrounding landscape, Cicero Swamp has the largest contiguous area offorested wetlands in the immediate area (Figure 7). Table 3 provides a more detailed descriptionof the types of forest found on Cicero Swamp WMA and the most common types of trees foundin each.9Additional information about DEC’s Young Forest Initiative and the YFI Strategic Plan is available online athttp://www.dec.ny.gov/outdoor/104218.html.11 P a g e

Table 3. Summary of the acreage and dominant overstory species for each forest type presenton Cicero Swamp WMA.Acres (as DesiredForest TypeOverstory speciesof 2015)AcresNatural forest435247red maple, white ash, aspen(mature/intermediate)Plantation6822 red maple, Scotch pine, white pinered maple, yellow birch, whiteForested wetland3,9143,518pineYoung forest0232Young forest (forested wetland)153934,4324,412Total Forested Acres:There are 38 different types of soil on Cicero Swamp WMA, however, 65% of the total WMAarea is composed of two types of muck soils, Carlisle and Palms. Muck soils are commonlyfound in marshes and swamps and are characterized by being very poorly drained with frequentperiods of standing water on the surface. The remaining 35% of the WMA is composed of a widevariety of silt/sand/clay loams, most of which are poorly drained except for those located mostlyalong the outer edges of the WMA, which are moderate to well drained. Only approximately 7%of the total area of Cicero Swamp has soils that are classified as being moderately drained towell-drained. 10The lack of dry ground poses a significant challenge to actively managing this habitat type.There are virtually no roads or trails providing access to the interior parts of the property and thepoorly drained ground will significantly limit the use of heavy machinery that is commonly usedto conduct forest management. Consequently, there are only a few places where young foresthabitat can be created through the use of a commercial timber harvest.Target Species:Although there are many species that will benefit from the creation, restoration, and maintenanceof young forests, management of forested habitats on Cicero Swamp WMA will focus onproviding habitat for the target species listed below: American Woodcock – With a more than 80% of the property being composed of poorlydrained ground, forested wetlands and open wetlands, there is ample opportunity tomanage for American woodcock. Combining moist ground for foraging and a mixture ofmature and young forest habitats through timber management, a landscape will be createdthat provides the following requirements:o Singing/peenting ground – Open areas from 1 to 100 acres, usually in anabandoned field.o Daytime areas – Moist, rich soils with dense overhead cover of young alders,aspen or birch.o Nesting – Young, open, second growth woodlands.10Soil classification information available from: US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources ConservationService. Available online at t/soils/survey/state/?stateId NY.12 P a g e

o Brood rearing – Similar to nesting except also including bare ground and denseground cover.o Roosting – Open fields (minimum of 5 acres) or blueberry fields and revertingfarm fields.11Although not identified as a target species in the suite of high priority species of conservationinterest for young forest management, due to the presence of Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake onCicero Swamp WMA, management of forested (and other) habitats will also focus on providinghabitat for this state-endangered species: Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake – This reptile requires young forest habitat for asignificant portion of its life cycle and has been observed using the same habitat as theAmerican woodcock on the property. We will endeavor to create a landscape thatprovides:o Hibernaculum – Wetland areas with abundant hummocks.o Basking habitat – Areas free of encroaching shrubs that provide extended periodsof sunlight available to the gravid (pregnant) snakes to aid in gestation.o Foraging – Open fields that provide ample foraging opportunity for small rodentsand other prey.MANAGEMENT HISTORYFew records still exist of past forest management on this property. The land was initiallypurchased in 1945. In 1957, in the area just east of Island Rd, (which today is the north end ofstand A9) timber was cut for the purpose of creating game openings for grouse, deer, and hare.Pulpwood sales and thinnings were carried out in the same area from 1961-63. Also, between1975 and 1986 there were six timber harvests from which a total of 5 cords of firewood, 250fence posts, and 100 red pine cabin logs were sold.12 However, records do not indicate

Bonnie Parton, Wildlife Technician Thomas Bell, State Wildlife Grants Biologist Michael Putnam, Wildlife Biologist 1 Adam Perry, Wildlife Biologist 1 Adam Robedee, Forest Technician 2 Andrew Drake, Forester 1 Young Forest Initiative . Reviewed and approved by:

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