ESP32 Series - Espressif

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ESP32 -U4WDHVersion 3.6Espressif SystemsCopyright 2021www.espressif.com

About This GuideThis document provides the specifications of ESP32 family of chips.Document UpdatesPlease always refer to the latest version on ments.Revision HistoryFor any changes to this document over time, please refer to the last page.Documentation Change NotificationEspressif provides email notifications to keep customers updated on changes to technical documentation.Please subscribe at www.espressif.com/en/subscribe. Note that you need to update your subscription to receivenotifications of new products you are not currently subscribed to.CertificationDownload certificates for Espressif products from www.espressif.com/en/certificates.

ContentsContents1Overview81.1Featured Solutions81.1.1Ultra-Low-Power Solution81.1.2Complete Integration Solution81.2Wi-Fi Key Features81.3BT Key Features91.4MCU and Advanced Features91.4.1CPU and Memory91.4.2Clocks and Timers101.4.3Advanced Peripheral Interfaces101.4.4Security101.5Applications (A Non-exhaustive List)111.6Block Diagram122Pin Definitions132.1Pin Layout132.2Pin Description152.3Power Scheme182.4Strapping Pins193Functional Description223.1CPU and Memory223.1.1CPU223.1.2Internal Memory223.1.3External Flash and SRAM233.1.4Memory Map233.23.33.43.53.6Timers and Watchdogs253.2.164-bit Timers253.2.2Watchdog Timers25System Clocks263.3.1CPU Clock263.3.2RTC Clock263.3.3Audio PLL Clock26Radio263.4.12.4 GHz Receiver273.4.22.4 GHz Transmitter273.4.3Clock Generator27Wi-Fi273.5.1Wi-Fi Radio and Baseband273.5.2Wi-Fi MAC28Bluetooth283.6.128Bluetooth Radio and BasebandEspressif Systems3Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

Contents3.6.2Bluetooth Interface293.6.3Bluetooth Stack293.6.4Bluetooth Link Controller293.7RTC and Low-Power Management304Peripherals and Sensors324.1Descriptions of Peripherals and Sensors324.1.1General Purpose Input / Output Interface (GPIO)324.1.2Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)324.1.3Hall Sensor334.1.4Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)334.1.5Touch Sensor334.1.6Ultra-Low-Power Co-processor334.1.7Ethernet MAC Interface344.1.8SD/SDIO/MMC Host Controller344.1.9SDIO/SPI Slave Controller344.1.10 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART)354.1.11 I²C Interface354.1.12 I²S Interface354.1.13 Infrared Remote Controller354.1.14 Pulse Counter354.1.15 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)364.1.16 LED PWM364.1.17 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)364.1.18 TWAI Controller364.1.19 Accelerator374.2Peripheral Pin Configurations375Electrical Characteristics425.1Absolute Maximum Ratings425.2Recommended Operating Conditions425.3DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 C)435.4Reliability Qualifications435.5RF Power-Consumption Specifications445.6Wi-Fi Radio445.7Bluetooth Radio455.7.1Receiver – Basic Data Rate455.7.2Transmitter – Basic Data Rate455.7.3Receiver – Enhanced Data Rate465.7.4Transmitter – Enhanced Data Rate465.86Bluetooth LE Radio475.8.1Receiver475.8.2Transmitter48Package InformationEspressif Systems494Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

Contents7Part Number and Ordering Information508Learning Resources518.1Must-Read Documents518.2Must-Have Resources51Appendix A – ESP32 Pin Lists52A.1. Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists52A.2. GPIO Matrix54A.3. Ethernet MAC59A.4. IO MUX59Revision History61Espressif Systems5Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

List of TablesList of Tables1Pin Description152Description of ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing Parameters193Strapping Pins204Parameter Descriptions of Setup and Hold Times for the Strapping Pin215Memory and Peripheral Mapping246Power Consumption by Power Modes307ADC Characteristics328ADC Calibration Results339Capacitive-Sensing GPIOs Available on ESP323310Peripheral Pin Configurations3711Absolute Maximum Ratings4212Recommended Operating Conditions4213DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 C)4314Reliability Qualifications4315RF Power-Consumption Specifications4416Wi-Fi Radio Characteristics4417Receiver Characteristics – Basic Data Rate4518Transmitter Characteristics – Basic Data Rate4519Receiver Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate4620Transmitter Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate4721Receiver Characteristics – BLE4722Transmitter Characteristics – BLE4823ESP32 Ordering Information5024Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists5225GPIO Matrix5426Ethernet MAC59Espressif Systems6Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

List of FiguresList of Figures1Functional Block Diagram122ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 6*6, Top View)133ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 5*5, Top View)144ESP32 Power Scheme185ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing196Setup and Hold Times for the Strapping Pin217Address Mapping Structure238QFN48 (6x6 mm) Package499QFN48 (5x5 mm) Package4910ESP32 Part Number50Espressif Systems7Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

1 Overview1 OverviewESP32 is a single 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi-and-Bluetooth combo chip designed with the TSMC ultra-low-power 40 nmtechnology. It is designed to achieve the best power and RF performance, showing robustness, versatility andreliability in a wide variety of applications and power scenarios.The ESP32 series of chips includes ESP32-D0WD-V3, ESP32-D0WDQ6-V3, ESP32-D0WD, ESP32-D0WDQ6,ESP32-D2WD, ESP32-S0WD, and ESP32-U4WDH, among which, ESP32-D0WD-V3, ESP32-D0WDQ6-V3,and ESP32-U4WDH are based on ECO V3 wafer.For details on part numbers and ordering information, please refer to Section 7.For details on ECO V3 instructions, please refer to ESP32 ECO V3 User Guide.1.1 Featured Solutions1.1.1 Ultra Low Power SolutionESP32 is designed for mobile, wearable electronics, and Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. It features all thestate-of-the-art characteristics of low-power chips, including fine-grained clock gating, multiple power modes,and dynamic power scaling. For instance, in a low-power IoT sensor hub application scenario, ESP32 is wokenup periodically and only when a specified condition is detected. Low-duty cycle is used to minimize the amountof energy that the chip expends. The output of the power amplifier is also adjustable, thus contributing to anoptimal trade-off between communication range, data rate and power consumption.Note:For more information, refer to Section 3.7 RTC and Low-Power Management.1.1.2 Complete Integration SolutionESP32 is a highly-integrated solution for Wi-Fi-and-Bluetooth IoT applications, with around 20 externalcomponents. ESP32 integrates an antenna switch, RF balun, power amplifier, low-noise receive amplifier, filters,and power management modules. As such, the entire solution occupies minimal Printed Circuit Board (PCB)area.ESP32 uses CMOS for single-chip fully-integrated radio and baseband, while also integrating advancedcalibration circuitries that allow the solution to remove external circuit imperfections or adjust to changes inexternal conditions. As such, the mass production of ESP32 solutions does not require expensive andspecialized Wi-Fi testing equipment.1.2 Wi Fi Key Features 802.11 b/g/n 802.11 n (2.4 GHz), up to 150 Mbps WMM TX/RX A-MPDU, RX A-MSDU Immediate Block ACKEspressif Systems8Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

1 Overview Defragmentation Automatic Beacon monitoring (hardware TSF) 4 virtual Wi-Fi interfaces Simultaneous support for Infrastructure Station, SoftAP, and Promiscuous modesNote that when ESP32 is in Station mode, performing a scan, the SoftAP channel will be changed. Antenna diversityNote:For more information, please refer to Section 3.5 Wi-Fi.1.3 BT Key Features Compliant with Bluetooth v4.2 BR/EDR and BLE specifications Class-1, class-2 and class-3 transmitter without external power amplifier Enhanced Power Control 12 dBm transmitting power NZIF receiver with –94 dBm BLE sensitivity Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) Standard HCI based on SDIO/SPI/UART High-speed UART HCI, up to 4 Mbps Bluetooth 4.2 BR/EDR BLE dual mode controller Synchronous Connection-Oriented/Extended (SCO/eSCO) CVSD and SBC for audio codec Bluetooth Piconet and Scatternet Multi-connections in Classic BT and BLE Simultaneous advertising and scanning1.4 MCU and Advanced Features1.4.1 CPU and Memory Xtensa single-/dual-core 32-bit LX6 microprocessor(s), up to 600 MIPS (200 MIPS forESP32-S0WD/ESP32-U4WDH, 400 MIPS for ESP32-D2WD) 448 KB ROM 520 KB SRAM 16 KB SRAM in RTC QSPI supports multiple flash/SRAM chipsEspressif Systems9Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

1 Overview1.4.2 Clocks and Timers Internal 8 MHz oscillator with calibration Internal RC oscillator with calibration External 2 MHz 60 MHz crystal oscillator (40 MHz only for Wi-Fi/BT functionality) External 32 kHz crystal oscillator for RTC with calibration Two timer groups, including 2 64-bit timers and 1 main watchdog in each group One RTC timer RTC watchdog1.4.3 Advanced Peripheral Interfaces 34 programmable GPIOs 12-bit SAR ADC up to 18 channels 2 8-bit DAC 10 touch sensors 4 SPI 2 I²S 2 I²C 3 UART 1 host (SD/eMMC/SDIO) 1 slave (SDIO/SPI) Ethernet MAC interface with dedicated DMA and IEEE 1588 support Two-Wire Automotive Interface (TWAI , compatible with ISO11898-1) IR (TX/RX) Motor PWM LED PWM up to 16 channels Hall sensor1.4.4 Security Secure boot Flash encryption 1024-bit OTP, up to 768-bit for customers Cryptographic hardware acceleration:– AES– Hash (SHA-2)Espressif Systems10Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

1 Overview– RSA– ECC– Random Number Generator (RNG)1.5 Applications (A Non exhaustive List)– Agriculture robotics Generic Low-power IoT Sensor Hub Generic Low-power IoT Data Loggers Audio Applications Cameras for Video Streaming– Internet music players Over-the-top (OTT) Devices– Live streaming devices Speech Recognition– Internet radio players Image Recognition– Audio headsets Mesh Network Health Care Applications Home Automation– Health monitoring– Light control– Baby monitors– Smart plugs Wi-Fi-enabled Toys– Smart door locks– Remote control toys Smart Building– Proximity sensing toys– Smart lighting– Educational toys– Energy monitoring Wearable Electronics Industrial Automation– Industrial wireless control– Smart watches– Industrial robotics– Smart bracelets Retail & Catering Applications Smart Agriculture– Smart greenhouses– POS machines– Smart irrigation– Service robotsEspressif Systems11Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

1 Overview1.6 Block I2SWi-Fi MACWi-FibasebandRFtransmitSDIOUARTTWAI ETHCryptographic hardwareaccelerationCore and memory2 or 1 x Xtensa 32bit LX6 ollerSwitchEmbedded FlashSRAMSHARSAAESRNGTouch rsFigure 1: Functional Block DiagramNote:Products in the ESP32 series differ from each other in terms of their support for embedded flash and the number of CPUsthey have. For details, please refer to Section 7 Part Number and Ordering Information.Espressif Systems12Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

2 Pin Definitions2 Pin DefinitionsCAP1CAP2VDDAXTAL PXTAL NVDDAGPIO21U0TXDU0RXDGPIO22GPIO19VDD3P3 CPU4847464544434241403938372.1 Pin LayoutVDDA136GPIO23LNA IN235GPIO18VDD3P3334GPIO5VDD3P3433SD DATA 1SENSOR VP532SD DATA 0SENSOR CAPP631SD CLKSENSOR CAPN730SD CMDSENSOR VN829SD DATA 3CHIP PU928SD DATA 2VDET 11027GPIO17VDET 21126VDD SDIO32K XP1225GPIO1613141516171819202122232432K XNGPIO25GPIO26GPIO27MTMSMTDIVDD3P3 RTCMTCKMTDOGPIO2GPIO0GPIO4ESP3249 GNDFigure 2: ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 6*6, Top View)Espressif Systems13Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

CAP1CAP2VDDAXTAL PXTAL NVDDAGPIO21U0TXDU0RXDGPIO22484746454443424140392 Pin DefinitionsVDDA138GPIO19LNA IN237VDD3P3 CPUVDD3P3336GPIO23VDD3P3435GPIO18SENSOR VP534GPIO5SENSOR CAPP633SD DATA 1SENSOR CAPN732SD DATA 0SENSOR VN831SD CLKCHIP PU930SD CMDVDET 11029SD DATA 3VDET 21128SD DATA 232K XP1227GPIO1732K XN1326VDD 27MTMSMTDIVDD3P3 RTCMTCKMTDOGPIO2GPIO0GPIO4ESP3249 GNDFigure 3: ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 5*5, Top View)Note:For details on ESP32’s part numbers and the corresponding packaging, please refer to Section 7 Part Number and OrderingInformation.Espressif Systems14Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

2 Pin DefinitionsEspressif Systems2.2 Pin DescriptionTable 1: Pin DescriptionNameNo.TypeFunctionAnalogAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)VDDA1PLNA IN2I/OVDD3P33PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)VDD3P34PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)RF input and outputVDD3P3 RTC5IGPIO36, ADC1 CH0,RTC GPIO0SENSOR CAPP6IGPIO37, ADC1 CH1,RTC GPIO1SENSOR CAPN7IGPIO38, ADC1 CH2,RTC GPIO2SENSOR VN8IGPIO39, ADC1 CH3,RTC GPIO315Submit Documentation FeedbackSENSOR VPHigh: On; enables the chipCHIP PU9ILow: Off; the chip powers offNote: Do not leave the CHIP PU pin floating.ESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6VDET 110IGPIO34, ADC1 CH6,RTC GPIO4VDET 211IGPIO35, ADC1 CH7,RTC GPIO532K XP12I/OGPIO32, ADC1 CH4,RTC GPIO9,TOUCH9,32K XP (32.768 kHz crystal oscillator input)32K XN13I/OGPIO33, ADC1 CH5,RTC GPIO8,TOUCH8,32K XN (32.768 kHz crystal oscillator output)GPIO2514I/OGPIO25, ADC2 CH8,RTC GPIO6,DAC 1,EMAC RXD0GPIO2615I/OGPIO26, ADC2 CH9,RTC GPIO7,DAC 2,EMAC RXD1GPIO2716I/OGPIO27, ADC2 CH7,RTC GPIO17, TOUCH7,EMAC RX DVMTMS17I/OGPIO14, ADC2 CH6,RTC GPIO16, TOUCH6,EMAC TXD2,HSPICLK,HS2 CLK,MTDI18I/OGPIO12, ADC2 CH5,RTC GPIO15, TOUCH5,EMAC TXD3,HSPIQ,HS2 DATA2, SD DATA2,MTDIVDD3P3 RTC19PMTCK20I/OGPIO13, ADC2 CH4,RTC GPIO14, TOUCH4,EMAC RX ER, HSPID,HS2 DATA3, SD DATA3,MTCKMTDO21I/OGPIO15, ADC2 CH3,RTC GPIO13, TOUCH3,EMAC RXD3,HS2 CMD,MTDOSD CLK,MTMSInput power supply for RTC IO (2.3 V 3.6 V)HSPICS0,SD CMD,

No.TypeFunctionGPIO222I/OGPIO2,ADC2 CH2,RTC GPIO12, TOUCH2,GPIO023I/OGPIO0,ADC2 CH1,RTC GPIO11, TOUCH1,EMAC TX CLK, CLK OUT1,GPIO424I/OGPIO4,ADC2 CH0,RTC GPIO10, TOUCH0,EMAC TX ER,HSPIWP,HSPIHD,VDD SDIO16Submit Documentation FeedbackGPIO1625I/OGPIO16, HS1 DATA4,U2RXD,EMAC CLK OUTVDD SDIO26PGPIO1727I/OGPIO17, HS1 DATA5,U2TXD,EMAC CLK OUT 180SD DATA 228I/OGPIO9,HS1 DATA2,U1RXD,SD DATA2,SPIHDSD DATA 329I/OGPIO10, HS1 DATA3,U1TXD,SD DATA3,SPIWPSD CMD30I/OGPIO11, HS1 CMD,U1RTS,SD CMD,SPICS0SD CLK31I/OGPIO6,HS1 CLK,U1CTS,SD CLK,SPICLKSD DATA 032I/OGPIO7,HS1 DATA0,U2RTS,SD DATA0,SPIQSD DATA 133I/OGPIO8,HS1 DATA1,U2CTS,SD DATA1,SPIDOutput power supply: 1.8 V or the same voltage as VDD3P3 RTCVDD3P3 CPUGPIO534I/OGPIO5,HS1 DATA6,VSPICS0,EMAC RX CLKGPIO1835I/OGPIO18, HS1 DATA7,VSPICLKGPIO2336I/OGPIO23, HS1 STROBE, VSPIDVDD3P3 CPU37PGPIO1938I/OGPIO19, U0CTS,VSPIQ,EMAC TXD0GPIO2239I/OGPIO22, U0RTS,VSPIWP,EMAC TXD1U0RXD40I/OGPIO3,U0RXD,CLK OUT2U0TXD41I/OGPIO1,U0TXD,CLK OUT3,EMAC RXD2GPIO2142I/OGPIO21,VSPIHD,EMAC TX ENInput power supply for CPU IO (1.8 V 3.6 V)ESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6AnalogVDDA43PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)XTAL N44OExternal crystal outputXTAL P45IExternal crystal inputVDDA46PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)CAP247IConnects to a 3.3 nF (10%) capacitor and 20 kΩ resistor in parallel to CAP1HS2 DATA0, SD DATA0HS2 DATA1, SD DATA12 Pin DefinitionsEspressif SystemsName

No.TypeFunctionCAP148IConnects to a 10 nF series capacitor to groundGND49PGroundNote: The pin-pin mapping between ESP32-D2WD/ESP32-U4WDH and the embedded flash is as follows: GPIO16 CS#, GPIO17 IO1/DO, SD CMD IO3/HOLD#, SD CLK CLK, SD DATA 0 IO2/WP#, SD DATA 1 IO0/DI. The pins used for embedded flash are not recommended for other uses. In most cases, the data port connection between ESP32 series of chips other than ESP32-D2WD/ESP32-U4WDH and external flash is as follows: SD DATA0/SPIQ IO1/DO,SD DATA1/SPID IO0/DI, SD DATA2/SPIHD IO3/HOLD#, SD DATA3/SPIWP IO2/WP#. For a quick reference guide to using the IO MUX, Ethernet MAC, and GIPO Matrix pins of ESP32, please refer to Appendix ESP32 Pin Lists.2 Pin DefinitionsEspressif SystemsName17Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

2 Pin Definitions2.3 Power SchemeESP32’s digital pins are divided into three different power domains: VDD3P3 RTC VDD3P3 CPU VDD SDIOVDD3P3 RTC is also the input power supply for RTC and CPU.VDD3P3 CPU is also the input power supply for CPU.VDD SDIO connects to the output of an internal LDO whose input is VDD3P3 RTC. When VDD SDIO isconnected to the same PCB net together with VDD3P3 RTC, the internal LDO is disabled automatically. Thepower scheme diagram is shown below:VDD3P3 RTC1.8 VLDOR 6ΩLDO1.1 VVDD3P3 CPULDO1.1 VVDD SDIO3.3 V/1.8 VSDIORTCCPUDomainDomainDomainFigure 4: ESP32 Power SchemeThe internal LDO can be configured as having 1.8 V, or the same voltage as VDD3P3 RTC. It can be powered offvia software to minimize the current of flash/SRAM during the Deep-sleep mode.Notes on CHIP PU: The illustration below shows the ESP32 power-up and reset timing. Details about the parameters are listedin Table 2.Espressif Systems18Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

2 Pin Definitionst0t1VDD3P3 RTC MinVDDVIL nRSTCHIP PUFigure 5: ESP32 Power up and Reset TimingTable 2: Description of ESP32 Power up and Reset Timing ParametersParameterst0t1DescriptionTime between the 3.3 V rails being brought up and CHIP PU beingactivatedDuration of CHIP PU signal level VIL nRST (refer to its value inTable 13 DC Characteristics) to reset the chipMin.Unit50µs50µs In scenarios where ESP32 is powered on and off repeatedly by switching the power rails, while there is alarge capacitor on the VDD33 rail and CHIP PU and VDD33 are connected, simply switching off theCHIP PU power rail and immediately switching it back on may cause an incomplete power discharge cycleand failure to reset the chip adequately.An additional discharge circuit may be required to accelerate the discharge of the large capacitor on railVDD33, which will ensure proper power-on-reset when the ESP32 is powered up again. When a battery is used as the power supply for the ESP32 series of chips and modules, a supply voltagesupervisor is recommended, so that a boot failure due to low voltage is avoided. Users are recommendedto pull CHIP PU low if the power supply for ESP32 is below 2.3 V.Notes on power supply: The operating voltage of ESP32 ranges from 2.3 V to 3.6 V. When using a single-power supply, therecommended voltage of the power supply is 3.3 V, and its recommended output current is 500 mA ormore. When VDD SDIO 1.8 V is used as the power supply for external flash/PSRAM, a 2 kΩ grounding resistorshould be added to VDD SDIO. For the circuit design, please refer to Figure ESP32 WROVERSchematics, in ESP32-WROVER Datasheet. When the three digital power supplies are used to drive peripherals, e.g., 3.3 V flash, they should complywith the peripherals’ specifications.2.4 Strapping PinsThere are five strapping pins: MTDI GPIO0 GPIO2Espressif Systems19Submit Documentation FeedbackESP32 Series Datasheet V3.6

2 Pin Definitions MTDO GPIO5Software can read the values of these five bits from register ”GPIO STRAPPING”.During the chip’s system reset release (power-on-reset, RTC watchdog reset and brownout reset), the latches ofthe strapping pins sample the voltage level as strapping bits of ”0” or ”1”, and hold these bits until the chip ispowered down or shut down. The strapping bits configure the device’s boot mode, the operating voltage ofVDD SDIO and other initial system settings.Each strapping pin is connected to its internal pull-up/pull-down during the chip reset. Consequently, if astrapping pin is unconnected or the connected external circuit is high-impedance, the internal weakpull-up/pull-down will determine the default input level of the strapping pins.To change the strapping bit values, users can apply the external pull-down/pull-up resistances, or use the hostMCU’s GPIOs to control the

6 Setup and Hold Times for the Strapping Pin 21 7 Address Mapping Structure 23 8 QFN48 (6x6 mm) Package 48 9 QFN48 (5x5 mm) Package 48 10 ESP32 Part Number 49 Espressif Systems 7 Submit Documentation Feedback ESP32 Series Datasheet v3.5

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