Information Systems In Global Business Today

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Chapter 1Information Systemsin Global BusinessTodayLecturer:Richard Boateng, PhD. Lecturer in Information Systems, University of Ghana Business SchoolExecutive Director, PearlRichards Foundation, GhanaEmail:richard@pearlrichards.org1.1 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayLEARNING OBJECTIVES Understanding the effects of information systemson business and their relationship toglobalization. Explain why information systems are so essentialin business today. Define an information system and describe itsmanagement, organization, and technologycomponents.1.2 2010 by Prentice Hall

Visit Nike ID – www.nikeid.comcreate your own shoe1.3 2010 by Prentice Hall

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1.5 2010 by Prentice Hall

1.6 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today How information systems are transformingbusiness Increase in wireless technology use, Web sites Shifts in media and advertising New challenges in security and accounting laws Globalization opportunities Internet has drastically reduced costs of operating onglobal scale Presents both challenges and opportunities1.7 2010 by Prentice Hall

Information Technology Capital InvestmentConsidering the context of a developingcountry like Ghana, is the internet a strategicchoice for every firm or otherwise, shouldevery firm do business online?1.8 2010 by Prentice Hall

1.9 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today In the emerging, fully digital firm– Significant business relationships are digitally enabledand mediated– Core business processes are accomplished throughdigital networks– Key corporate assets are managed digitally Digital firms offer greater flexibility inorganization and management– Time shifting, space shifting1.10 2010 by Prentice Hall

FIRMS ARE INCREASINGLY BECOMING DIGITAL and this digitalization seems to be powered by informationsystems1.11 2010 by Prentice Hall

What is an information system?1.12 2010 by Prentice Hall

An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people,data, processes, and information technology that interactto collect, process, store, and provide as output theinformation needed to support an organization.From the business perspective, an informationsystem provides a solution to problem, a challenge, anopportunity for an organization and its consists of acombination management, organization and technology1.13 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information SystemsInformation Systems Are More Than ComputersUsing information systems effectively requires an understanding of the organization,management, and information technology shaping the systems. An information systemcreates value for the firm as an organizational and management solution to challenges posedby the environment.Figure 1-51.14 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information Systems Information system:– Set of interrelated components– Collect, process, store, and distribute information– Support decision making, coordination, andcontrol Information vs. data– Data are streams of raw facts– Information is data shaped into meaningful form1.15 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information SystemsData and InformationRaw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and organized to producemeaningful information, such as the total unit sales of dish detergent or the total salesrevenue from dish detergent for a specific store or sales territory.Figure 1-31.16 2010 by Prentice Hall

Activities in an Information SystemINPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACK1.17 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information Systems Information system: Three activitiesproduce information organizations need– Input: Captures raw data from organizationor external environment– Processing: Converts raw data intomeaningful form– Output: Transfers processed informationto people or activities that use it1.18 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information Systems Feedback:– Output returned to appropriate members oforganization to help evaluate or correct inputstage Computer/Computer program vs.information system– Computers and software are technical foundationand tools, similar to the material and tools used tobuild a house1.19 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information SystemsFunctions of an Information SystemAn information system contains information about an organization and its surrounding environment. Three basic activities—input,processing, and output—produce the information organizations need. Feedback is output returned to appropriate people or activities in theorganization to evaluate and refine the input. Environmental actors, such as customers, suppliers, competitors, stockholders, and regulatoryagencies, interact with the organization and its information systems.Figure 1-41.20 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information SystemsInformation Systems Are More Than ComputersUsing information systems effectively requires an understanding of the organization,management, and information technology shaping the systems. An information systemcreates value for the firm as an organizational and management solution to challenges posedby the environment.Figure 1-51.21 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information Systems Business perspective on informationsystems:– Information system is instrument forcreating value– Investments in information technology willresult in superior returns: Productivity increases Revenue increases Superior long-term strategic positioning1.22 2010 by Prentice Hall

So what is the DIGITAL FIRM?1.23 2010 by Prentice Hall

A firm which uses information systems to becomenetworked and decentralized and to digitalize theirbusiness processes and foster innovation andcreativity.1.24 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today Growing interdependence between ability to useinformation technology and ability to implementcorporate strategies and achieve corporate goals Business firms invest heavily in informationsystems to achieve six strategic al excellenceNew products, services, and business modelsCustomer and supplier intimacyImproved decision makingCompetitive advantageSurvival 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today Operational excellence:– Improvement of efficiency to attain higher profitability– Information systems, technology an important tool inachieving greater efficiency and productivity– Nike ID, BMW USA – linking the website withsuppliers1.26 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today New products, services, and businessmodels:– Business model: describes how company produces,delivers, and sells product or service to create wealth– Information systems and technology a major enablingtool for new products, services, business models NIKE ID1.27 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today Customer and supplier intimacy:– Serving customers well leads to customers returning,which raises revenues and profits Example: High-end hotels that use computers to trackcustomer preferences and use to monitor and customizeenvironment– Intimacy with suppliers allows them to provide vitalinputs, which lowers costs Example: NIKE ID, BMW USA1.28 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today Improved decision making– Without accurate information: Managers must use forecasts, best guesses, luck Leads to:– Overproduction, underproduction of goods and services– Misallocation of resources– Poor response times Poor outcomes raise costs, lose customers– Example: www.ibrokerghana.com – check andmanage your shares online.1.29 2010 by Prentice Hall

1.30 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayThe Role of Information Systems in Business Today Operational excellence:– Improvement of efficiency to attain higher profitability New products, services, and business models:– Enabled by technology Customer and supplier intimacy:– Serving customers raises revenues and profits– Better communication with suppliers lowers costs Improved decision making– More accurate data leads to better decisions1.31 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information SystemsThe Business Information Value ChainFrom a business perspective, information systems are part of a series of value-addingactivities for acquiring, transforming, and distributing information that managers can use toimprove decision making, enhance organizational performance, and, ultimately, increase firmprofitability.Figure 1-71.32 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information Systems Complementary assets:– Assets required to derive value from aprimary investment– Firms supporting technology investmentswith investment in complementary assetsreceive superior returns– E.g.: invest in technology and the people tomake it work properly1.33 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information Systems Complementary assets include:– Organizational investments, e.g. Appropriate business model Efficient business processes– Managerial investments, e.g. Incentives for management innovation Teamwork and collaborative work environments– Social (National) investments, e.g. The Internet and telecommunications infrastructure Technology standards1.34 2010 by Prentice Hall

A New Perspective of Information Systems1.35 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayPerspectives on Information SystemsContemporary Approaches to Information SystemsThe study of information systems deals with issues and insights contributed from technicaland behavioral disciplines.Figure 1-91.36 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayContemporary Approaches to Information Systems Technical approach Emphasizes mathematically based models Computer science, management science,operations research Behavioral approach Behavioral issues (strategic businessintegration, implementation, etc.) Psychology, economics, sociology1.37 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayContemporary Approaches to Information Systems Management Information Systems Combines computer science, management science,operations research and practical orientation withbehavioral issues Four main actors 1.38Suppliers of hardware and softwareBusiness firmsManagers and employeesFirm’s environment (legal, social, cultural context) 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayContemporary Approaches to Information Systems Approach of this course Optimal organizational performanceachieved by jointly optimizing both social andtechnical systems used in production Helps avoid purely technological approach1.39 2010 by Prentice Hall

Management Information SystemsChapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business TodayContemporary Approaches to Information SystemsA Sociotechnical Perspective on Information SystemsIn a sociotechnical perspective, the performance of a system is optimized when both thetechnology and the organization mutually adjust to one another until a satisfactory fit isobtained.Figure 1-101.40 2010 by Prentice Hall

Session ecommendedTextLaudon, K. C. and Laudon, J. P. (2010) Management Information Systems:Managing the Digital Firm, Global Edition, 11th Edition. 2010. Pearson HigherEducation (ISBN-13: 978-0-13-609368-8)1.4141 2010 by Prentice Hall

Thank You for ListeningContact: richard@pearlrichards.orgPersonal Website: www.pearlrichards.org1.4242 2010 by Prentice Hall

Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today From a business perspective, information systems are part of a series of value-adding activities for acquiring, transforming, and distributing information that managers can use to

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