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OverviewBonding,Bonding Chemical bonds Ionic bonding Ionic compounds Covalent bonding Metallic bondingProperties of substances States of matter State symbols Properties of ionic compounds Properties of small molecules Polymers Giant covalent structures Properties of metals and alloysStructure and bonding of carbon Diamond, graphite Graphene and fullerenesNanoparticles (Chemistry ONLY) Size of particles Uses of nanoparticlesStructure and the properties of matter

LearnIT!KnowIT!Bonding part 1 Chemical bonds Ionic bonding Ionic compounds

Chemical bondsThere are three types of strong chemical bonds: Ionic Covalent MetallicIonicCovalentMetallicParticles areoppositely chargedionsParticles are atomswhich share pairs ofelectronsMost non‐metallicelementsBetween non‐metalsand non‐metalsParticles are atomswhich sharedelocalised electronsBetween metals andnon‐metalsIn metallic elementsand alloysYou need to be able to explain chemical bonding in terms of electrostatic forcesand the transfer of electrons.

Ionic bondingIonic bonds form between metals and non‐metals. Ionic bonding involves thetransfer of electrons in the outer shells.Metals lose electrons to become positively charged ionsand non‐metals gain electrons to become negativelycharged ions.The elements in Group 1react with the elementsin Group 7.Groups 1 elements caneach lose one electron.This electron can be givento an atom from Group 7,they both achieve thestable electronicstructure of a noble gas.

Ionic bondingThe electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged Na ions and Cl‐ ionsis called ionic bonding. The electron transfer during the formation of an ioniccompound can be represented by a dot and cross diagram:Whencompletingdiagramsalways include: The correctnumber ofelectrons onouter shells The chargeThe charge on the ions produced by metals in group 1 and 2 and by non‐metals ingroup 6 and 7 relates to the group number of the element in the periodic table.For example group 1 form 1 ions, group 3 form 3 ions, group 6 form 2‐ ions andgroup 7 form 1‐ ions.

Ionic bondingMagnesium oxide:Sometimes the atoms reacting needto gain or lose two electrons to gain astable noble gas structure. Eachmagnesium loses two electrons andeach oxygen gains two electrons.Magnesium ions have the formulaMg2 , while oxide ions have theformula O2‐ .This means that one magnesiumatom reacts with one oxygen atom,giving the formula MgOCalcium Chloride:Each calcium atom (2, 8, 8, 2) needs tolose two electrons but each chlorineatom (2, 8, 7) needs to gain only oneelectron.This means that two chlorine atomsreact with every one calcium atom,giving the formula CaCl2

Ionic compoundsAn ionic compound is a giant structure ofions.The structure of sodium chloridecan be represented in the followingforms:Ionic compounds are held together bystrong electrostatic forces of attractionbetween oppositely charges ions. Theseforces act in all directions in the lattice –this is called ionic bonding.Empirical formulaThe models can indicate the chemicalformula of a compound by the simplestratio of atoms or ions in models of theirgiant structure – this is called the empiricalformula.e.g. there is a 1:1 ratio of sodium tochlorine in sodium chloride, so the formulais NaCl.‐ The models never accuratelyreflect the many millions ofatoms/ions bonded together inthe giant lattices

QuestionIT!Bonding part 1 Chemical bonds Ionic bonding Ionic compounds

Bonding PART 1 – QuestionIT1. What are the three types of strong chemical bond?2. What particles are found in:a) Ionic bondingb) Covalent bondingc) Metallic bonding?3. Which type of bonds occurs when metals combine with non‐metals?4. What type of bonding occurs in carbon dioxide? Why?5. What type of bonding occurs in alloys?

Bonding PART 1 – QuestionIT6. What happens to the electrons in ionic bonding?7. What electronic structure do the ions produced by metals inGroups 1 and 2 and the non‐metals in Groups 6 and 7 have?8. What is the link between the charge number on the ions in groups1, 2 and 3 and their group number ?9. What is an ionic compound?10. How are ionic compounds held together?

Bonding PART 1 – QuestionIT11. Why is the ball and stick model not an accurate representation ofthe structure of an ionic compound?12. Draw a diagram to show how potassium and chlorine atomsjoin together to form ions.13. Explain how you can use the following model to work out theempirical formula of sodium chloride.

AnswerIT!Bonding part 1 Chemical bonds Ionic bonding Ionic compounds

Bonding PART 1 – QuestionIT1. What are the three types of strong chemical bond?Ionic, covalent, metallic.2. What particles are found in:a) Ionic bonding oppositely charged ions.b) Covalent bonding atoms which share electrons.c) Metallic bonding? Atoms which share delocalised electrons.3. Which type of bonds occurs when metals combine with non‐metals?Ionic.4. What type of bonding occurs in carbon dioxide? Why?Covalent; two non‐metals.5. What type of bonding occurs in alloys?Metallic.

Bonding PART 1 – QuestionIT6. What happens to the electrons in ionic bonding?Transferred.7. What electronic structure do the ions produced by metals inGroups 1 and 2 and the non‐metals in Groups 6 and 7 have?Electronic structure of a noble gas.8. What is the link between the charge number on the ions in groups1, 2 and 3 and their group number ?Charge number is same as Group number.9. What is an ionic compound?Giant structure of ions.10. How are ionic compounds held together?Strong electrostatic forces of attraction; between oppositelycharged ions.

Bonding PART 1 – QuestionIT11. Why is the ball and stick model not an accurate representation ofthe structure of an ionic compound?Does not accurately depict the millions of ions in the lattice. Theions should touch each other/ there are no gaps between theions.12. Draw a diagram to show how potassium and chlorine atomsjoin together to form ions.

Ionic bonding PART 2 – QuestionIT13. Explain how you can use the following model of sodium chloride towork out the empirical formula.Count the number of each type ofatom in the giant structure and workout simplest whole number ratio.

LearnIT!KnowIT!BondingPART 2 Covalent bonding Metallic bonding

Covalent bonding - PART 1When atoms share pairs of electrons, they form covalent bonds.These are STRONG bonds.Covalently bonded substances may be: Small molecules, very large molecules orgiant covalent structures.HNHNH3HYou can deduce the molecularformula of a substance from agiven model or diagramshowing the atoms and bondsin the molecule by counting thenumber of atoms.H2OOHHPolymers are examples of very large covalent molecules, they can be representedin the form:where ‘n’ a very large number!Examples of covalently bonded substances with giant covalent structures arediamond and silicon dioxide.

Covalent bonding - PART 1Covalently bonded substances may consist of small molecules. The covalent bond inmolecules can be represented in the following models. Like all models, each one isuseful but has some limitations.Ammonia NH3Dot and cross with outer shellsas circles:2D with bonds:‐ It shows the H‐N‐H bondincorrectly at 90 3D ball and stick model: Show which atomsare bonded together Show which atom theelectrons in the bonds comefrom‐ All electrons are identicalDot and cross withouter shells electrons: Attempts to show the correctH‐N‐H bond angle is 107.8 Shows the impact of the lonepair

Metallic bondingThe atoms in metals are built up layer upon layer in a regularpattern. They are another example of a giant structure.The electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms are delocalised and are free tomove throughout the structure.The sharing of delocalised electrons leads to strong metallic bonds.Metallic bonding can be represented in the following form:

QuestionIT!BondingPART 2 Covalent bonding Metallic bonding

Bonding – Part 2 – QuestionIT1. How are strong covalent bonds formed?2. What are the three types of structure that can be formed bycovalent bonding?3. What are polymers an example of?4. What type of structure do the following covalently bondedsubstances have?a) Water H2Ob) Silicon dioxide SO2c) Diamond Cd) Poly(ethene)

Bonding – Part 2 – QuestionIT5. What are the limitations of using dot and cross diagrams torepresent covalent bonds?6. How are atoms arranged in a metal?7. Why are metallic bonds so strong?8. What is the formula of the following model?

Covalent bonding PART 1 – QuestionIT9. Draw a dot and cross diagram for water.10. Describe the arrangement of particles in a metal.11. Why are the particles that make up a metal described as positivelycharged?12. What are delocalised electrons?

AnswerIT!BondingPART 2 Covalent bonding Metallic bonding

Bonding – Part 2 – QuestionIT1. How are strong covalent bonds formed?Atoms share pairs of electrons.2. What are the three types of structure that can be formed bycovalent bonding?Small molecules, very large molecules, giant covalent molecules.3. What are polymers an example of?Very large molecules.4. What type of structure do the following covalently bondedsubstances have?a) Water H2O Small covalent.b) Silicon dioxide SO2 Giant covalent.c) Diamond C Giant covalent.d) Poly(ethene)Very large molecule.

Bonding – Part 2 – QuestionIT5. What are the limitations of using dot and cross diagrams torepresent covalent bonds?It shows the electrons differently, when they are the same and itdoes not show the bond angles or shape of the molecule.6. How are atoms arranged in a metal?Giant structures of atoms, arranged in a regular pattern,delocalised electrons.7. Why are me

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John Morrill, Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor and Stuart England, 1996 D.Reynolds, One World Divisible: A Global History since 1945, 2000 J.M.Roberts, Penguin History of the Twentieth Century: The History of the World, 1901 to the present, 2004 Edward Said, Orientalism, 1978 D.Sandbrook, Never had it So Good, 2005

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