2705 - 1 - Page 1 Name: UNIT: GENETICS TOPIC: DNA, GENES .

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2705 - 1 - Page 1Name:UNIT: GENETICSTOPIC: DNA, GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS1)Which diagram best represents the relative locations of thestructures in the key below?3)The largest amount of DNA in a plant cell is contained in1)2)3)4)4)Which two structures of a frog would most likely have thesame chromosome number?1)2)3)4)1)5)6)7)9)2)Hereditary information is stored inside the1)2)3)4)nucleus, which has chromosomes that contain manygenesribosomes, which have chromosomes that containmany genesnucleus, which has genes that contain manychromosomesribosomes, which have genes that contain nheredityHereditary traits are transmitted from generation togeneration by means of1)2)3)4)4)neither the organism nor its offspringboth the organism and its offspringthe organism, but not its offspringits offspring, but not the organism itselfThe transfer of genes from parents to their offspring isknown as1)2)8)large molecules that have only one functioncoiled strands of genetic materialfolded chains of bonded glucose moleculesreproductive cells composed of molecular basesA mutation changes a gene in a cell in the stomach of anorganism. This mutation could cause a change in1)2)3)4)3)skin cell and fertilized egg cellkidney cell and egg cellzygote and sperm cellliver cell and sperm cellChromosomes can be described as1)2)3)4)2)a chromosomea protein moleculean enzyme moleculea nucleusproteins in body cellscarbohydrates in body cellsspecific starches making up DNA in reproductive cellsspecific sequences of bases in DNA in reproductivecellsIn all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying thecharacteristics of the organism are directly determined bythe arrangement of the1)2)3)4)twenty-three pairs of genes on each chromosomestrands of simple sugars in certain carbohydratemoleculesfour types of molecular bases in the genestwenty kinds of amino acids in each protein

2705 - 1 - Page 210)A certain protein is found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, andbacteria. This provides evidence that plants and bacteria1)2)3)4)11)digest proteins into simple sugarshave some similar DNA base sequencescontain certain pathogenic microbescan use carbon dioxide to make proteinsamino acidsATP molecules3)4)sugarsbasesWhich statement best describes the relationship betweencells, DNA, and proteins?1)2)3)4)13)The diagram below represents a portion of an organicmolecule.Genes involved in the production of abnormal red bloodcells have an abnormal sequence of1)2)12)14)DNA is composed of proteins that carry codedinformation for how cells function.Cells contain DNA that controls the production ofproteins.Proteins are used to produce cells that link amino acidstogether into DNA.Cells are linked together by proteins to make differentkinds of DNA molecules.This molecule controls cellular activity by directing thesynthesis of1)2)Three structures are represented in the diagram below.15)fatsminerals3)4)carbohydratesproteinsThe diagram below represents an incomplete section of aDNA molecule. The boxes represent unidentified bases.What is the relationship between these three structures?What will be the total number of bases represented by theletter A (both inside and outside the boxes) when the boxesare completely filled in?1)1)2)3)4)DNA is made up of proteins that are synthesized in thecell.Protein is composed of DNA that is stored in the cell.DNA controls the production of protein in the cell.The cell is composed only of DNA and protein.16)2)23)34)4One disadvantage of a genetic mutation in a human skin cellis that it1)2)3)4)17)1may result in the production of a defective proteincan lead to a lower mutation rate in the offspring of thehumanmay alter the sequence of simple sugars in insulinmoleculescan alter the rate of all the metabolic processes in thehumanA characteristic of a DNA molecule that is not characteristicof a protein molecule is that the DNA molecule1)2)3)4)can be very largeis composed of subunitsis found in nucleican replicate itself

2705 - 1 - Page 318)Two proteins in the same cell perform different functions.This is because the two proteins are composed of1)2)3)4)20)chains folded the same way and the same sequence ofamino acidschains folded differently and a different sequence ofamino acidschains folded the same way and the same sequence ofsimple sugarschains folded differently and a different sequence ofsimple sugarsAnimal cells utilize many different proteins. Discuss thesynthesis of proteins in an animal cell. Your answer mustinclude at least:(1) the identity of the building blocks required tosynthesize these proteins(2) the identity of the sites in the cell where the proteinsare assembled(3) an explanation of the role of DNA in the process ofmaking proteins in the cellWhich nuclear process is represented 4)fertilization4)ribosomeThe diagram below shows some of the steps in protein synthesis.The section of DNA being used to make the strand of mRNA is known as a1)chromosome2)gene3)carbohydrate

2705 - 1 - Page 4TOPIC: MUTATIONS AND GENETIC DISORDERS22)Some steps involved in DNA replication and proteinsynthesis are summarized in the table below.27)The diagram below represents a portion of a type of organicmolecule present in the cells of organisms.In which step would a mutation lead directly to theformation of an altered gene?1)23)25)B3)C4)Da change in a base sequence in DNAthe failure of chromosomes to separateblocked nerve messagesrecombination of traitsWhat will most likely happen if there is a change in the basesequence of this molecule?1)A change in the base subunit sequence during DNAreplication can result in2)1)2)3)4)3)variation within an organismrapid evolution of an organismsynthesis of antigens to protect the cellrecombination of genes within the cellSynthesis of a defective protein may result from analteration in1)2)3)4)26)2)A single gene mutation results from1)2)3)4)24)A2)3)4)28)the number of mitochondriacellular fat concentrationvacuole shapea base sequence codeAn error in genetic information present in a body cell of amammal would most likely produce1)4)rapid evolution of the organism in which the cell isfoundincreased variation in the type of organelles present inthe cella mutation that will affect the synthesis of a certainprotein in the cellan adaptation that will be passed on to other types ofcellsA mutation occurs in the liver cells of a certain field mouse.Which statement concerning the spread of this mutationthrough the mouse population is correct?1)2)3)4)29)It will not spread because it is a recessive gene.It will spread because it is a dominant gene.It will spread because it is beneficial.It will not spread because it is not in a gamete.Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by thepresence of an extra chromosome in the body cells ofhumans. This extra chromosome occurs in a gamete as aresult of1)2)3)4)30)The amino acid sequence may be altered during proteinsynthesis.The chromosome number will decrease in futuregenerations.The molecule will be converted into an inorganiccompound.The chromosome number may increase within theorganisms.a gene mutationan error in meiotic cell divisionan error in the process of cloningreplication of a single chromosome during mitosis(a) Use appropriate letters to write a 9-baseDNA sequence that could represent a portion of agene.(b) Show one example of what could happen to the 9-baseDNA sequence you wrote in part (a) if a mutationoccurred in that gene.

2705 - 1 - Page 5Questions 31 through 33 refer to the following:Questions 34 through 37 refer to the following:Sickle-cell anemia is an inherited disease that occurs mainly inpeople from parts of Africa where malaria is common. It is causedby a gene mutation that may be harmful or beneficial.A person with two mutant genes has sickle-cell disease. Thehemoglobin of a person with sickle-cell disease twists red bloodcells into a crescent shape. These blood cells cannot circulatenormally. Symptoms of the disease include bleeding and pain inbones and muscles. People with sickle-cell disease suffer terriblyin childhood and, until modern medicine offered treatment, most ofthem died before reproducing. An individual who has one mutantgene is protected from malaria because the gene changes thehemoglobin structure in a way that speeds removal of malariainfected cells from circulation. A person with two normal geneshas perfectly good red blood cells, but lacks resistance to malaria.WHERE IS THE BEEF? OUT BEING IRRADIATEDE. coli bacteria in food cause an estimated 73,000 cases ofinfection leading to some deaths in the United States each year.Until recently, the only way to guarantee meat free of E. coli wasto heat it to 160DF, which kills E. coli. The rare hamburgerspreferred by many people are not heated to this temperature, andjust a few E. coli may cause severe illness.Recently, ground beef has been decontaminated by irradiationusing electron beam technology. The packaged ground beef isscanned by an electron beam that disrupts the genetic structure ofthe pathogens. This kills them or leaves them unable to reproduce.This process is considered safe and has been endorsed byvarious governmental groups in this country, as well as the WorldHealth Organization. Irradiation is effective in preserving onlycertain foods, such as herbs, wheat flour, fresh fruits, vegetables,and some meats. Although some methods of irradiation canchange the taste of some foods, this is not an effect of electronbeam technology on ground beef.Opponents of irradiating food are concerned that the processmay result in the formation of chemicals that may be harmful orresult in a loss of vitamins. Supporters claim that irradiation is safeand should be considered as just another technique forpreservation of food.31)Define the term mutation.32)Based on the reading passage, which statement abouthaving one sickle-cell gene is correct?1)2)3)4)33)38)It is beneficial or harmful depending on whether it iscommon or rare.It is fatal to anyone who inherits the gene.It is beneficial in certain environments.It is beneficial to anyone who inherits the gene.Based on the reading passage, explain why the percentageof the population with one mutant sickle-cell gene is higherin areas where malaria is common.34)According to the reading passage, identify one specificpathogen found in ground beef.35)Identify the specific group of molecules in bacteria whosefunction would be interfered with by heating them to 160DF.36)Based on the reading passage, explain how irradiation helpspreserve meat.37)Based on the reading passage, explain how irradiation couldinterfere with the process of reproduction in bacteria thatsurvive the irradiation.Which of the following phrases belongs in box X of the flowchart below?1)2)Decrease in genetic variability of offspringIncrease in the production of functional gametes3)4)Increased chance of cancerDecreased number of altered genes

2705 - 1 - Page 639)The Y-chromosome carries the SRY gene that codes for the production of testosterone in humans. Occasionally a mutationoccurs resulting in the SRY gene being lost from the Y-chromosome and added to the X-chromosome, as shown in the diagrambelow.Based on the diagram, which statement is correct?1)2)3)4)The production of testosterone influences the development of male characteristics.Normal female characteristics develop from a single X-chromosome.Reproductive technology has had an important influence on human development.Male characteristics only develop in the absence of X-chromosomes.

2705 - 1 - Page 7TOPIC: GENE EXPRESSION40)Which of the following statements indicates that differentparts of the genetic information are used in different kindsof cells, even in the same organism?1)2)3)4)41)42)circulating levels of white blood cells in the placentahormone production by the fathergene combinations and their expression in the embryomilk production in the motherThe enzyme pepsin is produced in the cells of the stomach,but not in the cells of the small intestine. The small intestineproduces a different enzyme, trypsin. The reason that thestomach and small intestine produce different enzymes isthat the gene that codes for pepsin is1)2)3)4)45)mutated in the small intestinedigested by the trypsin in the small intestinein the cells of the stomach, but not in the cells of thesmall intestineexpressed in the stomach, but not expressed in thesmall intestineThe types of human cells shown below are different fromone another, even though they all originated from the samefertilized egg and contain the same genetic information.A human liver cell is very different in structure and functionfrom a nerve cell in the same person. This is best explainedby the fact that1)2)3)4)43)Replicated chromosomes separate during gameteformation.As an embryo develops, various tissues and organs areproduced.The cells produced by a zygote usually have differentgenes.Offspring have a combination of genes from bothparents.The characteristics of a developing fetus are mostinfluenced by1)2)3)4)44)different genes function in each type of cellliver cells contain fewer chromosomes than nerve cellsliver cells can reproduce while the nerve cells cannotdifferent DNA is present in each type of cellResearch has shown that certain body cells, known as stemcells, can develop into a variety of specialized cells. Variousfactors can cause stem cells to develop into different typesof mature cells. These different types of mature cells resultfrom1)2)3)4)similar steps in the development of the cells and areduction in the number of chromosomes in each celldifferent environments of the cells and the functioningof different parts of the genetic codedifferent antibodies and mitotic cell divisionidentical genetic codes and meiotic cell divisionExplain why these genetically identical cells can differ instructure and function.

2705 - 1 - Page 8TOPIC: HEREDITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT46)Genes are inherit

1) DNA is made up of proteins that are synthesized in the cell. 2) Protein is composed of DNA that is stored in the cell. 3) DNA controls the production of protein in the cell. 4) The cell is composed only of DNA and protein. 14) The diagram below represents a portion of an organic molecule. This molecule controls cellular activity by directing the

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