Topic 8. The control of Gene ExpressionGenetic mutationsMutations can be caused by things such as ionising radiation and mutagenic agents such astar from cigarette smoke. If there is a mutation and one of the DNA bases is removed,replaced or added, what does this mean for:1. The triplet codes?2. The amino acids they code for?3. The protein that is formed?Gene ExpressionDNA has many regions, some of them are coding regions – the genes which code forproteins, and other regions are non-coding regions which can switch the genes on or off andtherefore determine if they will be expressed (if their protein will be produced) or not. Yourcells have all of your genes but your cells don’t need to express all of these genes, so onlysome are turned on. For example, your pancreatic cells need to produce insulin and amylaseand so the genes that code for these proteins will be turned on, but these genes will beswitched off in skin cells and they don’t need to make these proteins.Give an example of a gene that would be switched on in a skin cell.CancerCancer is u c d which can form a tumour. Tumours can bebenign or malignant. State some differences between the two:BenignMalignantPage 1 of 11
Gene TechnologyGenetic engineering is where we can modify one organism by adding in the g fromanother, so if can produce this protein or have this new characteristic.How it works:220.127.116.11.Work out the desired c and which gene is responsible for itRemove the g from the DNA of the organismWe put the g into the new organismWe replicate this organisma.What is golden rice?b. Fill in the gaps to show how we can create bacteria that produce insulin for people whohave diabetes:Firstly we remove the gene for insulin from pancreatic cells and put it into a p . This isthen incorporated back into the bacterial cell. We then allow the bacterial cell to r ,and then produce the protein insulin.c. What are some benefits to genetic engineering?d. What are some risks/concerns to genetic engineering?Exam QuestionsQ1.The diagram shows how scientists can use genetic engineering to produce human growthhormone.Page 2 of 11
(a)Human growth hormone is made by the pituitary gland.The human DNA containing the gene for growth hormone can be taken from awhite blood cell.Give the reason why the gene does not have to be taken from cells in thepituitary gland.(1)The figure above shows that the plasmid contains two genes for antibiotic resistance: a gene for resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin a gene for resistance to the antibiotic tetracycline.Page 3 of 11
(b)Explain how the structure of Enzyme 1 allows it to cut the gene for tetracyclineresistance, but not the gene for ampicillin resistance.(3)(c)In the final step of the diagram above, very few bacteria take up a plasmidcontaining the gene for growth hormone.Some bacteria take up an unmodified plasmid.Most bacteria do not take up a plasmid.Complete the table below. Put a tick in the box if the bacterium can multiply in the presence of thegiven antibiotic. Put a cross in the box if the bacterium cannot multiply in the presence of thegiven antibiotic.Bacterium can multiply in thepresence ofAmpicillinTetracyclineBacterium plasmid with growth hormone geneBacterium without a plasmidBacterium with an unmodified plasmid(d)The figure above shows that the bacterium containing the gene for human growthhormone multiplies by cell division.This produces a clone of bacteria.Explain why all the bacteria in this clone are able to produce growth hormone.Page 4 of 11
(3)(Total 10 marks)Q2.The number of people in the UK with tumours is increasing.(a)(i)Describe how tumours form.(1)(ii)Tumours can be malignant or benign.What is the difference between a malignant tumour and a benign tumour?(1)(b)Describe how some tumours may spread to other parts of the body.(1)(c)People from Northern Europe have fair skin and many people have malignantmelanoma skin cancer.The graph shows how the number of people in the UK with malignant melanomachanged between 1985 and 2008.The bars on the graph show the number of people in the UK who travelled abroadand the number who took cheap holidays in the sun in 1985 and 2005.Page 5 of 11
YearsKeyMean for all areasMean for people from richareasMean for people from poorTotal number of trips abroadNumber of cheap holidays inthe sunareas(i)Describe the trends in the number of people with malignant melanoma skincancer between 1985 and 2008.(3)(ii)Use the data about the number of trips abroad to suggest an explanation forthe trends you have described in part (c)(i).Page 6 of 11
(2)(Total 8 marks)Q3.Figure 1 shows an image of a small section of DNA.Figure 2 shows the structure of a small section of DNA.Figure 1Figure 2 Svisio/iStock/Thinkstock(c)Syndrome H is an inherited condition.People with syndrome H do not produce the enzyme IDUA.Figure 3 shows part of the gene coding for the enzyme IDUA.Figure 3Strand K shows a mutation in the DNA which has caused syndrome H.The enzyme IDUA helps to break down a carbohydrate in the human body.The enzyme IDUA produced from Strand K will not work.Explain how the mutation could cause the enzyme not to work.Page 7 of 11
(5)Page 8 of 11
Mark schemesQ1.(a)white blood cells have the same DNA / genes / chromosomesorhave the gene for GHallow have all the genesallow all body cells (except RBCs) have all of thegenes1(b)enzyme has specifically-shaped active site1the 2 antibiotic resistance genes have different (sequence of) bases1only Tetracycline-resistance gene fits (active site of) enzymeoronly Tetracycline-resistance gene is complementary to (active site of)enzyme1(c)AmpicillinTetracycline 1 mark for each correct rowif no other mark, allow 1 mark for one correctcolumn111(d)clone produced by asexual reproductionallow by ‘mitosis’1all DNA / all genes are copiedallow GH gene copiedallow plasmid copied1every cell receives a copyorreceives every geneorreceives GH geneorPage 9 of 11
receives plasmidorgenetically-identical cells1Q2.(a)(i)(as a result of) uncontrolled / abnormal growth / division of cellsignore mutationallow cells dividing with no contact inhibition1(ii)benign tumours do not invade / spread to other tissues / do notform secondary tumoursaccept converse for malignantaccept benign tumours do not metastasise1(b)via the blood / circulatory systemaccept via lymphatic system1(c)(i)incidence is increasing1more rapidly (over the years)ignore figures1difference between rich and poor areas is getting lessorthe incidence is rising fastest in people from poor areasaccept converse for people from rich areas1(ii)risk factor is UV from sunlightignore ionising radiation1more UK citizens going abroad or taking holidays in the Sunorpoorer people can afford holidays in the Sunormore poorer people are taking holidays in the Sun1Page 10 of 11
Q3.(c)(mutation) changes from C to T DNA codeorthere is a change in the three bases / triplet from CAG to TAG1(mutation) changes the amino acid1(this could) change the protein1(so it) forms a different shape / changed active siteaccept different tertiary structure1(therefore) the enzyme no longer fits the substrate / carbohydrate1Page 11 of 11
The protein that is formed? Gene Expression DNA has many regions, some of them are coding regions – the genes which code for proteins, and other regions are non-coding regions which can switch the genes on or off and therefore determine if they will be expressed (if their protein will be produced) or not. Your cells have all of your genes but your cells don’t need to express all of these .
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.
̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions
Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được
Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
MARCH 1973/FIFTY CENTS o 1 u ar CC,, tonics INCLUDING Electronics World UNDERSTANDING NEW FM TUNER SPECS CRYSTALS FOR CB BUILD: 1;: .Á Low Cóst Digital Clock ','Thé Light.Probé *Stage Lighting for thé Amateur s. Po ROCK\ MUSIC AND NOISE POLLUTION HOW WE HEAR THE WAY WE DO TEST REPORTS: - Dynacó FM -51 . ti Whárfedale W60E Speaker System' .
Glossary of Social Security Terms (Vietnamese) Term. Thuật ngữ. Giải thích. Application for a Social Security Card. Đơn xin cấp Thẻ Social Security. Mẫu đơn quý vị cần điền để xin số Social Security hoặc thẻ thay thế. Baptismal Certificate. Giấy chứng nhận rửa tội
More than words-extreme You send me flying -amy winehouse Weather with you -crowded house Moving on and getting over- john mayer Something got me started . Uptown funk-bruno mars Here comes thé sun-the beatles The long And winding road .
Phần II: Văn học phục hưng- Văn học Tây Âu thế kỷ 14- 15-16 Chương I: Khái quát Thời đại phục hưng và phong trào văn hoá phục hưng Trong hai thế kỉ XV và XVI, châu Âu dấy lên cuộc vận động tư tưởng và văn hoá mới rấ
Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality, environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create a positive impact through word ofmouth. Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment off ood outlets .
Topic 5: Not essential to progress to next grade, rather to be integrated with topic 2 and 3. Gr.7 Term 3 37 Topic 1 Dramatic Skills Development Topic 2 Drama Elements in Playmaking Topic 1: Reduced vocal and physical exercises. Topic 2: No reductions. Topic 5: Topic 5:Removed and integrated with topic 2 and 3.
Timeframe Unit Instructional Topics 4 Weeks Les vacances Topic 1: Transportation . 3 Weeks Les contes Topic 1: Grammar Topic 2: Fairy Tales Topic 3: Fables Topic 4: Legends 3 Weeks La nature Topic 1: Animals Topic 2: Climate and Geography Topic 3: Environment 4.5 Weeks L’histoire Topic 1: Pre-History - 1453 . Plan real or imaginary travel .
AQA A LEVEL SOCIOLOGY BOOK TWO Topic 1 Functionalist, strain and subcultural theories 1 Topic 2 Interactionism and labelling theory 11 Topic 3 Class, power and crime 20 Topic 4 Realist theories of crime 31 Topic 5 Gender, crime and justice 39 Topic 6 Ethnicity, crime and justice 50 Topic 7 Crime and the media 59 Topic 8 Globalisation, green crime, human rights & state crime 70
Topic 1: Biological Molecules Topic 2: Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living Things Topic 3: Classification and Biodiversity Topic 4: Exchange and Transport Topic 5: Energy for Biological Processes Topic 6: Microbiology and Pathogens Topic 7: Modern Genetics. Overview of assessment Assessment is 1 hour 45 minutes.
11 Topic #8: Accounting Basics31 12 Topic #9: Financing 35 13 Topic #10: Financial Models39 14 Celebration Of Knowledge #342 15 Topic #11: The Sales Role45 16 Topic #12: Business Development48 17 Topic #13: Negotiating50 18 Topic #14: Tactics, Strategy and Grand Strategy53 19 Celebration Of
1 week Stocks, Sauces, and Soups Topic 1: Stocks, Sauces, and Soups 1 week Communication Topic 1: Communication 1 week Management Essentials Topic 1: Multicultural Workplace Topic 2: SMART Goals 2 weeks Fruits and Vegetables Topic 1: Fruit Cooking Lab Topic 2: Vegetable Preparation Lab 1 week Serving Your Guests Topic 1: Importance of
Lời Nói Đầu K inh Bát-Nhã (Prajna) đƣợc lƣu hành rất sớm tại Ấn độ. Khoảng 700 năm sau khi Phật diệt độ (cuối thế kỷ II đầu thế kỷ III Tây lịch), lúc Bồ-tát Long Thọ
UNESCO in consultation with thé National Commission for UNESCO as well as b non- overnmental or anizations NGOs in officiai artnershi with UNESCO. Nominations must focus on a s ecific ESD ro'ect or ro ramme. Each Member State or NGO can make u to three nominations for an édition of thé Pri
1.2. Chương Trình 0% Lãi Suất Ưu Đãi Mua Sắm không áp dụng cho Chủ thẻ Tín Dụng Thương Mại. The Installment Plan With 0% Interest is not applicable for HSBC Business Credit Card. 1.3. Loại tiền tệ được sử dụng trong Chương Trình 0% L