Topic 8. The Control Of Gene Expression Genetic Mutations

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Topic 8. The control of Gene ExpressionGenetic mutationsMutations can be caused by things such as ionising radiation and mutagenic agents such astar from cigarette smoke. If there is a mutation and one of the DNA bases is removed,replaced or added, what does this mean for:1. The triplet codes?2. The amino acids they code for?3. The protein that is formed?Gene ExpressionDNA has many regions, some of them are coding regions – the genes which code forproteins, and other regions are non-coding regions which can switch the genes on or off andtherefore determine if they will be expressed (if their protein will be produced) or not. Yourcells have all of your genes but your cells don’t need to express all of these genes, so onlysome are turned on. For example, your pancreatic cells need to produce insulin and amylaseand so the genes that code for these proteins will be turned on, but these genes will beswitched off in skin cells and they don’t need to make these proteins.Give an example of a gene that would be switched on in a skin cell.CancerCancer is u c d which can form a tumour. Tumours can bebenign or malignant. State some differences between the two:BenignMalignantPage 1 of 11

Gene TechnologyGenetic engineering is where we can modify one organism by adding in the g fromanother, so if can produce this protein or have this new characteristic.How it works: out the desired c and which gene is responsible for itRemove the g from the DNA of the organismWe put the g into the new organismWe replicate this organisma.What is golden rice?b. Fill in the gaps to show how we can create bacteria that produce insulin for people whohave diabetes:Firstly we remove the gene for insulin from pancreatic cells and put it into a p . This isthen incorporated back into the bacterial cell. We then allow the bacterial cell to r ,and then produce the protein insulin.c. What are some benefits to genetic engineering?d. What are some risks/concerns to genetic engineering?Exam QuestionsQ1.The diagram shows how scientists can use genetic engineering to produce human growthhormone.Page 2 of 11

(a)Human growth hormone is made by the pituitary gland.The human DNA containing the gene for growth hormone can be taken from awhite blood cell.Give the reason why the gene does not have to be taken from cells in thepituitary gland.(1)The figure above shows that the plasmid contains two genes for antibiotic resistance: a gene for resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin a gene for resistance to the antibiotic tetracycline.Page 3 of 11

(b)Explain how the structure of Enzyme 1 allows it to cut the gene for tetracyclineresistance, but not the gene for ampicillin resistance.(3)(c)In the final step of the diagram above, very few bacteria take up a plasmidcontaining the gene for growth hormone.Some bacteria take up an unmodified plasmid.Most bacteria do not take up a plasmid.Complete the table below. Put a tick in the box if the bacterium can multiply in the presence of thegiven antibiotic. Put a cross in the box if the bacterium cannot multiply in the presence of thegiven antibiotic.Bacterium can multiply in thepresence ofAmpicillinTetracyclineBacterium plasmid with growth hormone geneBacterium without a plasmidBacterium with an unmodified plasmid(d)The figure above shows that the bacterium containing the gene for human growthhormone multiplies by cell division.This produces a clone of bacteria.Explain why all the bacteria in this clone are able to produce growth hormone.Page 4 of 11

(3)(Total 10 marks)Q2.The number of people in the UK with tumours is increasing.(a)(i)Describe how tumours form.(1)(ii)Tumours can be malignant or benign.What is the difference between a malignant tumour and a benign tumour?(1)(b)Describe how some tumours may spread to other parts of the body.(1)(c)People from Northern Europe have fair skin and many people have malignantmelanoma skin cancer.The graph shows how the number of people in the UK with malignant melanomachanged between 1985 and 2008.The bars on the graph show the number of people in the UK who travelled abroadand the number who took cheap holidays in the sun in 1985 and 2005.Page 5 of 11

YearsKeyMean for all areasMean for people from richareasMean for people from poorTotal number of trips abroadNumber of cheap holidays inthe sunareas(i)Describe the trends in the number of people with malignant melanoma skincancer between 1985 and 2008.(3)(ii)Use the data about the number of trips abroad to suggest an explanation forthe trends you have described in part (c)(i).Page 6 of 11

(2)(Total 8 marks)Q3.Figure 1 shows an image of a small section of DNA.Figure 2 shows the structure of a small section of DNA.Figure 1Figure 2 Svisio/iStock/Thinkstock(c)Syndrome H is an inherited condition.People with syndrome H do not produce the enzyme IDUA.Figure 3 shows part of the gene coding for the enzyme IDUA.Figure 3Strand K shows a mutation in the DNA which has caused syndrome H.The enzyme IDUA helps to break down a carbohydrate in the human body.The enzyme IDUA produced from Strand K will not work.Explain how the mutation could cause the enzyme not to work.Page 7 of 11

(5)Page 8 of 11

Mark schemesQ1.(a)white blood cells have the same DNA / genes / chromosomesorhave the gene for GHallow have all the genesallow all body cells (except RBCs) have all of thegenes1(b)enzyme has specifically-shaped active site1the 2 antibiotic resistance genes have different (sequence of) bases1only Tetracycline-resistance gene fits (active site of) enzymeoronly Tetracycline-resistance gene is complementary to (active site of)enzyme1(c)AmpicillinTetracycline 1 mark for each correct rowif no other mark, allow 1 mark for one correctcolumn111(d)clone produced by asexual reproductionallow by ‘mitosis’1all DNA / all genes are copiedallow GH gene copiedallow plasmid copied1every cell receives a copyorreceives every geneorreceives GH geneorPage 9 of 11

receives plasmidorgenetically-identical cells1[10]Q2.(a)(i)(as a result of) uncontrolled / abnormal growth / division of cellsignore mutationallow cells dividing with no contact inhibition1(ii)benign tumours do not invade / spread to other tissues / do notform secondary tumoursaccept converse for malignantaccept benign tumours do not metastasise1(b)via the blood / circulatory systemaccept via lymphatic system1(c)(i)incidence is increasing1more rapidly (over the years)ignore figures1difference between rich and poor areas is getting lessorthe incidence is rising fastest in people from poor areasaccept converse for people from rich areas1(ii)risk factor is UV from sunlightignore ionising radiation1more UK citizens going abroad or taking holidays in the Sunorpoorer people can afford holidays in the Sunormore poorer people are taking holidays in the Sun1[8]Page 10 of 11

Q3.(c)(mutation) changes from C to T DNA codeorthere is a change in the three bases / triplet from CAG to TAG1(mutation) changes the amino acid1(this could) change the protein1(so it) forms a different shape / changed active siteaccept different tertiary structure1(therefore) the enzyme no longer fits the substrate / carbohydrate1Page 11 of 11

The protein that is formed? Gene Expression DNA has many regions, some of them are coding regions – the genes which code for proteins, and other regions are non-coding regions which can switch the genes on or off and therefore determine if they will be expressed (if their protein will be produced) or not. Your cells have all of your genes but your cells don’t need to express all of these .

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