DOCUMENT RESUMERE 003 794ED 053 898TITLEINSTITUTIONPUB DATENOTEEDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORSCurriculum Change Through NongradedIndividualization. A K-3 Reading Program.Snake River School District 52, Blackfoot, Idaho.Mar 7154p.EDRS Price MF- 0.65 HC- 3.29Beginning Reading, *Individualized Reading,Kindergarten, Language Enrichment, Nongraded PrimarySystem, Oral Expression, Prereading Experience,*Primary Grades, *Reading Programs, *ReadingReadiness, Reading Skills, Vocabulary Development,*Word RecognitionABSTRACTAn individualized, nongraded Title III/ESEA readingprogram to be used with children at kindergarten through third-gradelevels has been developed at Moreland School in Moreland, Idaho.Using team teaching and individual and small group instruction, theprogram seeks to develop in the child prereading experiences,language experiences, expanded vocabulary, reading-thinkingactivities, and independence, enjoyment, and versatility in reading.Prereading experiences include work in sensory-motor integration,visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, and oral expression.Language experiences include dictations of stories the children tell.Expansion of reading vocabulary is achieved through exposure tomaterials, word recognition training, and directed reading-thinkingactivities. word recognition skills such as phonic generalization,context clues, and structural generalization are the basis forindependent reading. A bibliography, scope and sequence charts ofword recognition skills, and sample skill packets and record formsare included. (AL)
V.T1)UU. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, MUCATION & WELFAREOFFL E OF EDUCATIONMICUMEN.T JOS 11:1iiRPRODUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM THEIPE O1 OR ORG:1471,IMIi OfitG;NATINS H. PO;NiS OF VIEW OR OPINIONSSik L) DO NOT lic.:GEsa::a1L1 RE.eRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDUCATIONPOSITION OR POLICY.D SNAKE RIVER DIST.52INDIVIDUALIZED, NONGRADED K-3READING PROGRAMMARCH 1971TITLE III, ESEA PROJECTCURRICULUM CHANGE.THROUGHNONGRADED INDIVIDUALIZATION.SPONSORED BYSNAKE RIVER DISTRICT NO. 52AT THEMoRELAND SCHOOLMoRELAND, IDAHOcta
PERSONNELProject Director.JaCk ThompsonTeam Leader and Curriculum Director-Francis YamadaTeachersJulia BradshawBonita PainterMarilyn ThompsonIns6.uctional InternRalph BarlowInstructional AidesLois ThompsonConnie Se'leneitClerical AideNorma WaddoupsSuperintendentDarrell K. LoosleReading ConsultantMabel Athay2
OF CONTENTSTABS.Introduction and Descripljon of MaterialsI.II.Philosophy of Reading Peovam5Outline of the Elements of the Individualized, Nongraded Reading Program7A,B.C.D,E.F.G.III.A.Pre-Reading ExperiencesB.C.Language .XIV.99910101013131414Expanding Reading VocabularyReading-Thinking ActivitiesDeveloping Indept:ndence in ReadingReading for EnjoymentVersatility in Reading1617Pre-Reading ExperiencesLanguage Experience Approach to ReadingExpanding Reading VocabularyProgrammed ReadingIndividualized ReadingSkill iography24Chart 1, Reading Achievement Age and.Elements of Reading Program25Chart'2, Elements of Prescriptive Reading26Scope and Sequence of Word Recognition Skills(1-17).27Teacher Record of Student Progress in Word Recognition Skills44Sample #1 - Bibliography of Materials Used in Word Recognition SkillPacket,. .45Sample #2Bibliography of Materials Used in Word Recognition SkillPacket46Sample Copy of Student Reading Record of Books47Sample Copy of Teacher Individualized Reading Conference Record48. .XII.788How, the Individualized, Nongraded Reading Program FunctionsA.B.V IPre-Reading Experiences.Language Experience Approach to ReadingExpanding Reading VocabularyBasic MaterialsReading-Thinking Activities.Developing Independence in ReadingReading for EnjoymentVersatility in RnadinqDescription of the Nongraded, Individualized Reading ProgramDIV.4.3
INDIVIDUAIMD, NONGkADED READING PROGRAMIntroductionThis packet consists of materials developed by the team with the help of theReading Consultant.It is composed of a narrative of the philosophy and a descrip-tion of the elements in the program.A brief description of the on-going program isfollowed by a bibliography of reading authorities' writings which have been utilizedin the program development.A scope and sequence of word recognition skills andrecord keeping materials for operation of the program are also included.The Title III Project, Curriculum Change Through Nongraded Individualization;"CCTNI," has established the primary goal of developing and adapting curriculum inreading to the individual needs and capacities of children and that of helping themmhecontinuous, consistent progress toward goals established through assessmentprocesses.It is important in such a program that diagnosis, assessment, and pres-cription of the reading program be made to meet the individual needs of children, inorder to provide for successful operation of the student at each step.The develop-ment of positive self-esteem and confidence in his ability to succeed at each stepin the program is vital to optimum learning.Many different methods and approaches are used in the total reading program tocompliment the learning strengths of the individual students.However, the projecthas been conducted in such a way as to make this a program financially within thereach of any school.Nongrading and team teaching with a differentiated staff areviewed as vertical and horizontal organizational patterns making possible the implementing of such a program.44
Philosophl. of Reading. ProgramUnderlying the philosophy of the reading program is the recognition that readingis a thought process.Reading takes the child beyond the interpretation and meaningintended by the author and stimulates his own thinking processes.The final goal ofa sound reading program is to develop a child to a point where he loves to read,-- where he seeks reading in solution to problems, where he uses reading to stimulaterealistic thinking or reasoning, where he seeks pleasurable respite in imaginativefiction, and benefits from each experience in the process.Learning to read is a very individualized experience.read is different for each child launching into the processThe task of learning toas different as thepersonality and background of experience of each child is different.The child suc-ceeds to the degree that the instructional program is built upon his previous learnings, capitalizing upon his strengths, his own language patterns and what he alreadyknows about his world.These are the assets which each child brings to the exper-ience of learning to read whether he is a beginner or in the fourth year of thenongraded program.The starting point for teaching reading skills is of paramount importance.Thecontributions which each child brings to the process of learning to read are hisknowledge of the world around him and his personal language patterns, whatever theymay beThese are his assets, his strengths, and his foundations for new learning.The framework of the instructional program must be adjusted to the capabilities ofeach child, and within the realm of his understanding, rather than the canned experiences of Dick and Jane's world whose cultural environment may be foreign and verydifferent from that of many children.Thus, the underprivileged, the gifted, theslow learner, the average child -- each enters the learning situation within the5
security of his own experience.Success in learning to read is then measuredby the only true dimension, the child, himself, and his experiences.Current achievements and accomplishments become the doorway, or springboard,for new experiences, new vocabulary and progressive learning.The child's pres-ent learning cannot be allowed to set for all time the limits of what he can door what he can become.The flexible instructional program which develops fromthe framework of his experience provides many opportunities for him to chooseand to shape his own destiny through varied activities and an abundance of instructional materials,Skillful diagnosis and diagnostic teaching proceduresaid teachers in identifying each child's learning style, his strengths andweaknesses fn learning situations.This information is the basis for prescrip-tive programs used to reinforce each step in the learning sequence of reading.There are no preconceived advancement blocks or rigid formulas to prohibitachild from developing at a rate or in a direction which is different from hispeers.There is time and space for each child to progress at a rate commensur-ate with his capabilities,Team teaching with differentiated staff assignments provides a frameworkfor sharing expertise, exchanging information about children and teaching materials and for organizing children according to need groups.More time forworking individually with children can be provided through differentiated staffassignments without an increase in educational expenditures.childrenNongrading ofthe mixing of children from five years of age through 8 years ofage - releases children from pre-conceived ideas that they must achieve specified levels in reading (and no higher) and allows them to progress in successive, successful steps through skill developing activities which are individualized according to each child's learning styles and needs.Many types of66
resource materials are required in meeting the varied needs and interests ofchildren in such a program.specific skills.Specialized teaching packets are prepared to teachTesting devices measure step-by-step progress through wordrecognition and other measurable skills.The classroom environment emerging from the individualized reading programencourages each child to develop self-reliance and responsibility for learning.Pupils who are self-reliant and responsible are free to make mistakes, free tobe creative, free to be curious, free to be different, free to struggle and tolearn.They learn how to work in an atmosphere that is challenging rather thanthreatening.In this environment a certain amount of self-disciplining isrequired in order that freedom and learning be maintained.The nongraded grouping of children in the Individualized Reading Programis flexible and open to change and improvement.By skillful observation ofeach child's performance and through honest searching for the best use of theassets of each child, assessment and evaluation information can be used asstepping stones for further learning.An adequate reading program which isindividualized can be maintained for each child at all reading levels.II.Outline of the Elements of the Individualized, Nongraded-ReadiTg'Program,A.Pre-Reading Experiences1.Development of positive attitudes and feelings toward self2.Sensory-motor integration to develop body balance and physicalskills3.Visual discrimination in recognizing likenesses, differencesand various relationships77
4.Auditory discrimination using rhythms, rhyming, likenesses anddifferences in sounds.56.B.Oral expressiona.Identification and/or correction of immature speech patternsb.Individual language patterns the beginning point for readingBecoming acquainted with the alphabetLanguage Experience Approach to Reading1Reading a communication process2.Experience a facilitator of oral language3.Sight vocabulary evolves from child's dictated stories4.Word recognition skills reinforced5.Program paced to child's individual learning rate6.Dictated story plan evolves into creative writing at higherlevelsC.Expanding Reading Vocabulary - Basic Materials1.Pre-test, teach, post-test procedures followed2.Child's sight vocabulary from dictated stories extended3.Word recognition taught through specially prepared materials4.Basal reader materials, of several series, introduced5.Various supplementary materials to reinforce skills used asneeded to insure continued progress6.Informational type of reading materials used7.Periodicals of various ability levels used8.An abundance of library books provided8
D.Reading-Thinking Activities1.Reading-thinking activities introduced as children gain confidence2.Children learn to declare purposes for reading3.Comprehension skills developed with narrative and informationalmaterialsE.Developila Independence in ReadingMastery of basic reading skills assures independence1.a.Reading for meaningb.Meaningful materials at level of understanding of pupilsc.Use of context clues-first technique applied in word rec-not word callingognitiond.Phonic generalizations taught in contexte.Structural generalizations applied to word recognitionwithin contextf.Substitution of consonants and vowels, blends and diacrit-ical keysDictionary skills taught as an aid in word recognition2.F.Reading for Enjoyment1.Abundance of multivaried books provided for free reading2.Time and space provided for reading for enjoyment3.4.,Opportunities provided for sharingSelf-selection, self-direction and self-evaluation skillscontribute to enjoyment of reading9
G.Versatility in Reading1.Competence in basic skills2.Competence in establishing purposes for reading3.Competence in adjusting rate according to need4.Practice through oral reading5.Directed reading-thinking activities used to develop skill6.Practice in study stillsskimming, scanning, in detectingimportant detailsIII.Description of the Nonqraded, Individualized Reading ProgramA.Pre-Reading ExperiencesA major objective of this program is to make each child feel that heis wanted, that he is important, and that he can do things.A positiveattitude toward himself and his level of performance are considered themost important factors contributing toward his future success in school.Informal evaluations and diagnostic techniques indicate those childrenwho are lacking in feelings of adequacy and security.The teacher thendevises means of learning more ab-ut the child and the causes for his lackof security and adequacy.Instruction is adapted to his needs and compet-ancies.1.Sensory-motor IntegrationLeading authorities of human development remind us that ineducating the young child we should provide the experiences whichparallel the developmental processes of that particular stage ofgrowth, that intellectual development is one of continuous10
transformation,Therefore, the reading program begins with physicalinvolvement wherever possible,Experiences are the building blocksfor the young child in processing information and relating ideas toothers.Movement and verbalization are basic to the learning exper-iences of this level,2.Visual DiscriminationActivities are provided to develop visual skills, in making thetransition from distance seeing to near-point seeing, seeing objectsin various positions or forms, figure-ground discrimination, positionin space and spatial relationsChildren can be helped to train theirvisual skills in training them to remember, making meaningful associations, using information, etc.Children are given experiencesdetecting likenesses and differences, in sorting according to size orcondition, purpose or destination, arranging according to relationships, or adjustment.Children are also given experiences organizingthings and ideas into units according to relationships, or types,kinds, uses, or species.These experiences help the child to dealmore adequately with the physical world, also with the intellectualworld of words and ideas, and to relate these ideas into language.3.Auditory DiscriminationAt the pre-reading level most children have developed the foundation for phonetic analysis training.They have learned much aboutauditory discrimination of words and many sounds.The school programbegins with the children preceiving likenesses and differences innon-vocal sounds and hearing the sound of recurring rhyming words,110 11
and contrasting them with words that do not rhyme:The children aretaught that many words can begin with the same sound.Many activi-ties are provided that permit frequent and varied repetition, tocapture much rhythmic movement, alliteration and voice modulation togive breadth and interest in acquiring the skill of understanding howwords are different.4,Oral ExpressionThis phase of the program includes the recognition of immaturespeech patterns of some young children.speech correction therapy,Some youngsters will requireCareless speech habits reflect inadequateauditory discrimination and thus indicate to the teacher the need forspecific training in auditory discrimination.Activities are struc-tured to teach correct sounding of initial consonants and consonantblends.Facility in ability to express himself well orally is consideredan index to the child's potential for learning to read.In this con-sideration the teacher evaluates the quality of ideas expressed, useof vocabulary, ability to express ideas and the mastery of sentencestructure.The language patterns used by children of this age arebasically the same as those he has been hearing.The language spokenvaries according to socio-economic, ethnic and linguistic group characteristics of the geographical area he represents.The level oforal expression of the child indicates the point of beginning instruction in pre-reading experiences.The individuality of each child isrecognized as he progresses into reading experiences.126'112
B.Language ExperienceReading is taught as a communication process, as an aid in understanding and relating to others, not as a memorization process of parroting thewords of Dick and Jane.Meaning is the important element of this program.The oral language of the individual child becomes the text for his'beginning reading program.His vocabulary and concepts are the foundation ofmeaningful communication. .What children say is written down in a dictatedstory which they in turn can read.The language of the pupil's experiencesmake up his individual sight vocabulary with which he launches into moreformal reading,Subsequent skills are taught and paced at the rate atwhich each individual child can assimilate and use.The dictated storyplan is continued until it levels off into creative writng activities.C.Expanding Reading VncabularyBy theime the pupil has dictated about twenty story accounts andlearned the vocabulary of each, he is ready to expand into broader readingexperiences.Pre-test, teach, post-test procedures are followed to insureindividual progress through the sequence of skills,As the pupil's readingvocabulary grows, his reading instruction is expanded to include basalreading materials,Pre-primer and primer level stories of several differentseries are used to extend reading experiences, build confidence and toreinforce beginning reading skills.As the reading vocabulary approachesthe first reader level the children are directed, individually and insmall groups, into directed reading-thinking activities.Reading for in-formation becomes a basic component of his reading experiences.Thinking,speaking, writing, reading are processes of communication and are fosteredand nurtured as such, not as separate skills taught in isolation from one13
another.Various supplementary materials are used to reinforce the basicreading skills.Word recognition training is provided through the use ofvarious techniques and media of specially prepared packets of materials.Other children's stories, materials of several series of basal readers,library books, and periodicals provide ample opportunity for the child toread widely and to expand his reading skills,D.Reading-Th4nking ActivitiesAs soon as the children of a small group are able to read preprimersthey are ready to participate in directed reading-thinking activities.children develop skillAsin this activity, individual children are guidedinto the individualized reading phase of the program.confused with "round-robin" type of reading.This is not to beThe directed reading-thinkingprocess guides the children in declaring purposes for reading; these willbe self-declared purposes, not imposed purposes of the teacher, or of s
F. Reading for Enjoyment 9 G. Versatility in Rnadinq 10 III. Description of the Nongraded, Individualized Reading Program 10 A. Pre-Reading Experiences 10 B. Language Experienr:. 13 C. Expanding Reading Vocabulary 13 D Reading-Thinking Activities 14 E, Developing Indept:ndence in Reading 14 F. Reading for Enjoyment G. Versatility in Reading 16 IV.
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DOCUMENT RESUME ED 312 435 CE 053 517 TITLE Vocational-Technical Program and Course Standards. Competency-Based Postsecondary Curriculum Outlines. Bulletin No. 1822. INSTITUTION. Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.
DOCUMENT RESUME. ED 414 053 PS 026 029. TITLE Stepping Stones To Using "Caring for Our Children": National. Health and Safety Performance Standards for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs. Protecting Children from Harm. INSTITUTION Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.; Health. Resource